Abstract

Coherence-contrast x-ray imaging—which detects changes in the degree of coherence caused by the placement of a sample in an x-ray interferometer—was developed for biomedical applications. Because the technique’s sensitivity depends on the density gradient in the sample, it is particularly suitable for observing biomedical samples with large density differences, such as samples that include both biological soft tissue and bone. A measurement principle and method of this technique are described, and a fine coherence-contrast image of a mouse leg is given as an example result.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Momose, J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of non-stained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22, 375–380 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Takeda, A. Momose, Y. Itai, J. Wu, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron x-rays for cancer lesion,” Acad. Radiol. 2, 799–803 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. U. Bonse, M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155–156 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Momose, “Demonstration of phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography using an x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 352, 622–628 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2, 473–475 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Beckmann, U. Bonse, F. Busch, O. Gunnewig, “x-ray microtomography using phase contrast for the investigation of organic matter,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 21, 539–553 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Takeda, A. Momose, K. Hirano, S. Haraoka, T. Watanabe, Y. Itai, “Human carcinoma: early experience with phase-contrast x-ray CT with synchrotron radiation—comparative specimen study with optical microscopy,” Radiology 214, 298–301 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Becker, U. Bonse, “The skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 7, 593–598 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, A. Koizumi, K. Hyodo, Y. Itai, “A phase-contrast x-ray imaging system—with a 60 × 30 mm field of view—based on a skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 523, 217–222 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Momose, T. Takeda, A. Yoneyama, I. Koyama, Y. Itai, “Wide-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging using large x-ray interferometers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 917–920 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, A. Koizumi, K. Hyodo, Y. Itai, “A phase-contrast x-ray imaging system—with a 60 × 30 mm field of view—based on a skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 523, 217–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, A. Yoneyama, I. Koyama, Y. Itai, “Wide-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging using large x-ray interferometers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 917–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Takeda, A. Momose, K. Hirano, S. Haraoka, T. Watanabe, Y. Itai, “Human carcinoma: early experience with phase-contrast x-ray CT with synchrotron radiation—comparative specimen study with optical microscopy,” Radiology 214, 298–301 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

F. Beckmann, U. Bonse, F. Busch, O. Gunnewig, “x-ray microtomography using phase contrast for the investigation of organic matter,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 21, 539–553 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2, 473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

A. Momose, “Demonstration of phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography using an x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 352, 622–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of non-stained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22, 375–380 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takeda, A. Momose, Y. Itai, J. Wu, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron x-rays for cancer lesion,” Acad. Radiol. 2, 799–803 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

1965 (1)

U. Bonse, M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P.

P. Becker, U. Bonse, “The skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 7, 593–598 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, F.

F. Beckmann, U. Bonse, F. Busch, O. Gunnewig, “x-ray microtomography using phase contrast for the investigation of organic matter,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 21, 539–553 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonse, U.

F. Beckmann, U. Bonse, F. Busch, O. Gunnewig, “x-ray microtomography using phase contrast for the investigation of organic matter,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 21, 539–553 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Becker, U. Bonse, “The skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 7, 593–598 (1974).
[CrossRef]

U. Bonse, M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Brangaccio, D. J.

Bruning, J. H.

Busch, F.

F. Beckmann, U. Bonse, F. Busch, O. Gunnewig, “x-ray microtomography using phase contrast for the investigation of organic matter,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 21, 539–553 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, J.

A. Momose, J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of non-stained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22, 375–380 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, J. E.

Gunnewig, O.

F. Beckmann, U. Bonse, F. Busch, O. Gunnewig, “x-ray microtomography using phase contrast for the investigation of organic matter,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 21, 539–553 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haraoka, S.

T. Takeda, A. Momose, K. Hirano, S. Haraoka, T. Watanabe, Y. Itai, “Human carcinoma: early experience with phase-contrast x-ray CT with synchrotron radiation—comparative specimen study with optical microscopy,” Radiology 214, 298–301 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, M.

U. Bonse, M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D. R.

Hirano, K.

T. Takeda, A. Momose, K. Hirano, S. Haraoka, T. Watanabe, Y. Itai, “Human carcinoma: early experience with phase-contrast x-ray CT with synchrotron radiation—comparative specimen study with optical microscopy,” Radiology 214, 298–301 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2, 473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takeda, A. Momose, Y. Itai, J. Wu, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron x-rays for cancer lesion,” Acad. Radiol. 2, 799–803 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyodo, K.

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, A. Koizumi, K. Hyodo, Y. Itai, “A phase-contrast x-ray imaging system—with a 60 × 30 mm field of view—based on a skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 523, 217–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, K. Hyodo, “Large-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging system using a two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” in Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI2003), T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, J. Stohr, eds., Vol. 705 of AIP Conference Proceedings Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2004), pp. 1299–1302.
[CrossRef]

Itai, Y.

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, A. Koizumi, K. Hyodo, Y. Itai, “A phase-contrast x-ray imaging system—with a 60 × 30 mm field of view—based on a skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 523, 217–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, A. Yoneyama, I. Koyama, Y. Itai, “Wide-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging using large x-ray interferometers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 917–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeda, A. Momose, K. Hirano, S. Haraoka, T. Watanabe, Y. Itai, “Human carcinoma: early experience with phase-contrast x-ray CT with synchrotron radiation—comparative specimen study with optical microscopy,” Radiology 214, 298–301 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2, 473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takeda, A. Momose, Y. Itai, J. Wu, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron x-rays for cancer lesion,” Acad. Radiol. 2, 799–803 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koizumi, A.

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, A. Koizumi, K. Hyodo, Y. Itai, “A phase-contrast x-ray imaging system—with a 60 × 30 mm field of view—based on a skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 523, 217–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, I.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, A. Yoneyama, I. Koyama, Y. Itai, “Wide-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging using large x-ray interferometers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 917–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lwin, T. T.

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, A. Koizumi, K. Hyodo, Y. Itai, “A phase-contrast x-ray imaging system—with a 60 × 30 mm field of view—based on a skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 523, 217–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, K. Hyodo, “Large-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging system using a two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” in Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI2003), T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, J. Stohr, eds., Vol. 705 of AIP Conference Proceedings Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2004), pp. 1299–1302.
[CrossRef]

Momose, A.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, A. Yoneyama, I. Koyama, Y. Itai, “Wide-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging using large x-ray interferometers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 917–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeda, A. Momose, K. Hirano, S. Haraoka, T. Watanabe, Y. Itai, “Human carcinoma: early experience with phase-contrast x-ray CT with synchrotron radiation—comparative specimen study with optical microscopy,” Radiology 214, 298–301 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2, 473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Momose, “Demonstration of phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography using an x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 352, 622–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of non-stained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22, 375–380 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takeda, A. Momose, Y. Itai, J. Wu, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron x-rays for cancer lesion,” Acad. Radiol. 2, 799–803 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, D. P.

Takeda, T.

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, A. Koizumi, K. Hyodo, Y. Itai, “A phase-contrast x-ray imaging system—with a 60 × 30 mm field of view—based on a skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 523, 217–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, A. Yoneyama, I. Koyama, Y. Itai, “Wide-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging using large x-ray interferometers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 917–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeda, A. Momose, K. Hirano, S. Haraoka, T. Watanabe, Y. Itai, “Human carcinoma: early experience with phase-contrast x-ray CT with synchrotron radiation—comparative specimen study with optical microscopy,” Radiology 214, 298–301 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2, 473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takeda, A. Momose, Y. Itai, J. Wu, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron x-rays for cancer lesion,” Acad. Radiol. 2, 799–803 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, K. Hyodo, “Large-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging system using a two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” in Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI2003), T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, J. Stohr, eds., Vol. 705 of AIP Conference Proceedings Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2004), pp. 1299–1302.
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, Y.

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, A. Koizumi, K. Hyodo, Y. Itai, “A phase-contrast x-ray imaging system—with a 60 × 30 mm field of view—based on a skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 523, 217–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, K. Hyodo, “Large-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging system using a two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” in Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI2003), T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, J. Stohr, eds., Vol. 705 of AIP Conference Proceedings Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2004), pp. 1299–1302.
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Takeda, A. Momose, K. Hirano, S. Haraoka, T. Watanabe, Y. Itai, “Human carcinoma: early experience with phase-contrast x-ray CT with synchrotron radiation—comparative specimen study with optical microscopy,” Radiology 214, 298–301 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A. D.

Wu, J.

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, A. Koizumi, K. Hyodo, Y. Itai, “A phase-contrast x-ray imaging system—with a 60 × 30 mm field of view—based on a skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 523, 217–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeda, A. Momose, Y. Itai, J. Wu, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron x-rays for cancer lesion,” Acad. Radiol. 2, 799–803 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, K. Hyodo, “Large-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging system using a two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” in Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI2003), T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, J. Stohr, eds., Vol. 705 of AIP Conference Proceedings Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2004), pp. 1299–1302.
[CrossRef]

Yoneyama, A.

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, A. Koizumi, K. Hyodo, Y. Itai, “A phase-contrast x-ray imaging system—with a 60 × 30 mm field of view—based on a skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 523, 217–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, A. Yoneyama, I. Koyama, Y. Itai, “Wide-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging using large x-ray interferometers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 917–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, K. Hyodo, “Large-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging system using a two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” in Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI2003), T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, J. Stohr, eds., Vol. 705 of AIP Conference Proceedings Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2004), pp. 1299–1302.
[CrossRef]

Acad. Radiol. (1)

T. Takeda, A. Momose, Y. Itai, J. Wu, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron x-rays for cancer lesion,” Acad. Radiol. 2, 799–803 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

U. Bonse, M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

P. Becker, U. Bonse, “The skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 7, 593–598 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. (1)

F. Beckmann, U. Bonse, F. Busch, O. Gunnewig, “x-ray microtomography using phase contrast for the investigation of organic matter,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 21, 539–553 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

A. Momose, J. Fukuda, “Phase-contrast radiographs of non-stained rat cerebellar specimen,” Med. Phys. 22, 375–380 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, K. Hirano, “Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med. 2, 473–475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (3)

A. Momose, “Demonstration of phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography using an x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 352, 622–628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, A. Koizumi, K. Hyodo, Y. Itai, “A phase-contrast x-ray imaging system—with a 60 × 30 mm field of view—based on a skew-symmetric two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 523, 217–222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, A. Yoneyama, I. Koyama, Y. Itai, “Wide-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging using large x-ray interferometers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467, 917–920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

T. Takeda, A. Momose, K. Hirano, S. Haraoka, T. Watanabe, Y. Itai, “Human carcinoma: early experience with phase-contrast x-ray CT with synchrotron radiation—comparative specimen study with optical microscopy,” Radiology 214, 298–301 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Yoneyama, T. Takeda, Y. Tsuchiya, J. Wu, T. T. Lwin, K. Hyodo, “Large-area phase-contrast x-ray imaging system using a two-crystal x-ray interferometer,” in Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI2003), T. Warwick, J. Arthur, H. A. Padmore, J. Stohr, eds., Vol. 705 of AIP Conference Proceedings Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 2004), pp. 1299–1302.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic views of the STXI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of the expression for gs, 2 |J1(ν)/ν|, which is approximately proportional to −ν for ν from 0 to 3.8.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three images of a mouse leg: (a) coherence map, (b) phase map, and (c) absorption map.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Combined image created from a combination of coherence-contrast [Fig. 3(a)] and phase-contrast maps [Fig. 3(b)] for the same sample.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I i = I 1 + I 2 + 2 g I 1 I 2 cos p ,
I i = I 1 + ( I 2 d I 2 ) + 2 g I 1 ( I 2 d I 2 ) cos ( p + d p ) ,
g s = 2 | J 1 ( ν ) ν | ,
ν = 2 π λ r d l R 1 ,
d l x = R 2 d θ x d x ,
d l y = R 2 d θ y ,
d x = c t d θ x ,
ν = r R 1 { [ b ( R 2 c t ) p x ] 2 + ( R 2 p y ) 2 } 1 / 2 ,
g = I re 2 + I im 2 ,
I re = m = 0 2 I m cos 2 π m 3 ,
I im = m = 0 2 I m sin 2 π m 3 .
c ( x , y ) = n d p ( x , y ) + ( 1 n ) g s ( x , y ) ,

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