Abstract

Quantitative assessment of the UV effects on aquatic ecosystems requires an estimate of the in-water radiation field. Actual ocean UV reflectances are needed for improving the total ozone retrievals from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) flown on NASA's Aura satellite. The estimate of underwater UV radiation can be done on the basis of measurements from the TOMS/OMI and full models of radiative transfer (RT) in the atmosphere–ocean system. The Hydrolight code, modified for extension to the UV, is used for the generation of look-up tables for in-water irradiances. A look-up table for surface radiances generated with a full RT code is input for the Hydrolight simulations. A model of seawater inherent optical properties (IOPs) is an extension of the Case 1 water model to the UV. A new element of the IOP model is parameterization of particulate matter absorption based on recent in situ data. A chlorophyll product from ocean color sensors is input for the IOP model. Verification of the in-water computational scheme shows that the calculated diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd is in good agreement with the measured Kd.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. de More, S. Demers, M. Vernet, eds., The Effects of UV Radiation in the Marine Environment (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. R. Herman, E. Celarier, “Earth surface reflectivity climatology at 340 to 380 nm from TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28003–28011 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Stamnes, “Ultraviolet and visible radiation in the atmosphere–ocean system: a tutorial review of modeling capabilities,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3008–3018 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. P. Vasilkov, N. Krotkov, J. R. Herman, C. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. Robinson, “Global mapping of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS data products,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 27205–27219 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif, 1994).
  6. Z. Ahmad, R. S. Fraser, “An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean–atmosphere systems,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656–665 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete ordinate method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum(380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. M. Sogandares, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum(340–700 nm) of pure water. I. Photothermal measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. C. Smith, K. C. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–186 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, N. A. Krotkov, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, C. Hsu, “Problems in assessment of the UV penetration into natural waters from space-based measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3019–3027 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. I. Quickenden, J. A. Irvin, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 4416–4428 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. S. Fry, “Visible and near ultraviolet absorption spectrum of liquid water,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2743–2744 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. P. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, “Ocean Raman scattering in satellite backscatter UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(17), 1837, doi: (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. V. Kopelevich, S. V. Lutsarev, V. V. Rodionov, “Light spectral absorption by yellow substance of ocean water,” Oceanology 29, 409–414 (1989).
  16. A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogeneous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, “Spectral reflectance and absorption of a massive red tide off Southern California,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 21601–21609 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).
  21. G. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase functions for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Ahmad, J. R. Herman, A. Vasilkov, M. Tzortziou, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Seasonal variation of UV radiation in the ocean under clear cloudy conditions,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 63–73 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. K. Hojerslev, “Optical properties of sea water,” in Landolt-Bornstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, J. Sundermann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986), pp. 263–281.
  24. H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?”Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, M. Tzortziou, “A comparison of UV penetration into ocean waters with models and in situ data,” in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVI Conference (CD-ROM) (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 2002).
  26. C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, G. Mitchell, “Model for the assessment of UV penetration into ocean waters from space-based measurements and full radiative transfer calculations,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects III, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 316–322 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (4)

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, “Ocean Raman scattering in satellite backscatter UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(17), 1837, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, “Ultraviolet and visible radiation in the atmosphere–ocean system: a tutorial review of modeling capabilities,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3008–3018 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, N. A. Krotkov, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, C. Hsu, “Problems in assessment of the UV penetration into natural waters from space-based measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3019–3027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. P. Vasilkov, N. Krotkov, J. R. Herman, C. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. Robinson, “Global mapping of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS data products,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 27205–27219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).

M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, “Spectral reflectance and absorption of a massive red tide off Southern California,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 21601–21609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

O. V. Kopelevich, S. V. Lutsarev, V. V. Rodionov, “Light spectral absorption by yellow substance of ocean water,” Oceanology 29, 409–414 (1989).

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?”Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1982 (1)

Z. Ahmad, R. S. Fraser, “An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean–atmosphere systems,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

T. I. Quickenden, J. A. Irvin, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 4416–4428 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, Z.

Z. Ahmad, R. S. Fraser, “An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean–atmosphere systems,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, G. Mitchell, “Model for the assessment of UV penetration into ocean waters from space-based measurements and full radiative transfer calculations,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects III, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 316–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, M. Tzortziou, “A comparison of UV penetration into ocean waters with models and in situ data,” in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVI Conference (CD-ROM) (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 2002).

Z. Ahmad, J. R. Herman, A. Vasilkov, M. Tzortziou, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Seasonal variation of UV radiation in the ocean under clear cloudy conditions,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arrigo, K.

A. P. Vasilkov, N. Krotkov, J. R. Herman, C. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. Robinson, “Global mapping of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS data products,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 27205–27219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. C.

Bhartia, P. K.

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, “Ocean Raman scattering in satellite backscatter UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(17), 1837, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Celarier, E.

J. R. Herman, E. Celarier, “Earth surface reflectivity climatology at 340 to 380 nm from TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28003–28011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Forand, J. L.

G. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase functions for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, G.

G. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase functions for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, R. S.

Z. Ahmad, R. S. Fraser, “An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean–atmosphere systems,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Gleason, J.

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, “Ocean Raman scattering in satellite backscatter UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(17), 1837, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?”Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J.

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, N. A. Krotkov, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, C. Hsu, “Problems in assessment of the UV penetration into natural waters from space-based measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3019–3027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, G. Mitchell, “Model for the assessment of UV penetration into ocean waters from space-based measurements and full radiative transfer calculations,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects III, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 316–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, M. Tzortziou, “A comparison of UV penetration into ocean waters with models and in situ data,” in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVI Conference (CD-ROM) (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 2002).

Herman, J. R.

A. P. Vasilkov, N. Krotkov, J. R. Herman, C. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. Robinson, “Global mapping of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS data products,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 27205–27219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Herman, E. Celarier, “Earth surface reflectivity climatology at 340 to 380 nm from TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28003–28011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ahmad, J. R. Herman, A. Vasilkov, M. Tzortziou, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Seasonal variation of UV radiation in the ocean under clear cloudy conditions,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hojerslev, N. K.

N. K. Hojerslev, “Optical properties of sea water,” in Landolt-Bornstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, J. Sundermann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986), pp. 263–281.

Hsu, C.

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, N. A. Krotkov, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, C. Hsu, “Problems in assessment of the UV penetration into natural waters from space-based measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3019–3027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Irvin, J. A.

T. I. Quickenden, J. A. Irvin, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 4416–4428 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jayaweera, K.

Joiner, J.

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, “Ocean Raman scattering in satellite backscatter UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(17), 1837, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, N. A. Krotkov, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, C. Hsu, “Problems in assessment of the UV penetration into natural waters from space-based measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3019–3027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, “Spectral reflectance and absorption of a massive red tide off Southern California,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 21601–21609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, G. Mitchell, “Model for the assessment of UV penetration into ocean waters from space-based measurements and full radiative transfer calculations,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects III, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 316–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, M. Tzortziou, “A comparison of UV penetration into ocean waters with models and in situ data,” in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVI Conference (CD-ROM) (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 2002).

Z. Ahmad, J. R. Herman, A. Vasilkov, M. Tzortziou, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Seasonal variation of UV radiation in the ocean under clear cloudy conditions,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kopelevich, O. V.

O. V. Kopelevich, S. V. Lutsarev, V. V. Rodionov, “Light spectral absorption by yellow substance of ocean water,” Oceanology 29, 409–414 (1989).

Krotkov, N.

A. P. Vasilkov, N. Krotkov, J. R. Herman, C. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. Robinson, “Global mapping of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS data products,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 27205–27219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krotkov, N. A.

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, N. A. Krotkov, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, C. Hsu, “Problems in assessment of the UV penetration into natural waters from space-based measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3019–3027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).

Lutsarev, S. V.

O. V. Kopelevich, S. V. Lutsarev, V. V. Rodionov, “Light spectral absorption by yellow substance of ocean water,” Oceanology 29, 409–414 (1989).

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

A. P. Vasilkov, N. Krotkov, J. R. Herman, C. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. Robinson, “Global mapping of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS data products,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 27205–27219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, N. A. Krotkov, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, C. Hsu, “Problems in assessment of the UV penetration into natural waters from space-based measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3019–3027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, “Spectral reflectance and absorption of a massive red tide off Southern California,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 21601–21609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, M. Tzortziou, “A comparison of UV penetration into ocean waters with models and in situ data,” in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVI Conference (CD-ROM) (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 2002).

Z. Ahmad, J. R. Herman, A. Vasilkov, M. Tzortziou, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Seasonal variation of UV radiation in the ocean under clear cloudy conditions,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, G.

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, G. Mitchell, “Model for the assessment of UV penetration into ocean waters from space-based measurements and full radiative transfer calculations,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects III, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 316–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif, 1994).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogeneous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Quickenden, T. I.

T. I. Quickenden, J. A. Irvin, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 4416–4428 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W.

A. P. Vasilkov, N. Krotkov, J. R. Herman, C. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. Robinson, “Global mapping of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS data products,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 27205–27219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rodionov, V. V.

O. V. Kopelevich, S. V. Lutsarev, V. V. Rodionov, “Light spectral absorption by yellow substance of ocean water,” Oceanology 29, 409–414 (1989).

Smith, R. C.

Sogandares, F. M.

Stamnes, K.

Sundman, L. K.

Tsay, S.-C.

Tzortziou, M.

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, M. Tzortziou, “A comparison of UV penetration into ocean waters with models and in situ data,” in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVI Conference (CD-ROM) (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 2002).

Z. Ahmad, J. R. Herman, A. Vasilkov, M. Tzortziou, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Seasonal variation of UV radiation in the ocean under clear cloudy conditions,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vasilkov, A.

Z. Ahmad, J. R. Herman, A. Vasilkov, M. Tzortziou, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Seasonal variation of UV radiation in the ocean under clear cloudy conditions,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vasilkov, A. P.

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, N. A. Krotkov, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, C. Hsu, “Problems in assessment of the UV penetration into natural waters from space-based measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3019–3027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, “Ocean Raman scattering in satellite backscatter UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(17), 1837, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, N. Krotkov, J. R. Herman, C. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. Robinson, “Global mapping of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS data products,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 27205–27219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, G. Mitchell, “Model for the assessment of UV penetration into ocean waters from space-based measurements and full radiative transfer calculations,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects III, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 316–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, M. Tzortziou, “A comparison of UV penetration into ocean waters with models and in situ data,” in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVI Conference (CD-ROM) (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 2002).

Wiscombe, W.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Joiner, J. Gleason, P. K. Bhartia, “Ocean Raman scattering in satellite backscatter UV measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(17), 1837, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

Z. Ahmad, R. S. Fraser, “An iterative radiative transfer code for ocean–atmosphere systems,” J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 656–665 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. I. Quickenden, J. A. Irvin, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 4416–4428 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

J. R. Herman, E. Celarier, “Earth surface reflectivity climatology at 340 to 380 nm from TOMS data,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28003–28011 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, N. Krotkov, J. R. Herman, C. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. Robinson, “Global mapping of underwater UV irradiance and DNA-weighted exposures using TOMS and SeaWiFS data products,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 27205–27219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogeneous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13321–13332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, “Spectral reflectance and absorption of a massive red tide off Southern California,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 21601–21609 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

H. Loisel, A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in Case 1 waters: a reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?”Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oceanology (1)

O. V. Kopelevich, S. V. Lutsarev, V. V. Rodionov, “Light spectral absorption by yellow substance of ocean water,” Oceanology 29, 409–414 (1989).

Opt. Eng. (2)

K. Stamnes, “Ultraviolet and visible radiation in the atmosphere–ocean system: a tutorial review of modeling capabilities,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3008–3018 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, N. A. Krotkov, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, C. Hsu, “Problems in assessment of the UV penetration into natural waters from space-based measurements,” Opt. Eng. 41, 3019–3027 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, B. G. Mitchell, M. Tzortziou, “A comparison of UV penetration into ocean waters with models and in situ data,” in Proceedings of the Ocean Optics XVI Conference (CD-ROM) (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 2002).

A. P. Vasilkov, J. Herman, Z. Ahmad, M. Kahru, G. Mitchell, “Model for the assessment of UV penetration into ocean waters from space-based measurements and full radiative transfer calculations,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects III, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 316–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif, 1994).

S. de More, S. Demers, M. Vernet, eds., The Effects of UV Radiation in the Marine Environment (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Fournier, J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase functions for ocean water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 194–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ahmad, J. R. Herman, A. Vasilkov, M. Tzortziou, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, “Seasonal variation of UV radiation in the ocean under clear cloudy conditions,” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects, J. R. Slusser, J. R. Herman, W. Gao, eds., Proc. SPIE5156, 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Hojerslev, “Optical properties of sea water,” in Landolt-Bornstein Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, J. Sundermann, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986), pp. 263–281.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Downward irradiance at a depth of 4 m calculated for different wavelengths and SZAs: solid lines, 310 nm; dashed lines, 320 nm; plus signs, SZA = 15°; asterisks, SZA = 60°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Penetration depth calculated for different chlorophyll concentrations and SZAs: solid curves, C = 0.1 mg/m3; dashed curves, C = 1.0 mg/m3; plus signs, SZA = 15°; diamonds, SZA = 60°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the measured and calculated Kd averaged over a 10-m layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Percentage difference in the diffuse reflectance (solid curves) and the diffuse attenuation coefficient (dashed curves), as computed with the Petzold phase function and the FF phase function with a backscatter ratio of 0.003 (see the text for a definition of the difference): plus signs, 310 nm; diamonds, 380 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the measured reflectance at 380 nm with the reflectance computed for the Petzold (solid curve) and the FF (dashed curve) phase functions. A least-squares fit to the measured reflectance is shown by the solid line.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Regression Coefficients A(λ) and B(λ) and Correlation Coefficient r

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + a p ( λ ) + a CDOM ( λ ) , b ( λ ) = b w ( λ ) + b p ( λ ) ,
a CDOM ( λ ) = a 0 exp [ S ( λ λ 0 ) ] , b p ( λ ) = b 0 ( λ / λ 0 ) m .

Metrics