Abstract

High-resolution infrared spectra from aircraft and space-based observations contain information about tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) as well as other trace species. A methodology for retrieving tropospheric CO from such remotely sensed spectral data has been developed for the National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System’s Airborne Sounder Testbed—Interferometer (NAST-I). CO profiles of the troposphere, together with its thermodynamic properties, are determined by use of a three-stage retrieval approach that combines the algorithms of physically based statistical eigenvector regression, simultaneous and iterative matrix inversion, and single-variable error-minimization CO profile matrix inverse retrieval. The NAST-I is collecting data while it is aboard high-altitude aircraft throughout many field campaigns. Detailed retrieval analyses based on the NAST-I instrument system along with retrieval results from several recent field campaigns are presented to demonstrate NAST-I CO retrieval capability.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, R. A. Lueb, W. H. Pollock, B. E. Henry, P. J. Crutzen, “Latitudinal distribution of CO and CH4over the Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7329–7336 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Warner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attié, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14), 4399, 10.1029/2002JD003186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, S. Turquety, G. Mégie, P.-F. Coheur, “Trace gas measurements from infrared satellite for chemistry and climate application,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 1495–1508 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

X. L. Ma, T. J. Schmit, W. L. Smith, “A nonlinear physical retrieval algorithm—its application to the GOES-8/9 sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 501–513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32,277–32,290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,695–10,709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Li, “Temperature and water vapor weighting functions from radiative transfer equation with surface emissivity and solar reflectivity,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 11, 421–426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J. L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: Application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,761–15,785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

J. Fishman, K. Fakharuzzaman, B. Cros, D. Nganga, “Identification of widespread pollution in the Southern Hemisphere deduced from satellite analyses,” Science 252, 1693–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profile retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 5587–5595 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

G. W. Sachse, G. F. Hill, L. O. Wade, M. G. Perry, “Fast-response, high-precision carbon monoxide sensor using a tunable diode laser absorption technique,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 2071–2081 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

W. Seiler, J. Fishman, “The distribution of carbon monoxide and ozone in the free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7225–7265 (1981).

1980 (1)

L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, R. A. Lueb, W. H. Pollock, B. E. Henry, P. J. Crutzen, “Latitudinal distribution of CO and CH4over the Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7329–7336 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Hollock, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O NO, CH3Cl, and COS,” Nature 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

W. J. Wiscombe, J. W. Evans, “Exponential-sum fitting of radiative transmission functions,” J. Comput. Phys. 24,416–444 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical co-variance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. Seiler, “The cycle of atmospheric CO,” Tellus 26, 117–135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Levy, “Natural atmosphere: large radical and formaldehyde concentrations predicted,” Science 173, 141–143 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, “Indirect measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles from satellite. I. Introduction,” Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 351–362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

S. Twomey, “On the numerical solution of Fredholm integral equations of the first kind by inversion of the linear system produced by quadrature,” J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 10, 97–101 (1963).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Tikhonov, “On the solution of incorrectly stated problems and a method of regularization,” Dokl. Acad. Nauk. SSSR 151, 501–504 (1963).

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric concentration profiles(0–120 km),” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1987).

Attié, J.-L.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Warner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attié, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14), 4399, 10.1029/2002JD003186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, P. L.

L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32,277–32,290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beer, R.

Boukabara, S.

J. L. Moncet, X. Liu, H. Rieu-Isaacs, H. Snell, S. Zaccheo, R. Lynch, J. Eluszkiewicz, Y. He, G. Uymin, C. Lietzke, J. Hegarty, S. Boukabara, A. Lipton, J. Pickle, “Algorithm theoretical basis document (ATBD) for the Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) environmental data records (EDR),” VI.2.3, AER document P882-TR-E-1.2.3-ATBD-03-01 (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Boston, Mass., 2003).

Camy-Peyret, C.

Cantwell, G. W.

Chen, J.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Warner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attié, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14), 4399, 10.1029/2002JD003186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric concentration profiles(0–120 km),” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1987).

Clerbaux, C.

C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, S. Turquety, G. Mégie, P.-F. Coheur, “Trace gas measurements from infrared satellite for chemistry and climate application,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 1495–1508 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, P. Sebastien, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Wang, D. P. Edwards, M. Luo, “Retrieval of CO from nadir remote-sensing measurements in the infrared by use of four different inversion algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7068–7078 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J. L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: Application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,761–15,785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric concentration profiles(0–120 km),” Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-86-0110 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1987).

Coheur, P.-F.

C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, S. Turquety, G. Mégie, P.-F. Coheur, “Trace gas measurements from infrared satellite for chemistry and climate application,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 1495–1508 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cousins, D.

D. Cousins, W. L. Smith, “National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I),” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics II, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3127, 323–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cros, B.

J. Fishman, K. Fakharuzzaman, B. Cros, D. Nganga, “Identification of widespread pollution in the Southern Hemisphere deduced from satellite analyses,” Science 252, 1693–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, R. A. Lueb, W. H. Pollock, B. E. Henry, P. J. Crutzen, “Latitudinal distribution of CO and CH4over the Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7329–7336 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Crutzen, L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, W. H. Hollock, “Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H2, N2O NO, CH3Cl, and COS,” Nature 282, 253–256 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Deeter, M. N.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Warner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attié, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14), 4399, 10.1029/2002JD003186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. R.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Warner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attié, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14), 4399, 10.1029/2002JD003186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Drummond, “Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT),” in The Use of EOS for Studies of Atmospheric Physics, J. C. Gille, G. Visconti, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1992), pp. 1269–1284.

Edwards, D. P.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Warner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attié, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14), 4399, 10.1029/2002JD003186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, P. Sebastien, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Wang, D. P. Edwards, M. Luo, “Retrieval of CO from nadir remote-sensing measurements in the infrared by use of four different inversion algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7068–7078 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32,277–32,290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eluszkiewicz, J.

J. L. Moncet, X. Liu, H. Rieu-Isaacs, H. Snell, S. Zaccheo, R. Lynch, J. Eluszkiewicz, Y. He, G. Uymin, C. Lietzke, J. Hegarty, S. Boukabara, A. Lipton, J. Pickle, “Algorithm theoretical basis document (ATBD) for the Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) environmental data records (EDR),” VI.2.3, AER document P882-TR-E-1.2.3-ATBD-03-01 (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Boston, Mass., 2003).

Emmons, L. K.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Warner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attié, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14), 4399, 10.1029/2002JD003186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. W.

W. J. Wiscombe, J. W. Evans, “Exponential-sum fitting of radiative transmission functions,” J. Comput. Phys. 24,416–444 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fakharuzzaman, K.

J. Fishman, K. Fakharuzzaman, B. Cros, D. Nganga, “Identification of widespread pollution in the Southern Hemisphere deduced from satellite analyses,” Science 252, 1693–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fishman, J.

J. Fishman, K. Fakharuzzaman, B. Cros, D. Nganga, “Identification of widespread pollution in the Southern Hemisphere deduced from satellite analyses,” Science 252, 1693–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Seiler, J. Fishman, “The distribution of carbon monoxide and ozone in the free troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7225–7265 (1981).

Fleming, H. E.

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, “Indirect measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles from satellite. I. Introduction,” Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 351–362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Francis, G. L.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Warner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attié, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14), 4399, 10.1029/2002JD003186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gazarik, M. J.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gille, J. C.

M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Warner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attié, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14), 4399, 10.1029/2002JD003186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32,277–32,290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glavich, T. A.

Hadji-Lazaro, J.

C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, S. Turquety, G. Mégie, P.-F. Coheur, “Trace gas measurements from infrared satellite for chemistry and climate application,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 1495–1508 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, P. Sebastien, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Wang, D. P. Edwards, M. Luo, “Retrieval of CO from nadir remote-sensing measurements in the infrared by use of four different inversion algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7068–7078 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, P. C.

P. C. Hansen, Rank-Deficient and Discrete Ill-Posed Problems. Numerical Aspects of Linear Inversion(SIAM, Philadelphia, Pa., 1998).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, F. W.

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J. L. Moncet, X. Liu, H. Rieu-Isaacs, H. Snell, S. Zaccheo, R. Lynch, J. Eluszkiewicz, Y. He, G. Uymin, C. Lietzke, J. Hegarty, S. Boukabara, A. Lipton, J. Pickle, “Algorithm theoretical basis document (ATBD) for the Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) environmental data records (EDR),” VI.2.3, AER document P882-TR-E-1.2.3-ATBD-03-01 (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Boston, Mass., 2003).

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J. L. Moncet, X. Liu, H. Rieu-Isaacs, H. Snell, S. Zaccheo, R. Lynch, J. Eluszkiewicz, Y. He, G. Uymin, C. Lietzke, J. Hegarty, S. Boukabara, A. Lipton, J. Pickle, “Algorithm theoretical basis document (ATBD) for the Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) environmental data records (EDR),” VI.2.3, AER document P882-TR-E-1.2.3-ATBD-03-01 (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Boston, Mass., 2003).

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M. N. Deeter, L. K. Emmons, G. L. Francis, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. X. Warner, B. Khattatov, D. Ziskin, J.-F. Lamarque, S.-P. Ho, V. Yudin, J.-L. Attié, D. Packman, J. Chen, D. Mao, J. R. Drummond, “Operational carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm and selected results for the MOPITT instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14), 4399, 10.1029/2002JD003186 (2003).
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W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,695–10,709 (1997).
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X. Liu, J.-L. Moncet, D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, “A fast and accurate forward model for NAST-I instrument,” in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and Optical Remote Sensing of Atmosphere, 2003 Technical Digest Series OSA (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), p. 16.

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W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).
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J. L. Moncet, X. Liu, H. Rieu-Isaacs, H. Snell, S. Zaccheo, R. Lynch, J. Eluszkiewicz, Y. He, G. Uymin, C. Lietzke, J. Hegarty, S. Boukabara, A. Lipton, J. Pickle, “Algorithm theoretical basis document (ATBD) for the Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) environmental data records (EDR),” VI.2.3, AER document P882-TR-E-1.2.3-ATBD-03-01 (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Boston, Mass., 2003).

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L. E. Heidt, J. P. Krasnec, R. A. Lueb, W. H. Pollock, B. E. Henry, P. J. Crutzen, “Latitudinal distribution of CO and CH4over the Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7329–7336 (1980).
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D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, J. Li, H. B. Howell, G. W. Cantwell, A. M. Larar, R. O. Knuteson, D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, S. A. Mango, “Thermodynamic product retrieval methodology for NAST-I and validation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6957–6967 (2002).
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W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).
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D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, J. Li, H. B. Howell, G. W. Cantwell, A. M. Larar, R. O. Knuteson, D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, S. A. Mango, “Thermodynamic product retrieval methodology for NAST-I and validation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6957–6967 (2002).
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Snell, H.

J. L. Moncet, X. Liu, H. Rieu-Isaacs, H. Snell, S. Zaccheo, R. Lynch, J. Eluszkiewicz, Y. He, G. Uymin, C. Lietzke, J. Hegarty, S. Boukabara, A. Lipton, J. Pickle, “Algorithm theoretical basis document (ATBD) for the Cross Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) environmental data records (EDR),” VI.2.3, AER document P882-TR-E-1.2.3-ATBD-03-01 (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Boston, Mass., 2003).

Strow, L. L.

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10,695–10,709 (1997).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (24)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Weighting function matrices of (a) fixed gas (constant mixing ratio), (b) water vapor, and (c) CO of NAST-I channels calculated with the U.S. standard atmosphere. The peak (or valley) of the weighting function of fixed gas (water vapor, CO) of each channel is indicated by a wave number associated with a pressure altitude.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CO weighting functions: (a) CO channels barely influenced by any other gases used in the SMI and (b) all channels sensitive to CO that can be used in CO PEI.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Selected significant averaging kernels calculated for retrieving the U.S. standard atmosphere with NAST-I instrument specifications. Perturbed layers are indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CO-retrieval error introduced by the other retrieval parameter uncertainties: the skin temperature (1.5 K), the temperature profile (1 K, circles), the water-vapor profile (20%, asterisks), the fast-forward model error (FM ERR).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radiance STDE between original and retrieval-simulated radiances from three retrieval stages (bottom, the CO band region of the top; see text). Spec., spectral.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Retrieved (Ret.) CO column densities versus truth for more than 300 subindependent samples and their linear fittings from each retrieval stage (see text for mean and standard deviation).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mean deviation (blue curves) and the STDE (red curves) of retrieved (Ret.) CO profiles from their truth in more than 300 samples. Three curves are the results from three retrieval stages (see text), ppbv, Parts in 109 by volume.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Similar to Fig. 5 but for nominal CO retrieval (see text).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Similar to Fig. 6 but for nominal CO retrieval (see text).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Similar to Fig. 7 but for nominal CO retrieval (see text).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

In situ measured CO profiles used for retrieval analyses.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Final CO PEI retrieved column density versus the truth (in situ measurement shown in Fig. 11) over 69 independent samples (see text).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Mean deviation and STDE of the final CO PEI retrieved profiles from their truth (in situ measurement shown in Fig. 11) over 69 independent samples (see text).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) First four EOFs derived from the data sets of final CO PEI retrievals (the dashed curves in black, blue, red, and green are for EOF’s 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively) and are compared with those derived from the in situ CO profiles (solid curves). (b) Corresponding EOF values derived from the in situ measurements and retrievals.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Retrieved surface properties from a section of a NAST-I flight of 14 July 2001. The UT associated with the geophysical location is indicated in the figure. Eff., effective; Emis., emissions.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Physically retrieved (SMI) temperature and relative humidity profiling (nadir mode) cross sections of the NAST-I observations associated with Fig. 15. The mean profile (Mean Prof.) is compared with a nearby radiosonde (RAOB); RH, relative humidity.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

NAST-I CO column (Col.) densities associated with Fig. 15 for (a) REG retrievals as first guesses (with a mean of 2.7 × 1018 cm−2) and for (b) final CO PEI retrievals (with a mean of 2.3 × 1018 cm−2).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

REG and final CO PEI-retrieved CO cross sections (nadir mode) and their mean of the NAST-I observations associated with Fig. 15. Prof., profile.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Statistical analyses of STDE between observed and retrieval-calculated radiances (Rad) over the retrieved samples (a total of 910 samples shown in Fig. 15).

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Statistical analyses of the mean radiance difference between observed and retrieval-calculated radiances over the retrieved samples (a total of 910 samples shown in Fig. 15).

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

(a) Flight tracks of the DC-8 flight (13 March 2001) and the Proteus flight over the Pacific Ocean (12 March 2001), (b) NAST-I mean profile of CO physical enhancement retrievals compared with DC-8 in situ measurements, and (c) a vertical cross-section segment of NAST-I CO retrievals closest to DC-8 in situ CO measurements.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

NAST-I retrieved CO column density map from seven NAST-I flights along the U.S. East Coast. The mean column density (MCD, × 1018/cm2) for each flight is plotted in the figure.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

NAST-I average CO profile from each flight associated with Fig. 22.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Latitudinal distribution of tropospheric mean CO from NAST-I retrievals (along the U.S. East Coast) shown in Fig. 22 and the distributions obtained in earlier studies (see text).

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