Abstract

Typical inversion of limb-sounding measurements assumes local horizontal homogeneity of the atmosphere. This simplification corresponds to spectral radiance errors that can exceed the noise level of a typical infrared instrument by a factor of 10 and causes errors in retrieved state parameters. To avoid these errors and to take the horizontal structure of the atmosphere into account, a two-dimensional (2D) tomographic sequential estimation approach is described. Application to temperature retrievals from simulated measurements yields typical retrieval errors of the order of 1K, and a one-dimensional retrieval with the same synthetic measurements shows differences to the true values up to 10 K in regions with strong horizontal inhomogeneities. The horizontal resolution of the 2D retrieval is even better (up to 40 km) than the horizontal tangent point spacing.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004

J. R. Worden, K. W. Bowman, D. B. Jones, “Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 45–71, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Steck, “Methods for determining regularization for atmospheric retrieval problems,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1788–1797 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Strong, B. M. Joseph, R. Dosanjh, I. C. McDade, C. A. McLinden, J. C. McConnell, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, “Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV–visible limb spectra,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 409–434, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, M. Höpfner, A. Linden, “Sensitivity of trace gas abundances retrievals from infrared limb emission spectra to simplifying approximations in radiative transfer modeling,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 249–280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3665–3673 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

1999

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Hase, M. Höpfner, “Atmospheric ray path modeling for radiative transfer algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3129–3133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1976

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Auvinen, H.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baran, A.

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Barnett, J. J.

J. C. Gille, J. J. Barnett, “The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). An instrument for the study of global change,” in The Use of EOS for Studies of Atmospheric Physics, J. C. Gille, G. Visconti, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1992), pp. 433–450.

Baron, P.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beer, R.

Bovensmann, H.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, K. W.

J. R. Worden, K. W. Bowman, D. B. Jones, “Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 45–71, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyles, M. A.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buchwitz, M.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bühler, S.

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Burke, J. R.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

Carlotti, M.

Ceccherini, S.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, New York, 1960).

Clarmann, T. v.

T. Steck, T. v. Clarmann, “Constrained profile retrieval applied to the observation mode of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3559–3571 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Clerbaux, C.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cofield, R. E.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de la Nöe, J.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Degenstein, D. A.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeSouza-Machado, S.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dinelli, B.

Dinelli, B. M.

Dosanjh, R.

K. Strong, B. M. Joseph, R. Dosanjh, I. C. McDade, C. A. McLinden, J. C. McConnell, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, “Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV–visible limb spectra,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 409–434, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dudhia, A.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3665–3673 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dudhia, “Assessment of horizontal inhomogeneities,” Tech. Rep., Oxford University, Task Report on Task 2.3 of ESA contract 12055/96/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997).

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, B. Funke, F. Hase, “Intercomparison of the KOPRA and the RFM radiative transfer codes,” in ESAMS 99, Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 757–764.

Echle, G.

N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, B. Funke, F. Hase, “Intercomparison of the KOPRA and the RFM radiative transfer codes,” in ESAMS 99, Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 757–764.

Edwards, D. P.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ekström, M.

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Emde, C.

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Eriksson, P.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Evans, W. F. J.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Filipak, M. J.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, H. Oelhaf, “Remote sensing of vertical profiles of atmospheric trace constituents with MIPAS limb-emission spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2787−2796 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flaud, J.-M.

Flower, D. A.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frerick, J.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frisk, U.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Froidevaux, L.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Funke, B.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, M. Höpfner, A. Linden, “Sensitivity of trace gas abundances retrievals from infrared limb emission spectra to simplifying approximations in radiative transfer modeling,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 249–280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, B. Funke, F. Hase, “Intercomparison of the KOPRA and the RFM radiative transfer codes,” in ESAMS 99, Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 757–764.

Gattinger, R. L.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gille, J. C.

J. C. Gille, J. J. Barnett, “The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). An instrument for the study of global change,” in The Use of EOS for Studies of Atmospheric Physics, J. C. Gille, G. Visconti, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1992), pp. 433–450.

Gil-López, S.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glatthor, N.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, M. Höpfner, A. Linden, “Sensitivity of trace gas abundances retrievals from infrared limb emission spectra to simplifying approximations in radiative transfer modeling,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 249–280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, B. Funke, F. Hase, “Intercomparison of the KOPRA and the RFM radiative transfer codes,” in ESAMS 99, Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 757–764.

Glavich, T. A.

Goede, A. P. H.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grabowski, U.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Haigh, J. D.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haley, C. S.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harwood, R. S.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hase, F.

G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, M. Höpfner, A. Linden, “Sensitivity of trace gas abundances retrievals from infrared limb emission spectra to simplifying approximations in radiative transfer modeling,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 249–280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Hase, M. Höpfner, “Atmospheric ray path modeling for radiative transfer algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3129–3133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, B. Funke, F. Hase, “Intercomparison of the KOPRA and the RFM radiative transfer codes,” in ESAMS 99, Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 757–764.

Hauchcorne, A.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Höpfner, M.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, M. Höpfner, A. Linden, “Sensitivity of trace gas abundances retrievals from infrared limb emission spectra to simplifying approximations in radiative transfer modeling,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 249–280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Hase, M. Höpfner, “Atmospheric ray path modeling for radiative transfer algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3129–3133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, “Optimization of model accuracy parameters,” in The Karlsruhe Optimized and Precise Radiative Transfer Algorithm (KOPRA), Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA 6487, G. P. Stiller, ed. (Forschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2000), pp. 145–482.

N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, B. Funke, F. Hase, “Intercomparison of the KOPRA and the RFM radiative transfer codes,” in ESAMS 99, Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 757–764.

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Jarnot, R. F.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jay, V.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Jay, V. L.

Jiménez, C.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. B.

J. R. Worden, K. W. Bowman, D. B. Jones, “Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 45–71, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jonsson, A.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, B. M.

K. Strong, B. M. Joseph, R. Dosanjh, I. C. McDade, C. A. McLinden, J. C. McConnell, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, “Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV–visible limb spectra,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 409–434, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kellmann, S.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, “Optimization of model accuracy parameters,” in The Karlsruhe Optimized and Precise Radiative Transfer Algorithm (KOPRA), Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA 6487, G. P. Stiller, ed. (Forschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2000), pp. 145–482.

Kerridge, B.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Kerridge, B. J.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, M.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knuteson, R.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kostsov, V.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kyrölä, E.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lama, F.

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Lambiotte, J. J.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, J. J. Lambiotte, “A technique to infer atmospheric water-vapor mixing ratio from measured horizon radiance profiles,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1969).

Latter, B.

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Lau, G. K.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lay, R. R.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leppelmeier, G. W.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Linden, A.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, M. Höpfner, A. Linden, “Sensitivity of trace gas abundances retrievals from infrared limb emission spectra to simplifying approximations in radiative transfer modeling,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 249–280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Livesey, N. J.

N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, “Direct retrieval of line-of-sight atmospheric structure from limb sounding observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 891–894 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn, E. J.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Strong, B. M. Joseph, R. Dosanjh, I. C. McDade, C. A. McLinden, J. C. McConnell, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, “Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV–visible limb spectra,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 409–434, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd, N. D.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loo, M. S.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

López-Puertas, M.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lungu, T. A.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Manney, G. L.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matricardi, M.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, J. C.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Strong, B. M. Joseph, R. Dosanjh, I. C. McDade, C. A. McLinden, J. C. McConnell, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, “Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV–visible limb spectra,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 409–434, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

McDade, I. C.

K. Strong, B. M. Joseph, R. Dosanjh, I. C. McDade, C. A. McLinden, J. C. McConnell, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, “Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV–visible limb spectra,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 409–434, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

McKee, T. B.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, J. J. Lambiotte, “A technique to infer atmospheric water-vapor mixing ratio from measured horizon radiance profiles,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1969).

McLinden, C. A.

K. Strong, B. M. Joseph, R. Dosanjh, I. C. McDade, C. A. McLinden, J. C. McConnell, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, “Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV–visible limb spectra,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 409–434, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Megie, G.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mengistu Tsidu, G.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Merino, F.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Milz, M.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morris, P. E.

Murtagh, D.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murtagh, D. P.

K. Strong, B. M. Joseph, R. Dosanjh, I. C. McDade, C. A. McLinden, J. C. McConnell, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, “Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV–visible limb spectra,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 409–434, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, L. L.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noël, S.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oelhaf, H.

Oikarinen, L.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, J. R.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, T.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Payan, S.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Perun, V. S.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, H. M.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pumphrey, H. C.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raspollini, P.

Rayer, P.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Read, W. G.

N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, “Direct retrieval of line-of-sight atmospheric structure from limb sounding observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 891–894 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reburn, J.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Ricaud, P.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, E. H.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ridal, M.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ridenoure, B. P.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rider, D. M.

Ridolfi, M.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, B. M. Dinelli, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, “Geo-fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning satellite measurements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1872–1885 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rizzi, R.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3665–3673 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

Rozanov, V.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santee, M. L.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schreier, F.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scott, N.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shephard, M. W.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shippony, Z.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sidans, R.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Siddans, R.

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Siegel, P. H.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sioris, C.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solheim, B. H.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steck, T.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Steck, “Methods for determining regularization for atmospheric retrieval problems,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1788–1797 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Steck, T. v. Clarmann, “Constrained profile retrieval applied to the observation mode of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3559–3571 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

T. Steck, “Bestimmung der Vertikalprofile von Spurengasen aus MIPAS-Messungen unter Hinzunahme von a priori Wissen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt, Köln, Germany, 2000), DLR-FB 2000-01.

Stegman, J.

K. Strong, B. M. Joseph, R. Dosanjh, I. C. McDade, C. A. McLinden, J. C. McConnell, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, “Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV–visible limb spectra,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 409–434, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G.

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Stiller, G. P.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, M. Höpfner, A. Linden, “Sensitivity of trace gas abundances retrievals from infrared limb emission spectra to simplifying approximations in radiative transfer modeling,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 249–280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, B. Funke, F. Hase, “Intercomparison of the KOPRA and the RFM radiative transfer codes,” in ESAMS 99, Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 757–764.

Strong, K.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Strong, B. M. Joseph, R. Dosanjh, I. C. McDade, C. A. McLinden, J. C. McConnell, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, “Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV–visible limb spectra,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 409–434, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strow, L. L.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. P.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thurstans, R. P.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Timofeyev, Y. M.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tjemkes, S. A.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trotsenko, A.

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

von Clarmann, T.

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, M. Höpfner, A. Linden, “Sensitivity of trace gas abundances retrievals from infrared limb emission spectra to simplifying approximations in radiative transfer modeling,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 249–280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J.-M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, B. Funke, F. Hase, “Intercomparison of the KOPRA and the RFM radiative transfer codes,” in ESAMS 99, Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 757–764.

von Savigny, C.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. Y.

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Waters, J. W.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Whitman, R. I.

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, J. J. Lambiotte, “A technique to infer atmospheric water-vapor mixing ratio from measured horizon radiance profiles,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1969).

Wickett, M.

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

Witt, G.

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Worden, J. R.

J. R. Worden, K. W. Bowman, D. B. Jones, “Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 45–71, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. L.

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Can. J. Phys.

K. Strong, B. M. Joseph, R. Dosanjh, I. C. McDade, C. A. McLinden, J. C. McConnell, J. Stegman, D. P. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, “Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV–visible limb spectra,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 409–434, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Murtagh, U. Frisk, F. Merino, M. Ridal, A. Jonsson, J. Stegman, G. Witt, P. Eriksson, C. Jiménez, G. Megie, J. de la Nöe, P. Ricaud, P. Baron, J. R. Pardo, A. Hauchcorne, E. J. Llewellyn, D. A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, N. D. Lloyd, W. F. J. Evans, I. C. McDade, C. S. Haley, C. Sioris, C. von Savigny, B. H. Solheim, J. C. McConnell, K. Strong, E. H. Richardson, G. W. Leppelmeier, E. Kyrölä, H. Auvinen, L. Oikarinen, “An overview of the Odin atmospheric mission,” Can. J. Phys. 80, 309–319, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

N. J. Livesey, W. G. Read, “Direct retrieval of line-of-sight atmospheric structure from limb sounding observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 891–894 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, J. Frerick, S. Noël, V. Rozanov, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, “SCIAMACHY: mission objectives and measurement modes,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 127–150 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, M. J. Filipak, “The UARS and EOS microwave limb sounder (MLS) experiments,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 194–218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, D. P. Edwards, B. Funke, M. Höpfner, B. Kerridge, V. Kostsov, A. Linden, M. López-Puertas, Y. M. Timofeyev, “Intercomparison of radiative transfer codes under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 4631, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, G. Mengistu Tsidu, M. Milz, T. Steck, G. P. Stiller, D. Y. Wang, H. Fischer, B. Funke, S. Gil-López, M. López-Puertas, “Retrieval of temperature and tangent altitude pointing from limb emission spectra recorded from space by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS),” J. Geophys. Res. 108D, 4736, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

T. von Clarmann, M. Höpfner, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, A. Dudhia, V. Jay, F. Schreier, M. Ridolfi, S. Ceccherini, B. J. Kerridge, J. Reburn, R. Sidans, “Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 78, 381–407, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Tjemkes, T. Patterson, R. Rizzi, M. W. Shephard, S. A. Clough, M. Matricardi, J. D. Haigh, M. Höpfner, S. Payan, A. Trotsenko, N. Scott, P. Rayer, J. P. Taylor, C. Clerbaux, L. L. Strow, S. DeSouza-Machado, D. Tobin, R. Knuteson, “The ISSWG line-by-line inter-comparison experiment,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 433–453 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Worden, K. W. Bowman, D. B. Jones, “Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 45–71, doi: (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, F. Hase, M. Höpfner, A. Linden, “Sensitivity of trace gas abundances retrievals from infrared limb emission spectra to simplifying approximations in radiative transfer modeling,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 249–280 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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K.-H. Hellwege, O. Madelung, eds., Landolt-Börnstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Vol. 2 of Geophysics of the Solid Earth, the Moon and the Planets, Subvol. of New Series, Group V: Geophysics and Space Research (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984).

N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, A. Dudhia, G. Echle, B. Funke, F. Hase, “Intercomparison of the KOPRA and the RFM radiative transfer codes,” in ESAMS 99, Proceedings of the European Symposium on Atmospheric Measurements from Space (European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 757–764.

B. Kerridge, V. Jay, J. Reburn, R. Siddans, B. Latter, A. Dudhia, F. Lama, M. Höpfner, T. Steck, G. Stiller, T. v. Clarmann, U. Grabowski, S. Bühler, M. Ekström, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, A. Baran, M. Wickett, “Consideration of mission studying chemistry of the UTLS,” , ESA contract 15457/01/NL/MM (European Space and Research Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2003).

M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, “Optimization of model accuracy parameters,” in The Karlsruhe Optimized and Precise Radiative Transfer Algorithm (KOPRA), Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA 6487, G. P. Stiller, ed. (Forschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2000), pp. 145–482.

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

T. B. McKee, R. I. Whitman, J. J. Lambiotte, “A technique to infer atmospheric water-vapor mixing ratio from measured horizon radiance profiles,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1969).

T. Steck, “Bestimmung der Vertikalprofile von Spurengasen aus MIPAS-Messungen unter Hinzunahme von a priori Wissen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt, Köln, Germany, 2000), DLR-FB 2000-01.

A. Dudhia, “Assessment of horizontal inhomogeneities,” Tech. Rep., Oxford University, Task Report on Task 2.3 of ESA contract 12055/96/NL/CN (European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1997).

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J. C. Gille, J. J. Barnett, “The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). An instrument for the study of global change,” in The Use of EOS for Studies of Atmospheric Physics, J. C. Gille, G. Visconti, eds. (North-Holland, New York, 1992), pp. 433–450.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tangent points (marked by crosses) and lines of sight of MIPAS-Envisat (special mode, spectral resolution is 0.1 cm−1) for six limb sequences with 16 tangent altitudes each (2-km spacing). As indicated by the arrows, the flight direction is from right to left and the viewing direction is from left to right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Latitude-height temperature field. The solid vertical line indicates the geolocation chosen for 1D calculations; the solid curves indicate lines of sight of the instrument, which looks from left to right.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated 2D (solid curves) and 1D (dashed curves) spectra and differences (2D - 1D) in nW/(cm sr cm−1) (ordinate) against the wave number in cm−1 (abscissa) for the following tangent altitudes and wave-number regions: (a) 10 km, 685–800 cm−1, (b) 10 km, 950–1100 cm−1, (c) 30 km, 685–800 cm−1, (d) 30 km, 950–1100 cm−1. The dashed curves are so close to the solid curves that they seem to be invisible.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional derivatives at 43.06° latitude (dashed line) in [nW/(cm2 sr cm−1)]/K. Upper left: 2D derivative at 688.8 cm−1 and a 10-km tangent altitude. A 1-K increase in temperature can cause a difference in radiance of 14 nW/(cm sr cm−1) (maximum). Upper right: 2D derivative at 738.0 cm−1 and a 10-km tangent altitude. Lower left: 2D derivative at 954.5 cm−1 and a 10-km altitude. Lower right: 2D derivative at 1038.5 cm−1 and a 30-km tangent altitude.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Latitude-height temperature reference field: dotted lines represent the 2D grid for forward simulations and retrieval calculations; crosses represent the tangent altitudes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Differences between 1D temperature retrievals and the 2D reference field; crosses are as in Fig. 5. White spots indicate values exceeding the range of the temperature scale. Values beyond the latitudinal coverage are set equal to the border values for technical reasons.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Differences between 1D temperature retrievals and reference distribution (interpolated from the original 2D field to the tangent points); crosses are as in Fig. 5. Synthetic measurements here are based on 1D radiative transfer calculations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two-dimensional temperature retrieval; crosses are as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Differences between retrieved 2D temperature retrievals and the reference 2D field; crosses are as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Estimated standard deviations as described in Section 5; crosses are as in Fig. 5. The very small values (close to zero or even zero) at the bottom and at the right edge of the figure are meaningless in a physical sense because, by definition, the noise covariance Sm becomes zero where the Jacobian is zero [see Eq. (13)].

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Horizontal resolution derived from the averaging kernel; crosses are as in Fig. 5. The good horizontal resolution at 40 km (approximately 100 km) is due to the change of the vertical grid width from 2 to 5 km and is thus obtained at the cost of vertical resolution.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Horizontal resolution and degrees of freedom in the horizontal derived from the averaging kernel at altitudes of 28 km (top, dr = 47.2), 16 km (middle, dr = 38.9), and 10 km (bottom, dr = 36.5). The dashed reference line corresponds to 155 km (horizontal tangent point distance).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Vertical resolution derived from the averaging kernel; crosses are as in Fig. 5. The very low values below the lowest tangent points are an artifact, since the sensitivity at the lower border of the instruments FOV is negligible (see also Fig. 12).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Vertical resolution and degrees of freedom derived from the averaging kernel at 27.8° latitude (dr = 13.8). The dashed line corresponds to 2 km (vertical tangent point distance).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Spectral Channels of MIPAS-Envisat with Noise-Equivalent Spectral Radiance (NESR) Values for 0.025 (nominal mode) and 0.1 cm−1 (special mode) Spectral Resolution

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L ν = l = 0 l obs J ν [ T ( l ) ] τ ν ( l obs , l ) l d l ,
τ ν ( l , l d l ) = exp [ σ ( l , l d l ) ] = exp [ g κ g , ν ( l ) ρ g ( l ) d l ] ,
x i + 1 , l = x i , l + ( K i , l T S , l 1 K i , l + R l ) 1 { K i , l T S , l 1 × [ y l F ( x i , l ) ] R l ( x i , l x a , l ) } ,
x a , l + 1 = x 0 , l + 1 = x l .
R l + 1 = S l 1 = K l T S , l 1 K l + R l ,
R 1 = S ver 1 + R hor
[ S ver ] i j = ( [ S ver ] i i [ S ver ] j j ) 1 / 2 exp ( | z i z j | w ) , i = 1 , , n , j = 1 , , n ,
R hor = α A 1 L 1 T L 1 A 1 ,
L 1 = [ I n I n 0 0 0 I n I n 0 0 0 I n I n ] ,
S = ( K l max T S , l max 1 K l max + R l max ) 1 = ( K l max T S , l max 1 K l max + S l max 1 1 ) 1 = ( K l max T S , l max 1 K l max + l = 1 l max 1 K l T S , l 1 K l + R 1 ) 1 = ( l = 1 l max K l T S , l 1 K l + R 1 ) 1 = [ ( K l T K l max T ) [ S , 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 S , l max 1 ] [ K 1 K l max ] + R 1 ] 1 = ( K T S 1 K + R 1 ) 1 .
A = I S R 1 .
A hor ( z i ) = [ a i , i a i , n + i a i , ( p 1 ) n + i a n + i , i a n + i , n + i a n + i , ( p 1 ) n + i a ( p 1 ) n + i , i a ( p 1 ) n + i , n + i a ( p 1 ) n + i , ( p 1 ) n + i ] ,
S m = G y S G y T = ( K T S 1 K + R 1 ) 1 K T S 1 K ( K T S 1 K + R 1 ) 1 = AS ,

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