Abstract

We present a theoretical and experimental study of high-index-contrast waveguides and basic (passive) devices built from them. Several new results are reported, but to be more comprehensive we also review some of our previous results. We focus on a ridge waveguide, whose strong lateral confinement gives it unique properties fundamentally different from the conventional weakly guiding rib waveguides. The ridge waveguides have distinct characteristics in the single-mode and the multimode regimes. The salient features of the single-mode waveguides are their subwavelength width, strong birefringence, relatively high propagation loss, and high sensitivity to wavelength as well as waveguide width, all of which may limit device performance yet provide new opportunities for novel device applications. On the other hand, wider multimode waveguides are low loss and robust. In addition, they have a critical width where the birefringence is minimal or zero, giving rise to the possibility of realizing intrinsically polarization-independent devices. They can be made effectively single mode by employing differential leakage loss (with an appropriate etch depth) or lateral mode filtering (with a taper waveguide). Together these waveguides provide the photonic wire for interconnections and the backbone to build a broad range of compact devices. We discuss basic single-mode devices (based on directional couplers) and multimode devices (multimode interferometers) and indicate their underlying relationship.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Sneh, C. R. Doerr, “Indium phosphide photonic circuits and components,” in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components, E. J. Murphy, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999), Chap. 7.
  2. B. Little, S. T. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, J. P. Laine, “Micro-ring resonator channel dropping filters,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 492–494 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. K. Chin, S. T. Ho, “Design and modeling of waveguide-coupled single-mode microring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1433–1446 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2678–2680 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Chi, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chi, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1993).
  9. R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, “Low loss III-V semiconductor optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626–640 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Van, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, P. T. Ho, “Propagation loss in single-mode GaAs-AlGaAs microring resonators: measurement and model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1734–1739 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Forber, E. Marom, “Symmetric directional coupler switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 911–919 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Rafizadeh, S. T. Ho, “Numerical analysis of vectorial wave propagation in waveguides with arbitrary refractive index profiles,” Opt. Commun. 141, 17–20 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.
  14. B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, R. Germann, “Wavelength tunable optical add-after-drop filter with flat passband for WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 239–241 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. W. Lee, S. Darmawan, S. Y. Lee, M. K. Chin, “Theoretical design of polarization-insensitive CWDM filter based on ridge-waveguide directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  16. J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. M. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J.J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, “A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209–211 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Melloni, P. Monguzzi, R. Costa, M. Martinelli, “Design of curved waveguides: the matched bend,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 130–137 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. K. Chin, C. W. Lee, J. Y. Shen, “Polarization-independent vertical coupler for photonic integration,” Opt. Express 12, 117–123 (2004), www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. M. Heaton, M. M. Bourke, S. B. Jones, B. H. Smith, K. P. Hilton, G. W. Smith, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. Berry, S. V. Dewar, D. R. Wight, “Optimization of deep-etched, single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides using controlled leakage into the substrate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 267–281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. K. Chin, C. Xu, W. P. Huang, “Theoretical approach to a polarization-insensitive single-mode microring resonator,” Opt. Express 12, 3245–3250 (2004), www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Ozeki, T. Ito, T. Tamura, “Tapered section of multimode cladded fibers as mode filters and mode analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 386–388 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. K. Burns, “Normal mode analysis of waveguide devices. Part I: Theory,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1051–1057 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Y. Lee, S. Darmawan, C. W. Lee, M. K. Chin, “Transformation between directional couplers and multi-mode interferometers based on ridge waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 3079–3085 (2004), www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Penning, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Thermistos, B. M. A. Rahman, “Design issues of a multimode interference-based 3-dB splitter,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7037–7044 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Rajarajan, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “A rigorous comparison of the performance of directional couplers with multimode interference devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 243–248 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 492–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, R. Germann, “Wavelength tunable optical add-after-drop filter with flat passband for WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajarajan, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “A rigorous comparison of the performance of directional couplers with multimode interference devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 243–248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Heaton, M. M. Bourke, S. B. Jones, B. H. Smith, K. P. Hilton, G. W. Smith, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. Berry, S. V. Dewar, D. R. Wight, “Optimization of deep-etched, single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides using controlled leakage into the substrate,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 267–281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

D. Rafizadeh, S. T. Ho, “Numerical analysis of vectorial wave propagation in waveguides with arbitrary refractive index profiles,” Opt. Commun. 141, 17–20 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. M. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J.J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, “A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209–211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Little, S. T. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, J. P. Laine, “Micro-ring resonator channel dropping filters,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2678–2680 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Penning, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. Chi, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chi, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1993).

1991 (1)

R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, “Low loss III-V semiconductor optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626–640 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

W. K. Burns, “Normal mode analysis of waveguide devices. Part I: Theory,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1051–1057 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. A. Forber, E. Marom, “Symmetric directional coupler switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 911–919 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

T. Ozeki, T. Ito, T. Tamura, “Tapered section of multimode cladded fibers as mode filters and mode analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 386–388 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

Berry, G.

Beyeler, R.

B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, R. Germann, “Wavelength tunable optical add-after-drop filter with flat passband for WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bi, W. G.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2678–2680 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birbeck, J. C. H.

Bona, G. L.

B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, R. Germann, “Wavelength tunable optical add-after-drop filter with flat passband for WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bourke, M. M.

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, “Normal mode analysis of waveguide devices. Part I: Theory,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1051–1057 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chi, K. D.

W. Chi, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chi, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1993).

Chi, W.

W. Chi, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chi, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1993).

Chin, M. K.

S. Y. Lee, S. Darmawan, C. W. Lee, M. K. Chin, “Transformation between directional couplers and multi-mode interferometers based on ridge waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 3079–3085 (2004), www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Chin, C. W. Lee, J. Y. Shen, “Polarization-independent vertical coupler for photonic integration,” Opt. Express 12, 117–123 (2004), www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Chin, C. Xu, W. P. Huang, “Theoretical approach to a polarization-insensitive single-mode microring resonator,” Opt. Express 12, 3245–3250 (2004), www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chin, S. T. Ho, “Design and modeling of waveguide-coupled single-mode microring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1433–1446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.

C. W. Lee, S. Darmawan, S. Y. Lee, M. K. Chin, “Theoretical design of polarization-insensitive CWDM filter based on ridge-waveguide directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Chu, D. Y.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2678–2680 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S. T.

B. Little, S. T. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, J. P. Laine, “Micro-ring resonator channel dropping filters,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Costa, R.

Darmawan, S.

S. Y. Lee, S. Darmawan, C. W. Lee, M. K. Chin, “Transformation between directional couplers and multi-mode interferometers based on ridge waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 3079–3085 (2004), www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Lee, S. Darmawan, S. Y. Lee, M. K. Chin, “Theoretical design of polarization-insensitive CWDM filter based on ridge-waveguide directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Deri, R. J.

R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, “Low loss III-V semiconductor optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626–640 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dewar, S. V.

Doerr, C. R.

A. Sneh, C. R. Doerr, “Indium phosphide photonic circuits and components,” in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components, E. J. Murphy, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999), Chap. 7.

Forber, R. A.

R. A. Forber, E. Marom, “Symmetric directional coupler switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 911–919 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. Little, S. T. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, J. P. Laine, “Micro-ring resonator channel dropping filters,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Germann, R.

B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, R. Germann, “Wavelength tunable optical add-after-drop filter with flat passband for WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

Groen, F. H.

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. M. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J.J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, “A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209–211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hamacher, M.

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.

B. Little, S. T. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, J. P. Laine, “Micro-ring resonator channel dropping filters,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heaton, J. M.

Heidrich, H.

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, K. P.

Ho, P. T.

Ho, S. T.

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 492–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chin, S. T. Ho, “Design and modeling of waveguide-coupled single-mode microring resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1433–1446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Rafizadeh, S. T. Ho, “Numerical analysis of vectorial wave propagation in waveguides with arbitrary refractive index profiles,” Opt. Commun. 141, 17–20 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2678–2680 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.

Horst, F.

B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, R. Germann, “Wavelength tunable optical add-after-drop filter with flat passband for WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

Huang, W. P.

Ito, T.

T. Ozeki, T. Ito, T. Tamura, “Tapered section of multimode cladded fibers as mode filters and mode analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 386–388 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S. B.

Kapon, E.

R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, “Low loss III-V semiconductor optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626–640 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. P.

B. Little, S. T. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, J. P. Laine, “Micro-ring resonator channel dropping filters,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larocque, C.

W. Chi, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chi, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1993).

Lee, C. W.

Lee, S. Y.

S. Y. Lee, S. Darmawan, C. W. Lee, M. K. Chin, “Transformation between directional couplers and multi-mode interferometers based on ridge waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 3079–3085 (2004), www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Lee, S. Darmawan, S. Y. Lee, M. K. Chin, “Theoretical design of polarization-insensitive CWDM filter based on ridge-waveguide directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Little, B.

B. Little, S. T. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, J. P. Laine, “Micro-ring resonator channel dropping filters,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 492–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

R. A. Forber, E. Marom, “Symmetric directional coupler switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 911–919 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

Melloni, A.

Metaal, E. G.

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. M. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J.J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, “A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209–211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Monguzzi, P.

Oei, Y. S.

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. M. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J.J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, “A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209–211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, R. Germann, “Wavelength tunable optical add-after-drop filter with flat passband for WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, T.

T. Ozeki, T. Ito, T. Tamura, “Tapered section of multimode cladded fibers as mode filters and mode analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 386–388 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 492–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pascher, W. W.

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J. M.

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. M. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J.J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, “A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209–211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Penning, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Penning, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pierson, T.

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.

Puetz, N.

W. Chi, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chi, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1993).

Rafizadeh, D.

D. Rafizadeh, S. T. Ho, “Numerical analysis of vectorial wave propagation in waveguides with arbitrary refractive index profiles,” Opt. Commun. 141, 17–20 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, B. M. A.

Rajarajan, M.

Ren, Z.

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.

Rolland, C.

W. Chi, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chi, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1993).

Salemink, W. M.

B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, R. Germann, “Wavelength tunable optical add-after-drop filter with flat passband for WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J. Y.

Shepherd, F.

W. Chi, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chi, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1993).

Smit, M. K.

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. H.

Smith, G. W.

Sneh, A.

A. Sneh, C. R. Doerr, “Indium phosphide photonic circuits and components,” in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components, E. J. Murphy, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999), Chap. 7.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Penning, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spiekman, L. H.

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, T.

T. Ozeki, T. Ito, T. Tamura, “Tapered section of multimode cladded fibers as mode filters and mode analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 386–388 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Thermistos, C.

Tiberio, R. C.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2678–2680 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, C. W.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2678–2680 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van, V.

van Dam, C.

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van der Tol, J. J. G. M.

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. M. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J.J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, “A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209–211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Gaalen, J.J.-W.

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. M. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J.J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, “A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209–211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Ham, F. P. G. M.

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 492–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.

Wang, R.

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.

Weinert, C. M.

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wight, D. R.

Wu, S. L.

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2678–2680 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.

Xu, C.

Xu, J. M.

W. Chi, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chi, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1993).

Youtsey, C.

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.

Zhang, J. P.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2678–2680 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.

Zhao, Y. G.

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.

Zhou, Y. G.

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Ozeki, T. Ito, T. Tamura, “Tapered section of multimode cladded fibers as mode filters and mode analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 386–388 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. Little, S. T. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, J. P. Laine, “Micro-ring resonator channel dropping filters,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. J. Deri, E. Kapon, “Low loss III-V semiconductor optical waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626–640 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Forber, E. Marom, “Symmetric directional coupler switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 911–919 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, Z. Ren, S. L. Wu, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhou, S. T. Ho, “GaAs microcavity channel-dropping filter based on a race-track resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1620–1622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ma, S. Park, L. Wang, S. T. Ho, “Ultracompact multimode interference 3-dB coupler with strong lateral confinement by deep dry etching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 492–494 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. van Dam, L. H. Spiekman, F. P. G. M. van Ham, F. H. Groen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, I. Moerman, W. W. Pascher, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, C. M. Weinert, M. K. Smit, “Novel compact polarization converters based on ultra-short bends,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1346–1348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Chi, C. Rolland, F. Shepherd, C. Larocque, N. Puetz, K. D. Chi, J. M. Xu, “InGaAsP/InP vertical directional coupler filter with optimally designed wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 457–459 (1993).

B. J. Offrein, G. L. Bona, F. Horst, W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, R. Germann, “Wavelength tunable optical add-after-drop filter with flat passband for WDM networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. M. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J.J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, “A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209–211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Rafizadeh, S. T. Ho, “Numerical analysis of vectorial wave propagation in waveguides with arbitrary refractive index profiles,” Opt. Commun. 141, 17–20 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2678–2680 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. K. Chin, C. Youtsey, W. Zhao, T. Pierson, S. L. Wu, Z. Ren, R. Wang, L. Wang, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, “Ultra-compact directional coupler and race-track microcavity resonators as building blocks for WDM devices,” CLEO (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CPD22.

C. W. Lee, S. Darmawan, S. Y. Lee, M. K. Chin, “Theoretical design of polarization-insensitive CWDM filter based on ridge-waveguide directional coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

A. Sneh, C. R. Doerr, “Indium phosphide photonic circuits and components,” in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components, E. J. Murphy, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999), Chap. 7.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of (a) type I, or photonic well waveguide, and (b) type II, or photonic wire waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective indices of the fundamental and higher-order TE and TM modes as a function of the ridge width (w) for a straight guide consisting of a core layer with a thickness of 0.65 µm and a refractive index n = 3.5 (e.g., InGaAsP) sandwiched between the upper and lower cladding layers with n = 3.17 (e.g., InP). The ridge is etched sufficiently deep to eliminate all substrate leakage loss. Insets show the guided mode profiles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured propagation loss of ridge waveguides as a function of the waveguide width.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nanophotonic directional couplers, showing the coupling lengths for TE and TM as a function of the gap width for various waveguide widths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning electron microscope picture of an ultrashort DC. (b) Experimental data showing the dependence of the coupling factor on the length of the DC for TM-polarized light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Coupling lengths as a function of wavelength for both TE and TM. Inset shows the DC. (b) The ratio between TE and TM coupling lengths as a function of wavelength for various waveguide widths and gap sizes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated power in the bar waveguide for TE and TM polarizations of (a) λ = 1.31 µm, (b) λ = 1.54 µm, and (c) the corresponding field profiles along the DC.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of a higher-order lateral guided mode filter (not drawn to scale).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Field profiles along the propagation distance when the input mode is (a) υ = 0 (fundamental mode), (b) υ = 1, (c) υ = 2, (d) υ = 3, and (e) the simulated output powers for the fundamental and the first-order mode as a function of the single-mode waveguide width (W) for two different etch depths.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Coupling lengths for TE and TM modes as a function of the etch depth, showing a crossing at the critical depth of 1.96 µm. Parameters are core thickness dc = 0.5 µm, core index nc = 3.337, w = 1.5 µm, g = 0.5 µm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Change of TE and TM effective indices with changing gap depth, showing the transition from DC to MMI (left) and with changing MMI width (parameters are the same as in Fig. 10).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

l c = λ 2 ( n e n o ) ,
l = m l c ( λ 1 ) = ( m + p ) l c ( λ 2 ) ,
l = ml c TE ( λ 1 ) = ( m + q ) l c TM ( λ 1 ) = ( m + p ) l c TE ( λ 2 ) = ( m + p + q ) l c TM ( λ 2 ) ,
L π π ( β 0 β 1 ) = λ 2 ( η 0 n 1 ) 4 3 n r W eq 2 λ 0 ,

Metrics