Abstract

We have developed a low-loss bidirectional optical coupler for high-speed optical communication with plastic optical fibers (POFs). The coupler, which is fabricated by an injection molding method that uses poly(methyl methacrylate), has an antisymmetric tapered shape. We show that the coupler has low insertion and branching losses. The tapered shape of the receiving branch reduces beam diameter and increases detection efficiency coupling to a photodetector, whose area is smaller than that of the plastic optical fiber. The possibility of more than 15-m bidirectional transmission with a signaling bit rate up to 500 Mbits/s for simplex step-index POFs is demonstrated.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE1394b-2002 Standard for a High Performance Serial Bus (IEEE Press, New York, 2002).
  2. Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Koike, “Progress of plastic optical fiber technology,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC ’96) (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, Mass., 1996), pp. 1.41–1.47.
  4. T. Mizoguchi, “Fibre optics for digital AV equipment,” in Proceedings of International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 77–80.
  5. Y. Takezawa, S. Akasaka, S. Ohota, T. Ishibashi, H. Asano, N. Taketani, “Low excess losses in a Y-branching plastic optical waveguide formed through injection molding,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2307–2312 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Horie, Y. Toriumi, H. Yoshida, K. Ookubo, K. Shino, S. Kubota, in Proceedings of International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 296–300.
  7. K. Horie, K. Ookubo, M. Sakurai, Y. Kure, K. Shino, I. Kawashima, “A miniaturized transceiver using simplex POF for IEEE1394,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 205–208.
  8. H. Fujita, Y. Ishii, T. Matsuo, Y. Iwai, T. Iwaki, K. Nagura, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Kurota, “Optical transceiver for OP iLink S200/S400,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference 2002 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 2002), pp. 25–27.
  9. T. Sugita, T. Abe, K. Hirano, T. Tokoro, M. Kobayashi, “Bi-directional optical coupler for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 230–233.
  10. D. Gloge, “Impulse response of clad optical multimode fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 801–815 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Olshansky, “Mode coupling effects in graded-index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 14, 935–945 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Jeunhomme, M. Fraise, P. Pocholle, “Propagation model for long step-index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 15, 3040–3046 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. J. S. Bates, S. D. Walker, “Evaluation of all-plastic optical fibre computer data link dispersion limits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 996–998 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Sugita, “Optical time-domain reflectometry of bent plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 897–905 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1995 (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

R. J. S. Bates, S. D. Walker, “Evaluation of all-plastic optical fibre computer data link dispersion limits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 996–998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

1973 (1)

D. Gloge, “Impulse response of clad optical multimode fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 801–815 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Abe, T.

T. Sugita, T. Abe, K. Hirano, T. Tokoro, M. Kobayashi, “Bi-directional optical coupler for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 230–233.

Akasaka, S.

Asano, H.

Bates, R. J. S.

R. J. S. Bates, S. D. Walker, “Evaluation of all-plastic optical fibre computer data link dispersion limits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 996–998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fraise, M.

Fujita, H.

H. Fujita, Y. Ishii, T. Matsuo, Y. Iwai, T. Iwaki, K. Nagura, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Kurota, “Optical transceiver for OP iLink S200/S400,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference 2002 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 2002), pp. 25–27.

Gloge, D.

D. Gloge, “Impulse response of clad optical multimode fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 801–815 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, K.

T. Sugita, T. Abe, K. Hirano, T. Tokoro, M. Kobayashi, “Bi-directional optical coupler for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 230–233.

Horie, K.

K. Horie, K. Ookubo, M. Sakurai, Y. Kure, K. Shino, I. Kawashima, “A miniaturized transceiver using simplex POF for IEEE1394,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 205–208.

K. Horie, Y. Toriumi, H. Yoshida, K. Ookubo, K. Shino, S. Kubota, in Proceedings of International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 296–300.

Ishibashi, T.

Ishigure, T.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, Y.

H. Fujita, Y. Ishii, T. Matsuo, Y. Iwai, T. Iwaki, K. Nagura, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Kurota, “Optical transceiver for OP iLink S200/S400,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference 2002 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 2002), pp. 25–27.

Iwai, Y.

H. Fujita, Y. Ishii, T. Matsuo, Y. Iwai, T. Iwaki, K. Nagura, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Kurota, “Optical transceiver for OP iLink S200/S400,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference 2002 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 2002), pp. 25–27.

Iwaki, T.

H. Fujita, Y. Ishii, T. Matsuo, Y. Iwai, T. Iwaki, K. Nagura, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Kurota, “Optical transceiver for OP iLink S200/S400,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference 2002 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 2002), pp. 25–27.

Jeunhomme, L.

Kawashima, I.

K. Horie, K. Ookubo, M. Sakurai, Y. Kure, K. Shino, I. Kawashima, “A miniaturized transceiver using simplex POF for IEEE1394,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 205–208.

Kobayashi, M.

T. Sugita, T. Abe, K. Hirano, T. Tokoro, M. Kobayashi, “Bi-directional optical coupler for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 230–233.

Koike, Y.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, “Progress of plastic optical fiber technology,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC ’96) (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, Mass., 1996), pp. 1.41–1.47.

Kubota, S.

K. Horie, Y. Toriumi, H. Yoshida, K. Ookubo, K. Shino, S. Kubota, in Proceedings of International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 296–300.

Kure, Y.

K. Horie, K. Ookubo, M. Sakurai, Y. Kure, K. Shino, I. Kawashima, “A miniaturized transceiver using simplex POF for IEEE1394,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 205–208.

Kurota, Y.

H. Fujita, Y. Ishii, T. Matsuo, Y. Iwai, T. Iwaki, K. Nagura, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Kurota, “Optical transceiver for OP iLink S200/S400,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference 2002 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 2002), pp. 25–27.

Matsuo, T.

H. Fujita, Y. Ishii, T. Matsuo, Y. Iwai, T. Iwaki, K. Nagura, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Kurota, “Optical transceiver for OP iLink S200/S400,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference 2002 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 2002), pp. 25–27.

Mizoguchi, T.

H. Fujita, Y. Ishii, T. Matsuo, Y. Iwai, T. Iwaki, K. Nagura, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Kurota, “Optical transceiver for OP iLink S200/S400,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference 2002 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 2002), pp. 25–27.

T. Mizoguchi, “Fibre optics for digital AV equipment,” in Proceedings of International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 77–80.

Nagura, K.

H. Fujita, Y. Ishii, T. Matsuo, Y. Iwai, T. Iwaki, K. Nagura, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Kurota, “Optical transceiver for OP iLink S200/S400,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference 2002 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 2002), pp. 25–27.

Nihei, E.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohota, S.

Olshansky, R.

Ookubo, K.

K. Horie, K. Ookubo, M. Sakurai, Y. Kure, K. Shino, I. Kawashima, “A miniaturized transceiver using simplex POF for IEEE1394,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 205–208.

K. Horie, Y. Toriumi, H. Yoshida, K. Ookubo, K. Shino, S. Kubota, in Proceedings of International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 296–300.

Pocholle, P.

Sakurai, M.

K. Horie, K. Ookubo, M. Sakurai, Y. Kure, K. Shino, I. Kawashima, “A miniaturized transceiver using simplex POF for IEEE1394,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 205–208.

Shino, K.

K. Horie, K. Ookubo, M. Sakurai, Y. Kure, K. Shino, I. Kawashima, “A miniaturized transceiver using simplex POF for IEEE1394,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 205–208.

K. Horie, Y. Toriumi, H. Yoshida, K. Ookubo, K. Shino, S. Kubota, in Proceedings of International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 296–300.

Sugita, T.

T. Sugita, “Optical time-domain reflectometry of bent plastic optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40, 897–905 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugita, T. Abe, K. Hirano, T. Tokoro, M. Kobayashi, “Bi-directional optical coupler for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 230–233.

Taketani, N.

Takezawa, Y.

Tokoro, T.

T. Sugita, T. Abe, K. Hirano, T. Tokoro, M. Kobayashi, “Bi-directional optical coupler for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 230–233.

Toriumi, Y.

K. Horie, Y. Toriumi, H. Yoshida, K. Ookubo, K. Shino, S. Kubota, in Proceedings of International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 296–300.

Walker, S. D.

R. J. S. Bates, S. D. Walker, “Evaluation of all-plastic optical fibre computer data link dispersion limits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 996–998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

K. Horie, Y. Toriumi, H. Yoshida, K. Ookubo, K. Shino, S. Kubota, in Proceedings of International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 296–300.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Gloge, “Impulse response of clad optical multimode fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 801–815 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. J. S. Bates, S. D. Walker, “Evaluation of all-plastic optical fibre computer data link dispersion limits,” Electron. Lett. 28, 996–998 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

Y. Koike, “Progress of plastic optical fiber technology,” in Proceedings of 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC ’96) (Information Gatekeepers, Boston, Mass., 1996), pp. 1.41–1.47.

T. Mizoguchi, “Fibre optics for digital AV equipment,” in Proceedings of International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 77–80.

K. Horie, Y. Toriumi, H. Yoshida, K. Ookubo, K. Shino, S. Kubota, in Proceedings of International Plastic Optical Fibers Conference ’98 (AKM Congress Service, Basel, Switzerland, 1998), pp. 296–300.

K. Horie, K. Ookubo, M. Sakurai, Y. Kure, K. Shino, I. Kawashima, “A miniaturized transceiver using simplex POF for IEEE1394,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 205–208.

H. Fujita, Y. Ishii, T. Matsuo, Y. Iwai, T. Iwaki, K. Nagura, T. Mizoguchi, Y. Kurota, “Optical transceiver for OP iLink S200/S400,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference 2002 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 2002), pp. 25–27.

T. Sugita, T. Abe, K. Hirano, T. Tokoro, M. Kobayashi, “Bi-directional optical coupler for plastic optical fibers,” in Proceedings of International POF Conference ’99 (POF Consortium, Tokyo, Japan, 1999), pp. 230–233.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE1394b-2002 Standard for a High Performance Serial Bus (IEEE Press, New York, 2002).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of the optical transceiver for bidirectional optical communication with a simplex POF and a bidirectional coupler: (a) optical transceiver for bidirectional optical communication. Connection of the bidirectional coupler to the POF in (b) the receiving condition and (c) the transmitting condition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relationship of the NA of the coupler, NAw, and the reduction ratio of diameter of the tapered receiving branch.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of the bidirectional coupler core.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far-field patterns from the receiving branch of the bidirectional coupler and the POF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Receiving loss when the 50-m POF was connected to the bidirectional coupler.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Connection losses between the coupler and the POF as a function of the launching NA of the transmitting branch. Open circles, results for a connection angle ϕ of 0° (the receiving branch aligned with the POF); filled circles, results for a connection angle ϕ of 7° (the receiving branch aligned with the POF).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmitting loss of a 50 m-long POF, launched with a bidirectional coupler, as a function of connection angle.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Bandwidth of the POF launched with the bidirectional coupler as a function of connection angle.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Error rate as a function of received power for a 25-m POF and a 500-Mbit/s transmitted signal.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of simulated (solid curve) and measured (open circles) output distributions from the receiving branch connected to the POF.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Simulated positional and angular output distributions from the coupler. The transmitting branch was launched with (a), (b) a GI HPCF and (c), (d) a LD.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of simulated (solid curve) and measured (filled circles) connection losses as a function of connection angle. The open circles show the sum of the measured connection loss and increase of the transmission loss.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Losses of the Bidirectional Coupler

Tables Icon

Table 2 Estimation of Maximum Transmission Length

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( NA w n cw ) Ψ + ( 2 N 1 ) α
α 1 2 N 1 [ sin 1 ( NA w n cw ) sin 1 ( NA f n cf ) ] ,
l i = 1 N d i ,
d i = 2 tan α + tan ( Ψ + 2 i α ) y i , y i = tan α + tan [ Ψ + 2 ( i 1 ) α ] tan α + tan [ Ψ + 2 ( i 1 ) α ] y i 1 , y 1 = R ,
r = R l tan α .
β sin 1 ( NA f n cf ) sin 1 ( NA s n cf ) ,
P ( θ , z , ω ) z = D 1 θ θ [ θ P ( θ , z , ω ) θ ] [ α ( θ ) + i ω θ 2 n 1 2 c ] P ( θ , z , ω ) ,
α ( θ ) = A θ 2 ( θ θ s ) = θ s 2 ( θ > θ s ) .
A = 1 4 l c θ s ln ( 10 ) , D = 1 16 l c θ 2 ln ( 10 ) ,
I ( θ ) = 0 2 π exp [ ( θ cos ϕ sin α ) 2 + ( θ sin ϕ ) 2 θ 0 2 ] d ϕ .

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