Abstract

In preparation for a possible space mission, a breadboard version named REFIR-BB of the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared (REFIR) instrument has been built. The REFIR is a Fourier-transform spectrometer with a new optical layout operating in the spectral range 100–1100 cm−1 with a resolution of 0.5 cm−1, a7-s acquisition time, and a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 100. Its mission is the spectral measurement in the far infrared of the Earth's outgoing emission, with particular attention to the long-wavelength spectral region, which is not covered by either current or planned space missions. This measurement is of great importance for deriving an accurate estimate of the radiation budget in both clear and cloudy conditions. The REFIR-BB permits the trade-off among all instrument parameters to be studied, the optical layout to be tested, and the data-acquisition strategy to be optimized. The breadboard could be used for high-altitude ground-based campaigns or could be flown for test flights on aircraft or balloon stratospheric platforms. The breadboard's design and the experimental results are described, with particular attention to the acquisition strategy and characterization of the interferometer. Tests were performed both in laboratory conditions and in vacuum. Notwithstanding a loss of efficiency above 700 cm−1 caused by the poor performance of the photolithographic polarizers used as beam splitters, the results demonstrate the feasibility of using the spectrometer for space applications.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004

2003

T. Maestri, R. Rizzi, “A study of infrared diabatic forcing of ice clouds in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4139–4154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Rizzi, T. Maestri, “Some considerations on far infrared emission in the presence of clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4403–4408 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569–4583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

2000

1999

B. Carli, L. Palchetti, P. Raspollini, “Effect of beam splitter emission in Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7475–7480 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Palchetti, A. Barbis, J. E. Harries, D. Lastrucci, “Design and mathematical modelling of the space-borne far-infrared Fourier transform spectrometer for REFIR experiment,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 367–377 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, A. Barbis, J. E. Harries, L. Palchetti, “Design of an efficient broadband far infrared FT spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3945–3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. E. Brindley, J. E. Harries, “The impact of far I. R. absorption on clear sky greenhouse forcing: sensitivity studies at high spectral resolution,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 151–180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculation of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. 2. Application to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16519–16535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sinha, J. E. Harries, “Water vapor greenhouse trapping: the role of the far infrared absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J. L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761–15785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

1984

1981

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “Signal doubling in the Martin– Puplett interferometer,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 2, 1045–1051 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1969

D. H. Martin, E. Puplett, “Polarised interferometric spectrometry for the millimetre and submillimetre spectrum,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 10, 105–109 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aubertin, G.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barbis, A.

L. Palchetti, A. Barbis, J. E. Harries, D. Lastrucci, “Design and mathematical modelling of the space-borne far-infrared Fourier transform spectrometer for REFIR experiment,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 367–377 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, A. Barbis, J. E. Harries, L. Palchetti, “Design of an efficient broadband far infrared FT spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3945–3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baum, B. A.

P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569–4583 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bianchini, G.

Bizzarri, B.

R. Rizzi, B. Carli, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, C. Serio, A. Sutera, B. Bizzarri, R. Bonsignori, S. Peskett, “Mission objectives and instrument requirements for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared) Mission: an outline after the end of phase B0,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofeyev, eds., Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS 2000 (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 567–570.

Bonetti, A.

Bonsignori, R.

R. Rizzi, B. Carli, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, C. Serio, A. Sutera, B. Bizzarri, R. Bonsignori, S. Peskett, “Mission objectives and instrument requirements for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared) Mission: an outline after the end of phase B0,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofeyev, eds., Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS 2000 (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 567–570.

R. Rizzi, L. Palchetti, B. Carli, R. Bonsignori, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, S. Peskett, C. Serio, A. Sutera, “Feasibility study of the space-borne Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed (REFIR),” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 202–209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brault, J. W.

Brindley, H. E.

H. E. Brindley, J. E. Harries, “The impact of far I. R. absorption on clear sky greenhouse forcing: sensitivity studies at high spectral resolution,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 151–180 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buijs, H.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Té P. Jeseck, C. Camy-Peyret, S. Payan, G. Perron, G. Aubertin, “Balloonborne calibrated spectroradiometer for atmospheric nadir sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6431–6441 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canas, T. A.

T. A. Canas, J. E. Murray, J. E. Harries, “Tropospheric airborne Fourier transform spectrometer (TAFTS),” in Satellite Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere II, J. D. Haigh, ed., Proc. SPIE3220, 91–102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

B. Carli, A. Barbis, J. E. Harries, L. Palchetti, “Design of an efficient broadband far infrared FT spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3945–3950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, L. Palchetti, P. Raspollini, “Effect of beam splitter emission in Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7475–7480 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Submillimiter high-resolution FT spectrometer for atmospheric studies,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2594–2603 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “Signal doubling in the Martin– Puplett interferometer,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 2, 1045–1051 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Rizzi, L. Palchetti, B. Carli, R. Bonsignori, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, S. Peskett, C. Serio, A. Sutera, “Feasibility study of the space-borne Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed (REFIR),” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 202–209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Rizzi, B. Carli, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, C. Serio, A. Sutera, B. Bizzarri, R. Bonsignori, S. Peskett, “Mission objectives and instrument requirements for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared) Mission: an outline after the end of phase B0,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofeyev, eds., Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS 2000 (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 567–570.

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculation of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. 2. Application to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16519–16535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J. L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761–15785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cortesi, U.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Friedl-Vallon, F.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. Palchetti, A. Barbis, J. E. Harries, D. Lastrucci, “Design and mathematical modelling of the space-borne far-infrared Fourier transform spectrometer for REFIR experiment,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 367–377 (1999).
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B. Carli, A. Barbis, J. E. Harries, L. Palchetti, “Design of an efficient broadband far infrared FT spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3945–3950 (1999).
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A. Sinha, J. E. Harries, “Water vapor greenhouse trapping: the role of the far infrared absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2147–2150 (1995).
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R. Rizzi, B. Carli, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, C. Serio, A. Sutera, B. Bizzarri, R. Bonsignori, S. Peskett, “Mission objectives and instrument requirements for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared) Mission: an outline after the end of phase B0,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofeyev, eds., Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS 2000 (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 567–570.

R. Rizzi, L. Palchetti, B. Carli, R. Bonsignori, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, S. Peskett, C. Serio, A. Sutera, “Feasibility study of the space-borne Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed (REFIR),” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 202–209 (2002).
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P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569–4583 (2003).
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Hu, Y. X.

P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569–4583 (2003).
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S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculation of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. 2. Application to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16519–16535 (1995).
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S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J. L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761–15785 (1992).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Kleinert, A.

Kratz, D. P.

P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569–4583 (2003).
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Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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LaPorte, D. D.

Lastrucci, D.

L. Palchetti, D. Lastrucci, “Spectral noise due to sampling error in Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3235–3243 (2001).
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L. Palchetti, A. Barbis, J. E. Harries, D. Lastrucci, “Design and mathematical modelling of the space-borne far-infrared Fourier transform spectrometer for REFIR experiment,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 367–377 (1999).
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Lengel, A.

Leotin, J.

R. Rizzi, L. Palchetti, B. Carli, R. Bonsignori, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, S. Peskett, C. Serio, A. Sutera, “Feasibility study of the space-borne Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed (REFIR),” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 202–209 (2002).
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R. Rizzi, B. Carli, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, C. Serio, A. Sutera, B. Bizzarri, R. Bonsignori, S. Peskett, “Mission objectives and instrument requirements for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared) Mission: an outline after the end of phase B0,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofeyev, eds., Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS 2000 (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 567–570.

Maestri, T.

R. Rizzi, T. Maestri, “Some considerations on far infrared emission in the presence of clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4403–4408 (2003).
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T. Maestri, R. Rizzi, “A study of infrared diabatic forcing of ice clouds in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4139–4154 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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D. H. Martin, E. Puplett, “Polarised interferometric spectrometry for the millimetre and submillimetre spectrum,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 10, 105–109 (1969).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “Signal doubling in the Martin– Puplett interferometer,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 2, 1045–1051 (1981).
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P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569–4583 (2003).
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Miskolczi, F.

Mlynczak, M. G.

P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569–4583 (2003).
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S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J. L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761–15785 (1992).
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T. A. Canas, J. E. Murray, J. E. Harries, “Tropospheric airborne Fourier transform spectrometer (TAFTS),” in Satellite Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere II, J. D. Haigh, ed., Proc. SPIE3220, 91–102 (1997).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Palchetti, L.

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L. Palchetti, D. Lastrucci, “Spectral noise due to sampling error in Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3235–3243 (2001).
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B. Carli, A. Barbis, J. E. Harries, L. Palchetti, “Design of an efficient broadband far infrared FT spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3945–3950 (1999).
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L. Palchetti, A. Barbis, J. E. Harries, D. Lastrucci, “Design and mathematical modelling of the space-borne far-infrared Fourier transform spectrometer for REFIR experiment,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 367–377 (1999).
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B. Carli, L. Palchetti, P. Raspollini, “Effect of beam splitter emission in Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7475–7480 (1999).
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R. Rizzi, L. Palchetti, B. Carli, R. Bonsignori, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, S. Peskett, C. Serio, A. Sutera, “Feasibility study of the space-borne Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed (REFIR),” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 202–209 (2002).
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Pascale, E.

Payan, S.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Perron, G.

Peskett, S.

R. Rizzi, L. Palchetti, B. Carli, R. Bonsignori, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, S. Peskett, C. Serio, A. Sutera, “Feasibility study of the space-borne Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed (REFIR),” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 202–209 (2002).
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R. Rizzi, B. Carli, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, C. Serio, A. Sutera, B. Bizzarri, R. Bonsignori, S. Peskett, “Mission objectives and instrument requirements for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared) Mission: an outline after the end of phase B0,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofeyev, eds., Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS 2000 (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 567–570.

Puplett, E.

D. H. Martin, E. Puplett, “Polarised interferometric spectrometry for the millimetre and submillimetre spectrum,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 10, 105–109 (1969).
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Raspollini, P.

Revercomb, H. E.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Rizzi, R.

T. Maestri, R. Rizzi, “A study of infrared diabatic forcing of ice clouds in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4139–4154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Rizzi, T. Maestri, “Some considerations on far infrared emission in the presence of clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4403–4408 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Rizzi, M. Matricardi, F. Miskolczi, “On the simulation of up-looking and down-looking high-resolution radiance spectra using two different radiative transfer models,” Appl. Opt. 41, 940–956 (2002).
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R. Rizzi, L. Palchetti, B. Carli, R. Bonsignori, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, S. Peskett, C. Serio, A. Sutera, “Feasibility study of the space-borne Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed (REFIR),” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 202–209 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Rizzi, B. Carli, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, C. Serio, A. Sutera, B. Bizzarri, R. Bonsignori, S. Peskett, “Mission objectives and instrument requirements for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared) Mission: an outline after the end of phase B0,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofeyev, eds., Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS 2000 (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 567–570.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Seefeldner, M.

Serio, C.

R. Rizzi, L. Palchetti, B. Carli, R. Bonsignori, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, S. Peskett, C. Serio, A. Sutera, “Feasibility study of the space-borne Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed (REFIR),” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 202–209 (2002).
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R. Rizzi, B. Carli, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, C. Serio, A. Sutera, B. Bizzarri, R. Bonsignori, S. Peskett, “Mission objectives and instrument requirements for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared) Mission: an outline after the end of phase B0,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofeyev, eds., Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS 2000 (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 567–570.

Sinha, A.

A. Sinha, J. E. Harries, “Water vapor greenhouse trapping: the role of the far infrared absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Smith, W. L.

Sromovsky, L. A.

Sutera, A.

R. Rizzi, B. Carli, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, C. Serio, A. Sutera, B. Bizzarri, R. Bonsignori, S. Peskett, “Mission objectives and instrument requirements for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared) Mission: an outline after the end of phase B0,” in Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Yu. M. Timofeyev, eds., Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS 2000 (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 567–570.

R. Rizzi, L. Palchetti, B. Carli, R. Bonsignori, J. E. Harries, J. Leotin, S. Peskett, C. Serio, A. Sutera, “Feasibility study of the space-borne Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed (REFIR),” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 202–209 (2002).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical schematic of the interferometer: BSs, polarizing beam splitters; P's, paraboloid mirrors; I, input port; O, output port.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the instrument.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optomechanical layout of the spectrometer; abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lateral view of the BS assembly.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmittance ratio TCsI/TPP of the 0.25-mm-thick CsI window to the 15-µm-thick PP window.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Frequency response of a pyroelectric IR detector and preamplifier electronics (solid curves). A fitted theoretical expression for amplitude and phase of response is also shown (dashed curves).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of digital correction of frequency response effects in the acquired interferograms. Forward (solid curves) and reverse (dashed curves) interferograms are superimposed to illustrate non-optical path-difference-dependent effects.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Instrument response versus optical frequency.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

NESR.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calibrated brightness temperature spectrum of the IC Systems reference blackbody at 33.15 K (averaged on a 15-cm−1 spectral interval; solid curve) compared with the blackbody temperature (dashed line).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Top, measurement of air transmittance inside the optical path of the interferometer under laboratory conditions (20 °C, 25% relative humidity, and ∼2 m optical path length). Bottom, difference between measured and simulated transmittance.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Main Parameters of the REFIR-BB

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Table 2 Stability Performance of the Laser Drivera

Equations (1)

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L m = ( S m S CBB S HBB S CBB ) ( L HBB L CBB ) + L CBB ,

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