Abstract

Oriented absorption and fluorescence spectra, refractive indices, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivities are reported for the anisotropic laser material ytterbium-doped potassium gadolinium tungstate, Yb3+:KGd(WO4)2. Measurements of negative values for dn/dT lead to the report of several useful athermal orientations for laser propagation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. K. Viscakas, I. V. Mochalov, A. V. Mikhailov, R. F. Klevtsova, A. V. Lyubimov, “KGd(WO4)2 crystal structure and Raman scattering,” Litov. Fiz. Sb. 28, 224–235 (1988).
  2. M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, Jna. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+—(KGW:Nd),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Liu, J. Nees, G. Mourou, S. Biswal, G. J. Spuhler, U. Keller, N. V. Kuleshov, “KGd(WO4)2 chirped-pulse regenerative amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 203, 315–321 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity of stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, A. A. Kaminskii, “Polarized infrared and Raman spectra of KGd(WO4)2 and their interpretation based on normal coordinate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 92–103 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the X(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. 46, 665–672 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. S. Sumida, T. Y. Fan, “Effect of radiation trapping on fluorescence lifetime and emission cross section measurements in solid-state laser media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1343–1345 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12(YbAG) and materials properties of highly doped Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, G. Huber, “Pulsed laser operation of Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1317–1319 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 51.
  13. A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, N. V. Kuleshov, “Passive Q switching and self-frequency Raman conversion in a diode-pumped Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 616–618 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Chin, R. C. Morris, O. Kafri, M. Long, D. F. Heller, “Athermal Nd:BEL lasers,” in Proc. SPIE 622, 53–60 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2002

H. Liu, J. Nees, G. Mourou, S. Biswal, G. J. Spuhler, U. Keller, N. V. Kuleshov, “KGd(WO4)2 chirped-pulse regenerative amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 203, 315–321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity of stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, A. A. Kaminskii, “Polarized infrared and Raman spectra of KGd(WO4)2 and their interpretation based on normal coordinate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 92–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the X(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, Jna. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12(YbAG) and materials properties of highly doped Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+—(KGW:Nd),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, G. Huber, “Pulsed laser operation of Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1317–1319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

1988

J. K. Viscakas, I. V. Mochalov, A. V. Mikhailov, R. F. Klevtsova, A. V. Lyubimov, “KGd(WO4)2 crystal structure and Raman scattering,” Litov. Fiz. Sb. 28, 224–235 (1988).

1986

T. Chin, R. C. Morris, O. Kafri, M. Long, D. F. Heller, “Athermal Nd:BEL lasers,” in Proc. SPIE 622, 53–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abdolvand, A.

Aguilo, M.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, Jna. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biswal, S.

H. Liu, J. Nees, G. Mourou, S. Biswal, G. J. Spuhler, U. Keller, N. V. Kuleshov, “KGd(WO4)2 chirped-pulse regenerative amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 203, 315–321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, S. R.

S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity of stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Butashin, A. V.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the X(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chin, T.

T. Chin, R. C. Morris, O. Kafri, M. Long, D. F. Heller, “Athermal Nd:BEL lasers,” in Proc. SPIE 622, 53–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, F.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, Jna. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Equall, R.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12(YbAG) and materials properties of highly doped Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Feldman, B. J.

S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity of stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gavalda, Jna.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, Jna. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanuza, J.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, A. A. Kaminskii, “Polarized infrared and Raman spectra of KGd(WO4)2 and their interpretation based on normal coordinate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 92–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heller, D. F.

T. Chin, R. C. Morris, O. Kafri, M. Long, D. F. Heller, “Athermal Nd:BEL lasers,” in Proc. SPIE 622, 53–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Honea, E. C.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12(YbAG) and materials properties of highly doped Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Hutcheson, R.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12(YbAG) and materials properties of highly doped Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, N. W.

S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity of stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kafri, O.

T. Chin, R. C. Morris, O. Kafri, M. Long, D. F. Heller, “Athermal Nd:BEL lasers,” in Proc. SPIE 622, 53–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, A. A. Kaminskii, “Polarized infrared and Raman spectra of KGd(WO4)2 and their interpretation based on normal coordinate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 92–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the X(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

H. Liu, J. Nees, G. Mourou, S. Biswal, G. J. Spuhler, U. Keller, N. V. Kuleshov, “KGd(WO4)2 chirped-pulse regenerative amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 203, 315–321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klevtsova, R. F.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the X(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Viscakas, I. V. Mochalov, A. V. Mikhailov, R. F. Klevtsova, A. V. Lyubimov, “KGd(WO4)2 crystal structure and Raman scattering,” Litov. Fiz. Sb. 28, 224–235 (1988).

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 51.

Konstantinova, A. F.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the X(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

Lagatsky, A. A.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, J. Nees, G. Mourou, S. Biswal, G. J. Spuhler, U. Keller, N. V. Kuleshov, “KGd(WO4)2 chirped-pulse regenerative amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 203, 315–321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Long, M.

T. Chin, R. C. Morris, O. Kafri, M. Long, D. F. Heller, “Athermal Nd:BEL lasers,” in Proc. SPIE 622, 53–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lyubimov, A. V.

J. K. Viscakas, I. V. Mochalov, A. V. Mikhailov, R. F. Klevtsova, A. V. Lyubimov, “KGd(WO4)2 crystal structure and Raman scattering,” Litov. Fiz. Sb. 28, 224–235 (1988).

Macalik, L.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, A. A. Kaminskii, “Polarized infrared and Raman spectra of KGd(WO4)2 and their interpretation based on normal coordinate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 92–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Massons, J.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, Jna. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, A. V.

J. K. Viscakas, I. V. Mochalov, A. V. Mikhailov, R. F. Klevtsova, A. V. Lyubimov, “KGd(WO4)2 crystal structure and Raman scattering,” Litov. Fiz. Sb. 28, 224–235 (1988).

Mikhailov, V. P.

Mochalov, I. V.

I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+—(KGW:Nd),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Viscakas, I. V. Mochalov, A. V. Mikhailov, R. F. Klevtsova, A. V. Lyubimov, “KGd(WO4)2 crystal structure and Raman scattering,” Litov. Fiz. Sb. 28, 224–235 (1988).

Morris, R. C.

T. Chin, R. C. Morris, O. Kafri, M. Long, D. F. Heller, “Athermal Nd:BEL lasers,” in Proc. SPIE 622, 53–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

H. Liu, J. Nees, G. Mourou, S. Biswal, G. J. Spuhler, U. Keller, N. V. Kuleshov, “KGd(WO4)2 chirped-pulse regenerative amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 203, 315–321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nees, J.

H. Liu, J. Nees, G. Mourou, S. Biswal, G. J. Spuhler, U. Keller, N. V. Kuleshov, “KGd(WO4)2 chirped-pulse regenerative amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 203, 315–321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nikolov, V.

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, S. P.

S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity of stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Orekhova, V. P.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the X(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patel, F. D.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12(YbAG) and materials properties of highly doped Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pavlyuk, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the X(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12(YbAG) and materials properties of highly doped Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Podlipensky, A. V.

Pujol, M. C.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, Jna. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rico, M.

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solans, X.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, Jna. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sole, R.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, Jna. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Speth, J.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12(YbAG) and materials properties of highly doped Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spuhler, G. J.

H. Liu, J. Nees, G. Mourou, S. Biswal, G. J. Spuhler, U. Keller, N. V. Kuleshov, “KGd(WO4)2 chirped-pulse regenerative amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 203, 315–321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sumida, D. S.

Viscakas, J. K.

J. K. Viscakas, I. V. Mochalov, A. V. Mikhailov, R. F. Klevtsova, A. V. Lyubimov, “KGd(WO4)2 crystal structure and Raman scattering,” Litov. Fiz. Sb. 28, 224–235 (1988).

Zaldo, C.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, Jna. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, C. Zaldo, R. Sole, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, “Crystalline structure and optical spectroscopy of Er3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 187–197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crystallogr. Rep.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. F. Konstantinova, V. P. Orekhova, A. V. Butashin, R. F. Klevtsova, A. A. Pavlyuk, “Optical and nonlinear laser properties of the X(3)-active monoclinic α-KY(WO4)2 crystals,” Crystallogr. Rep. 46, 665–672 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantam Electron.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12(YbAG) and materials properties of highly doped Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, N. W. Jenkins, S. P. O’Connor, B. J. Feldman, “Sensitivity of stability of a radiation-balanced laser system,” IEEE J. Quantam Electron. 38, 1339–1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Crystallogr.

M. C. Pujol, R. Sole, J. Massons, Jna. Gavalda, X. Solans, C. Zaldo, F. Diaz, M. Aguilo, “Structural study of monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 and effects of lanthanide substitution,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 34, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, A. A. Kaminskii, “Polarized infrared and Raman spectra of KGd(WO4)2 and their interpretation based on normal coordinate analysis,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 92–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Litov. Fiz. Sb.

J. K. Viscakas, I. V. Mochalov, A. V. Mikhailov, R. F. Klevtsova, A. V. Lyubimov, “KGd(WO4)2 crystal structure and Raman scattering,” Litov. Fiz. Sb. 28, 224–235 (1988).

Opt. Commun.

H. Liu, J. Nees, G. Mourou, S. Biswal, G. J. Spuhler, U. Keller, N. V. Kuleshov, “KGd(WO4)2 chirped-pulse regenerative amplifiers,” Opt. Commun. 203, 315–321 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

I. V. Mochalov, “Laser and nonlinear properties of the potassium gadolinium tungstate laser crystal KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+—(KGW:Nd),” Opt. Eng. 36, 1660–1669 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

T. Chin, R. C. Morris, O. Kafri, M. Long, D. F. Heller, “Athermal Nd:BEL lasers,” in Proc. SPIE 622, 53–60 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 51.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative orientation of crystallographic (aυ and cυ) axes to principle refractive (m and g) axes. The bυ and p axes are parallel to each other and are coming out of the page.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Room-temperature absorption spectra in Yb:KGW for polarizations parallel to the principal refractive-index m, p, and g axes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room-temperature fluorescence spectra in a submillimeter slab of Yb:KGW for polarizations parallel to the principal refractive-index m, p, and g axes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of refractive-index measurements in KGW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Athermal direction of propagation (AD) relative to the principal axes for KGW in the mg plane for Ep. The optic axis in the pg plane is also shown. (b) The AD in the pg plane for Em.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fringe change per degree per cm at 633 nm as a function of propagation direction in the mg plane with Ep.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Unit-Cell Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Orientation Between Crystallographic and Principal Refractive Axesa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Thermal-Expansion Coefficient Measurementsa

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Table 4 Refractive Indices and dn/dT for Yb:KGW

Equations (3)

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( Δ F N Δ T ) solid etalon = 2 L λ ( d n d T + n α ) ,
( Δ F N Δ T ) Michelson = 2 L λ [ d n d T + ( n 1 ) α ] .
( α i j ) m p g = [ 11 0 7.1 0 2.4 0 7.1 0 17 ] × 10 6 K 1 .

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