Abstract

We developed a method of constructing a stacked structure of microparticles by using multiple beams emitted by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array [ Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2969 ( 2003)]. We construct a new observation system to observe the stacked structure and to clarify the stacking process. Results confirmed that the stacked structure was lifted up from the sample stage and fabricated without space between the microparticles. Furthermore, we investigated the difference of stacking processes when 2 × 2 beams and a single beam were used. As a result, we found that a stacked structure, when 2 × 2 beams were used, can be fabricated with lower optical power than when a single beam was used.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Ogura, K. Kagawa, J. Tanida, “Optical manipulation of microscopic objects by means of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array sources,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5430–5453 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Sumiyama, Y. Ogura, J. Tanida, “Stacking and translation of microscopic particles by means of 2 × 2 beams emitted from a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2969–2971 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11, 288–290 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, C. P. Grover, “Automated single-cell sorting system based on optical trapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14–22 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101–1103 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. G. Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbet, K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145–147 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, D. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207, 169–175 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

F. Sumiyama, Y. Ogura, J. Tanida, “Stacking and translation of microscopic particles by means of 2 × 2 beams emitted from a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2969–2971 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bryant, M. D. Stone, J. Gore, S. B. Smith, N. R. Cozzarelli, C. Bustamante, “Structural transition and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA,” Nature 424, 338–341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

H. Tanaka, K. Homma, A. H. Iwane, E. Katayama, R. Ikebe, J. Saito, T. Yanagida, M. Ikebe, “The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V,” Nature 415, 192–195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101–1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbet, K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145–147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ogura, N. Shirai, J. Tanida, “Optical levitation and translation of a microscopic particle by use of multiple beams generated by vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array sources,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5645–5654 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, D. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207, 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, C. P. Grover, “Automated single-cell sorting system based on optical trapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ogura, K. Kagawa, J. Tanida, “Optical manipulation of microscopic objects by means of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array sources,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5430–5453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, D. W. M. Marr, “Design of a scanning laser optical trap for multiparticle manipulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196–2200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Arlt, J.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101–1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bryant, Z.

Z. Bryant, M. D. Stone, J. Gore, S. B. Smith, N. R. Cozzarelli, C. Bustamante, “Structural transition and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA,” Nature 424, 338–341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bustamante, C.

Z. Bryant, M. D. Stone, J. Gore, S. B. Smith, N. R. Cozzarelli, C. Bustamante, “Structural transition and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA,” Nature 424, 338–341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavez, V. G.

V. G. Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbet, K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145–147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Cozzarelli, N. R.

Z. Bryant, M. D. Stone, J. Gore, S. B. Smith, N. R. Cozzarelli, C. Bustamante, “Structural transition and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA,” Nature 424, 338–341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, D. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207, 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101–1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbet, K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145–147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Gauthier, R. C.

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, C. P. Grover, “Automated single-cell sorting system based on optical trapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, T.

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, D. W. M. Marr, “Design of a scanning laser optical trap for multiparticle manipulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196–2200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gore, J.

Z. Bryant, M. D. Stone, J. Gore, S. B. Smith, N. R. Cozzarelli, C. Bustamante, “Structural transition and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA,” Nature 424, 338–341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, D. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207, 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grover, C. P.

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, C. P. Grover, “Automated single-cell sorting system based on optical trapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grover, S. C.

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, C. P. Grover, “Automated single-cell sorting system based on optical trapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homma, K.

H. Tanaka, K. Homma, A. H. Iwane, E. Katayama, R. Ikebe, J. Saito, T. Yanagida, M. Ikebe, “The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V,” Nature 415, 192–195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikebe, M.

H. Tanaka, K. Homma, A. H. Iwane, E. Katayama, R. Ikebe, J. Saito, T. Yanagida, M. Ikebe, “The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V,” Nature 415, 192–195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikebe, R.

H. Tanaka, K. Homma, A. H. Iwane, E. Katayama, R. Ikebe, J. Saito, T. Yanagida, M. Ikebe, “The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V,” Nature 415, 192–195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwane, A. H.

H. Tanaka, K. Homma, A. H. Iwane, E. Katayama, R. Ikebe, J. Saito, T. Yanagida, M. Ikebe, “The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V,” Nature 415, 192–195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kagawa, K.

Katayama, E.

H. Tanaka, K. Homma, A. H. Iwane, E. Katayama, R. Ikebe, J. Saito, T. Yanagida, M. Ikebe, “The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V,” Nature 415, 192–195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, D. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207, 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101–1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marr, D. W. M.

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, D. W. M. Marr, “Design of a scanning laser optical trap for multiparticle manipulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196–2200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McGloin, D.

V. G. Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbet, K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145–147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Melville, H.

V. G. Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbet, K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145–147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mio, C.

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, D. W. M. Marr, “Design of a scanning laser optical trap for multiparticle manipulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196–2200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, Y.

Paterson, L.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101–1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, J.

H. Tanaka, K. Homma, A. H. Iwane, E. Katayama, R. Ikebe, J. Saito, T. Yanagida, M. Ikebe, “The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V,” Nature 415, 192–195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirai, N.

Sibbet, W.

V. G. Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbet, K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145–147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101–1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skirtach, A. G.

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, C. P. Grover, “Automated single-cell sorting system based on optical trapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. B.

Z. Bryant, M. D. Stone, J. Gore, S. B. Smith, N. R. Cozzarelli, C. Bustamante, “Structural transition and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA,” Nature 424, 338–341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, M. D.

Z. Bryant, M. D. Stone, J. Gore, S. B. Smith, N. R. Cozzarelli, C. Bustamante, “Structural transition and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA,” Nature 424, 338–341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumiyama, F.

F. Sumiyama, Y. Ogura, J. Tanida, “Stacking and translation of microscopic particles by means of 2 × 2 beams emitted from a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2969–2971 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

H. Tanaka, K. Homma, A. H. Iwane, E. Katayama, R. Ikebe, J. Saito, T. Yanagida, M. Ikebe, “The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V,” Nature 415, 192–195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanida, J.

Terray, A.

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, D. W. M. Marr, “Design of a scanning laser optical trap for multiparticle manipulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196–2200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Volke-Sepulveda, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101–1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanagida, T.

H. Tanaka, K. Homma, A. H. Iwane, E. Katayama, R. Ikebe, J. Saito, T. Yanagida, M. Ikebe, “The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V,” Nature 415, 192–195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Sumiyama, Y. Ogura, J. Tanida, “Stacking and translation of microscopic particles by means of 2 × 2 beams emitted from a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2969–2971 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. C. Grover, A. G. Skirtach, R. C. Gauthier, C. P. Grover, “Automated single-cell sorting system based on optical trapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 14–22 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

Z. Bryant, M. D. Stone, J. Gore, S. B. Smith, N. R. Cozzarelli, C. Bustamante, “Structural transition and elasticity from torque measurements on DNA,” Nature 424, 338–341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tanaka, K. Homma, A. H. Iwane, E. Katayama, R. Ikebe, J. Saito, T. Yanagida, M. Ikebe, “The motor domain determines the large step of myosin-V,” Nature 415, 192–195 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbet, K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self-reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145–147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, D. Grier, “Dynamic holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 207, 169–175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, D. W. M. Marr, “Design of a scanning laser optical trap for multiparticle manipulation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196–2200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101–1103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. O.L. 1 and O.L. 2, water-immersible long-distance objective lens; O.L. 3, super-long-distance objective lens; D/A, digital-to-analog.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Side-view images of the stacking process. (We captured images at intervals of 15 s.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Side-view image of the lifted microparticles when the distance between the beam waist and the sample stage was (a) 0, (b) 10, (c) 20, (d) 30 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Model of the microparticle-stacking process.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Side view of the stacked microparticle structure fabricated with a single beam (a) when we do not move the sample stage and (b) when we keep moving the sample stage.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Variation of Maximum Lifted Distance and Maximum Number of Stacked Microparticles for the Change of the Focal Point

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