Abstract

We have experimentally quantified calculus fragmentation by Er:YAG laser light. Er:YAG laser light was delivered to an underwater target through a sealed hollow optical fiber. Fragmentation efficiency was obtained for an alumina ball used as a calculus model when sealing caps with various focusing effects were used. Three types of human calculus were analyzed, and their absorption properties at the wavelength of Er:YAG laser light were obtained. The relationships among the absorption properties, calculus constituents, and fragmentation efficiency are discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Matsuoka, S. Iida, M. Inoue, S. Yoshii, K. Arai, K. Tomiyasu, S. Noda, “Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium: YAG laser,” Laser Surg. Med. 25, 389–395 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165, 876–879 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, “Design theory of dielectric-coated circular metallic waveguides for infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116–126 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. W. Shi, Y. Wang, Y. Abe, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, S. Sato, M. Taniwaki, H. Uyama, “Cyclic olefin polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguides for the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7758–7762 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Mohri, T. Kasai, Y. Abe, Y. W. Shi, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, “Optical properties of end-sealed hollow fibers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1251–1255 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Miyagi, Y. Matsuura, Y. Abe, “Sealing cap for hollow fiber terminal,” Japanese patent2000-219907 (21July2000).
  8. K. Iwai, Y. W. Shi, K. Nito, Y. Matsuura, T. Kasai, M. Miyagi, S. Saito, Y. Arai, N. Ioritani, Y. Okagami, M. Nemec, J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, M. Zavoral, O. Kohler, P. Drlik, “Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy by use of a flexible hollow waveguide with an end-sealing cap,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2431–2435 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of erbium:YAG laser radiation,” Laser Surg. Med. 34, 5–11 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Optimization of the erbium:YAG laser for precise incision of ureteral and urethral tissues: in vitro and in vivo results,” Laser Surg. Med. 33, 108–114 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. W. Shi, K. Iwai, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Jelinkova, “Self-cleaning effect of sealing caps for infrared hollow fiber delivering pulsed Er:YAG laser light,” Opt. Laser Technol. doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Iwai, Y. W. Shi, M. Endo, K. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Jelinkova, “Penetration of high-intensity Er:YAG laser light emitted by IR hollow optical fibers with sealing caps in water,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2568–2571 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Tanahashi, “Laser lithotripsy of urinary tract stones,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 15, 9–15 (1994) (in Japanese).
  14. M. Kuwahara, K. Kambe, S. Kurosu, S. Orikasa, K. Takayama, “Extracorporeal stone disintegration using chemical explosive pellets as an energy source of underwater shock wave,” J. Urol. 135, 814–817 (1986).
    [PubMed]

2004 (2)

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of erbium:YAG laser radiation,” Laser Surg. Med. 34, 5–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwai, Y. W. Shi, M. Endo, K. Ito, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Jelinkova, “Penetration of high-intensity Er:YAG laser light emitted by IR hollow optical fibers with sealing caps in water,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2568–2571 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Optimization of the erbium:YAG laser for precise incision of ureteral and urethral tissues: in vitro and in vivo results,” Laser Surg. Med. 33, 108–114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Iwai, Y. W. Shi, K. Nito, Y. Matsuura, T. Kasai, M. Miyagi, S. Saito, Y. Arai, N. Ioritani, Y. Okagami, M. Nemec, J. Sulc, H. Jelinkova, M. Zavoral, O. Kohler, P. Drlik, “Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy by use of a flexible hollow waveguide with an end-sealing cap,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2431–2435 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165, 876–879 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Matsuoka, S. Iida, M. Inoue, S. Yoshii, K. Arai, K. Tomiyasu, S. Noda, “Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium: YAG laser,” Laser Surg. Med. 25, 389–395 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

Y. Tanahashi, “Laser lithotripsy of urinary tract stones,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 15, 9–15 (1994) (in Japanese).

1986 (1)

M. Kuwahara, K. Kambe, S. Kurosu, S. Orikasa, K. Takayama, “Extracorporeal stone disintegration using chemical explosive pellets as an energy source of underwater shock wave,” J. Urol. 135, 814–817 (1986).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, “Design theory of dielectric-coated circular metallic waveguides for infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116–126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

Arai, K.

K. Matsuoka, S. Iida, M. Inoue, S. Yoshii, K. Arai, K. Tomiyasu, S. Noda, “Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium: YAG laser,” Laser Surg. Med. 25, 389–395 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arai, Y.

Cecconi, P. P.

J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165, 876–879 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K. F.

K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165, 876–879 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, B.

K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Corbin, N. S.

J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165, 876–879 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drlik, P.

Endo, M.

Fried, N. M.

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of erbium:YAG laser radiation,” Laser Surg. Med. 34, 5–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Optimization of the erbium:YAG laser for precise incision of ureteral and urethral tissues: in vitro and in vivo results,” Laser Surg. Med. 33, 108–114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glickman, R. D.

J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165, 876–879 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hejazi, P.

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of erbium:YAG laser radiation,” Laser Surg. Med. 34, 5–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Optimization of the erbium:YAG laser for precise incision of ureteral and urethral tissues: in vitro and in vivo results,” Laser Surg. Med. 33, 108–114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iida, S.

K. Matsuoka, S. Iida, M. Inoue, S. Yoshii, K. Arai, K. Tomiyasu, S. Noda, “Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium: YAG laser,” Laser Surg. Med. 25, 389–395 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, M.

K. Matsuoka, S. Iida, M. Inoue, S. Yoshii, K. Arai, K. Tomiyasu, S. Noda, “Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium: YAG laser,” Laser Surg. Med. 25, 389–395 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ioritani, N.

Ito, K.

Iwai, K.

Jansen, E. D.

K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jelinkova, H.

Kambe, K.

M. Kuwahara, K. Kambe, S. Kurosu, S. Orikasa, K. Takayama, “Extracorporeal stone disintegration using chemical explosive pellets as an energy source of underwater shock wave,” J. Urol. 135, 814–817 (1986).
[PubMed]

Kamerer, A. D.

J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165, 876–879 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasai, T.

Kawakami, S.

M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, “Design theory of dielectric-coated circular metallic waveguides for infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116–126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, O.

Kurosu, S.

M. Kuwahara, K. Kambe, S. Kurosu, S. Orikasa, K. Takayama, “Extracorporeal stone disintegration using chemical explosive pellets as an energy source of underwater shock wave,” J. Urol. 135, 814–817 (1986).
[PubMed]

Kuwahara, M.

M. Kuwahara, K. Kambe, S. Kurosu, S. Orikasa, K. Takayama, “Extracorporeal stone disintegration using chemical explosive pellets as an energy source of underwater shock wave,” J. Urol. 135, 814–817 (1986).
[PubMed]

Matsuoka, K.

K. Matsuoka, S. Iida, M. Inoue, S. Yoshii, K. Arai, K. Tomiyasu, S. Noda, “Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium: YAG laser,” Laser Surg. Med. 25, 389–395 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, Y.

Miyagi, M.

Mohri, S.

Nemec, M.

Nito, K.

Noda, S.

K. Matsuoka, S. Iida, M. Inoue, S. Yoshii, K. Arai, K. Tomiyasu, S. Noda, “Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium: YAG laser,” Laser Surg. Med. 25, 389–395 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okagami, Y.

Ong, A. M.

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of erbium:YAG laser radiation,” Laser Surg. Med. 34, 5–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Optimization of the erbium:YAG laser for precise incision of ureteral and urethral tissues: in vitro and in vivo results,” Laser Surg. Med. 33, 108–114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Orikasa, S.

M. Kuwahara, K. Kambe, S. Kurosu, S. Orikasa, K. Takayama, “Extracorporeal stone disintegration using chemical explosive pellets as an energy source of underwater shock wave,” J. Urol. 135, 814–817 (1986).
[PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rha, K. H.

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of erbium:YAG laser radiation,” Laser Surg. Med. 34, 5–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Optimization of the erbium:YAG laser for precise incision of ureteral and urethral tissues: in vitro and in vivo results,” Laser Surg. Med. 33, 108–114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

Sato, S.

Shi, Y. W.

Sorg, B.

K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sulc, J.

Takayama, K.

M. Kuwahara, K. Kambe, S. Kurosu, S. Orikasa, K. Takayama, “Extracorporeal stone disintegration using chemical explosive pellets as an energy source of underwater shock wave,” J. Urol. 135, 814–817 (1986).
[PubMed]

Tanahashi, Y.

Y. Tanahashi, “Laser lithotripsy of urinary tract stones,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 15, 9–15 (1994) (in Japanese).

Taniwaki, M.

Teichman, J. M. H.

K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165, 876–879 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tesfaye, Z.

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of erbium:YAG laser radiation,” Laser Surg. Med. 34, 5–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Optimization of the erbium:YAG laser for precise incision of ureteral and urethral tissues: in vitro and in vivo results,” Laser Surg. Med. 33, 108–114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomiyasu, K.

K. Matsuoka, S. Iida, M. Inoue, S. Yoshii, K. Arai, K. Tomiyasu, S. Noda, “Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium: YAG laser,” Laser Surg. Med. 25, 389–395 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uyama, H.

Vargas, G.

K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Welch, A. J.

K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165, 876–879 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshii, S.

K. Matsuoka, S. Iida, M. Inoue, S. Yoshii, K. Arai, K. Tomiyasu, S. Noda, “Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium: YAG laser,” Laser Surg. Med. 25, 389–395 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zavoral, M.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. F. Chan, B. Choi, G. Vargas, D. X. Hammer, B. Sorg, T. J. Pfefer, J. M. H. Teichman, A. J. Welch, E. D. Jansen, “Free electron laser ablation of urinary calculi: an experimental study,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1022–1033 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. (1)

Y. Tanahashi, “Laser lithotripsy of urinary tract stones,” J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med. 15, 9–15 (1994) (in Japanese).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, “Design theory of dielectric-coated circular metallic waveguides for infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 116–126 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Urol. (2)

J. M. H. Teichman, K. F. Chan, P. P. Cecconi, N. S. Corbin, A. D. Kamerer, R. D. Glickman, A. J. Welch, “Erbium:YAG versus holmium:YAG lithotripsy,” J. Urol. 165, 876–879 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuwahara, K. Kambe, S. Kurosu, S. Orikasa, K. Takayama, “Extracorporeal stone disintegration using chemical explosive pellets as an energy source of underwater shock wave,” J. Urol. 135, 814–817 (1986).
[PubMed]

Laser Surg. Med. (3)

K. Matsuoka, S. Iida, M. Inoue, S. Yoshii, K. Arai, K. Tomiyasu, S. Noda, “Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium: YAG laser,” Laser Surg. Med. 25, 389–395 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of erbium:YAG laser radiation,” Laser Surg. Med. 34, 5–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Fried, Z. Tesfaye, A. M. Ong, K. H. Rha, P. Hejazi, “Optimization of the erbium:YAG laser for precise incision of ureteral and urethral tissues: in vitro and in vivo results,” Laser Surg. Med. 33, 108–114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Y. W. Shi, K. Iwai, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, H. Jelinkova, “Self-cleaning effect of sealing caps for infrared hollow fiber delivering pulsed Er:YAG laser light,” Opt. Laser Technol. doi:.
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Miyagi, Y. Matsuura, Y. Abe, “Sealing cap for hollow fiber terminal,” Japanese patent2000-219907 (21July2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fragmentation quantity of an alumina model calculus for various sealing caps: (a) plano–convex cap with a 1.5-mm focal length, (b) dome-shaped cap and plano–convex cap with a 4-mm focal length, and (c) ball-shaped cap. The total irradiation time was 20 min for the alumina balls, which had a total weight of 2300 mg.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission of KBr–sample pellets for the three types of calculus with different constituents. MAP, magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate; COM, calcium oxalate monohydrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cutting depth as a function of energy density of the Er:YAG laser light. The irradiation time was 10 s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional image of the V slot in calculi drilled by Er:YAG laser light with a 100-J/cm2 energy density. The irradiation time was 10 s. (a) MAP + CaP + CaCO3, (b) CaP + CaCO3, and (c) COM + CaP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Various calculi before and after Er:YAG laser light fragmentation. The energy density of Er:YAG laser light was 60 J/cm2: (a) MAP + CaP + CaCO3, (b) CaP + CaCO3, and (c) COM + CaP.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Irradiation time for complete fragmentation of MAP + CaP + CaCO3, CaP + CaCO3, and COM + CaP.

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