Abstract

Based on the S-curve model of the detector response of infrared focal plan arrays (IRFPAs), an improved two-point correction algorithm is presented. The algorithm first transforms the nonlinear image data into linear data and then uses the normal two-point algorithm to correct the linear data. The algorithm can effectively overcome the influence of nonlinearity of the detector’s response, and it enlarges the correction precision and the dynamic range of the response. A real-time imaging–signal-processing system for IRFPAs that is based on a digital signal processor and field-programmable gate arrays is also presented. The nonuniformity correction capability of the presented solution is validated by experimental imaging procedures of a 128 × 128 pixel IRFPA camera prototype.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, C. J. Gridley, “Measurement, characterization, and modeling of noise in staring infrared focal plan array,” in Infrared Sensors and Sensor Fusion, R. G. Buser, F. B. Warren, eds., Proc. SPIE782, 147–160 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. R. Horman, K. C. Hepfer, M. Zurasky, “Uniformity compensation for high quantum efficiency focal arrays,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXII, B. F. Andresen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE2744, 154–164 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Friedenberg, I. Goldblatt, “Nonuniformity two-point linear correction errors in infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1251–1253 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Schulz, L. Caldwell, “Nonuniformity correction and correctability of infrared plane arrays,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing VI, G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE2470, 200–209 (1995).
  5. A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, M. R. Kruer, “Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array,” Opt. Eng. 24, 855–862 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, C. J. Gridley, “Physical limitation to nonuniformity correction in IR focal plane arrays,” in Focal Plane Arrays: Technology and Applications, J.-P. Chatard, ed., Proc. SPIE865, 185–202 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. P. David, L. D. Eustace, “Linear theory of nonuniformity correction in infrared staring sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1854–1859 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Lizhen, L. Qinghui, L. Shangqian, “A new nonuniformity correction algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3–6 (2000, in Chinese).
  9. A. Friedenberg, I. Goldblatt, “Nonuniformity two-point linear correction errors in infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1251–1253 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Cao, N. Sang, “Digital implementation of nonuniformity correction for IRFPAs,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 807–814 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Lizhen, L. Qinghui, L. Shangqian, “A new nonuniformity correction algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3–6 (2000, in Chinese).

1998 (2)

A. Friedenberg, I. Goldblatt, “Nonuniformity two-point linear correction errors in infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1251–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Friedenberg, I. Goldblatt, “Nonuniformity two-point linear correction errors in infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1251–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. P. David, L. D. Eustace, “Linear theory of nonuniformity correction in infrared staring sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1854–1859 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, M. R. Kruer, “Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array,” Opt. Eng. 24, 855–862 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Barone, F. R.

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, M. R. Kruer, “Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array,” Opt. Eng. 24, 855–862 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, L.

M. Schulz, L. Caldwell, “Nonuniformity correction and correctability of infrared plane arrays,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing VI, G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE2470, 200–209 (1995).

Cao, Z.

Z. Cao, N. Sang, “Digital implementation of nonuniformity correction for IRFPAs,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 807–814 (1999).
[CrossRef]

David, L. P.

L. P. David, L. D. Eustace, “Linear theory of nonuniformity correction in infrared staring sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1854–1859 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eustace, L. D.

L. P. David, L. D. Eustace, “Linear theory of nonuniformity correction in infrared staring sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1854–1859 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Friedenberg, A.

A. Friedenberg, I. Goldblatt, “Nonuniformity two-point linear correction errors in infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1251–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Friedenberg, I. Goldblatt, “Nonuniformity two-point linear correction errors in infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1251–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldblatt, I.

A. Friedenberg, I. Goldblatt, “Nonuniformity two-point linear correction errors in infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1251–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Friedenberg, I. Goldblatt, “Nonuniformity two-point linear correction errors in infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1251–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gridley, C. J.

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, C. J. Gridley, “Measurement, characterization, and modeling of noise in staring infrared focal plan array,” in Infrared Sensors and Sensor Fusion, R. G. Buser, F. B. Warren, eds., Proc. SPIE782, 147–160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, C. J. Gridley, “Physical limitation to nonuniformity correction in IR focal plane arrays,” in Focal Plane Arrays: Technology and Applications, J.-P. Chatard, ed., Proc. SPIE865, 185–202 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hepfer, K. C.

S. R. Horman, K. C. Hepfer, M. Zurasky, “Uniformity compensation for high quantum efficiency focal arrays,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXII, B. F. Andresen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE2744, 154–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horman, S. R.

S. R. Horman, K. C. Hepfer, M. Zurasky, “Uniformity compensation for high quantum efficiency focal arrays,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXII, B. F. Andresen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE2744, 154–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kruer, M. R.

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, M. R. Kruer, “Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array,” Opt. Eng. 24, 855–862 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, C. J. Gridley, “Measurement, characterization, and modeling of noise in staring infrared focal plan array,” in Infrared Sensors and Sensor Fusion, R. G. Buser, F. B. Warren, eds., Proc. SPIE782, 147–160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, C. J. Gridley, “Physical limitation to nonuniformity correction in IR focal plane arrays,” in Focal Plane Arrays: Technology and Applications, J.-P. Chatard, ed., Proc. SPIE865, 185–202 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lizhen, T.

T. Lizhen, L. Qinghui, L. Shangqian, “A new nonuniformity correction algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3–6 (2000, in Chinese).

Milton, A. F.

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, M. R. Kruer, “Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array,” Opt. Eng. 24, 855–862 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Qinghui, L.

T. Lizhen, L. Qinghui, L. Shangqian, “A new nonuniformity correction algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3–6 (2000, in Chinese).

Sang, N.

Z. Cao, N. Sang, “Digital implementation of nonuniformity correction for IRFPAs,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 807–814 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, M.

M. Schulz, L. Caldwell, “Nonuniformity correction and correctability of infrared plane arrays,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing VI, G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE2470, 200–209 (1995).

Scribner, D. A.

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, C. J. Gridley, “Measurement, characterization, and modeling of noise in staring infrared focal plan array,” in Infrared Sensors and Sensor Fusion, R. G. Buser, F. B. Warren, eds., Proc. SPIE782, 147–160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, C. J. Gridley, “Physical limitation to nonuniformity correction in IR focal plane arrays,” in Focal Plane Arrays: Technology and Applications, J.-P. Chatard, ed., Proc. SPIE865, 185–202 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shangqian, L.

T. Lizhen, L. Qinghui, L. Shangqian, “A new nonuniformity correction algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3–6 (2000, in Chinese).

Zurasky, M.

S. R. Horman, K. C. Hepfer, M. Zurasky, “Uniformity compensation for high quantum efficiency focal arrays,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXII, B. F. Andresen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE2744, 154–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

T. Lizhen, L. Qinghui, L. Shangqian, “A new nonuniformity correction algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3–6 (2000, in Chinese).

Opt. Eng. (4)

A. Friedenberg, I. Goldblatt, “Nonuniformity two-point linear correction errors in infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1251–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Milton, F. R. Barone, M. R. Kruer, “Influence of nonuniformity on infrared focal plane array,” Opt. Eng. 24, 855–862 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Friedenberg, I. Goldblatt, “Nonuniformity two-point linear correction errors in infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1251–1253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. David, L. D. Eustace, “Linear theory of nonuniformity correction in infrared staring sensors,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1854–1859 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Schulz, L. Caldwell, “Nonuniformity correction and correctability of infrared plane arrays,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing VI, G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE2470, 200–209 (1995).

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, C. J. Gridley, “Measurement, characterization, and modeling of noise in staring infrared focal plan array,” in Infrared Sensors and Sensor Fusion, R. G. Buser, F. B. Warren, eds., Proc. SPIE782, 147–160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Horman, K. C. Hepfer, M. Zurasky, “Uniformity compensation for high quantum efficiency focal arrays,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXII, B. F. Andresen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE2744, 154–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, C. J. Gridley, “Physical limitation to nonuniformity correction in IR focal plane arrays,” in Focal Plane Arrays: Technology and Applications, J.-P. Chatard, ed., Proc. SPIE865, 185–202 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cao, N. Sang, “Digital implementation of nonuniformity correction for IRFPAs,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. Strojnik, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 807–814 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear model of the response curve of the IRFPA detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

S-curve model of the response curve of the IRFPA detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Procedure for the presented algorithm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the signal-processing system for IRFPA imaging.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of the nonuniformity correction: (a) raw image with nonuniformity, (b) three-dimensional response of the image in (a), (c) image in (a) corrected by TPC, (d) three-dimensional response of the image in (c), (e) image in (a) corrected by the proposed method, (f) three-dimensional response of the image in (e).10

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V i j ( ϕ ) = R i j ϕ + O i j ,
V ¯ 1 = 1 N × M i = 1 N j = 1 M V i j ( ϕ 1 ) ,
V ¯ 2 = 1 N × M i = 1 N j = 1 M V i j ( ϕ 2 ) ,
V i j ( ϕ ) = V ¯ 2 V ¯ 1 V i j ( ϕ 2 ) V i j ( ϕ 1 ) V i j ( ϕ ) + V ¯ 1 ( V ¯ 2 V ¯ 1 ) V i j ( ϕ 1 ) V i j ( ϕ 2 ) V i j ( ϕ 1 ) i = 1 , 2 , , N , j = 1 , 2 , , M .
G i , j = V ¯ 2 V ¯ 1 V i j ( φ 2 ) V i j ( φ 1 ) ,
Q i , j = V ¯ 1 ( V ¯ 2 V ¯ 1 ) V i j ( φ 1 ) V i j ( φ 2 ) V i j ( φ 1 ) .
V i j ( φ 1 ) = G i j V i j ( φ ) + Q i j ,
υ = A 1 + exp ( B C ϕ ) ,
ln ( A / υ 1 ) = B C ϕ .
V = ln ( A / υ 1 ) ,
V = B C ϕ .
U R = 1 S ¯ { 1 M × N i = 1 M j = 1 N [ S i , j ( φ ) S ¯ ] 2 } 1 / 2 ,
S ¯ = 1 M × N i = 1 M j = 1 N S i , j ( φ ) .

Metrics