Abstract

Induced spatial incoherence (ISI) has been proposed for KrF laser drivers to achieve the high degree of spatial beam uniformity required for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Although ISI provides ultrasmooth illumination at the far field of the laser, where the target is located, it can still allow the beams in the quasi–near field to develop a time-averaged spatial structure. This speckle, which arises primarily from random-phase aberration, builds up as the laser beams propagate away from the pupil plane located at the final amplifier stage; it is distinct from any structure imposed by gain nonuniformities in the amplifiers. Because of the spatial incoherence, the speckle is significantly smaller than that experienced by coherent beams. Nevertheless, it remains a damage issue, especially for the long beam delay paths required in angularly multiplexed KrF lasers. We develop a novel algorithm for calculating the time-integrated intensities; compare simulations and measurements of the near-field speckle in the Nike KrF laser; and explore options, such as aberration reduction and optical relaying, for controlling the problem in future angularly multiplexed KrF drivers.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2000

1999

S. Skupsky, R. S. Craxton, “Irradiation uniformity for high-compression laser-fusion experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2157–2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Comparison between measured and calculated non-uniformities of Nike laser beams smoothed by induced spatial incoherence,” Opt. Commun. 147, 402–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy uniform focal profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Véron, G. Thiell, C. Gouédard, “Optical smoothing of the high power PHEBUS Nd-glass laser using the multimode optical fiber technique,” Opt. Commun. 97, 259–271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakano, K. Tsubakimoto, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, H. Azechi, T. Jitsuno, S. Nakei, “Spectrally dispersed amplified spontaneous emission for improving irradiation uniformity into high power Nd:glass laser system,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2122–2131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. H. Emery, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Hydrodynamic target response to an induced spatial incoherence-smoothed laser beam,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2640–2650 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. M. D. Lister, M. J. Shaw, C. J. Hooker, E. C. Harvey, “Uniform target illumination by induced spatial incoherence in a multiplexed KrF laser system,” Opt. Commun. 84, 55–60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. Véron, A. Ayral, C. Gouédard, D. Husson, J. Lauriou, O. Martin, B. Meyer, M. Rostaing, C. Sauteret, “Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-glass laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 65, 42–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, S. E. Bodner, “Theory of induced spatial incoherence,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2680–2701 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, J. Goldhar, “Use of incoherence to produce smooth and controllable irradiation profiles with KrF fusion lasers,” Fusion Technol. 11, 532–541 (1987).

1983

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Use of induced spatial incoherence for uniform illumination of laser fusion targets,” Opt. Commun. 46, 27–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1972

Aglitsky, Y.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Altas, R. A.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Altes, R. G.

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

Ayral, A.

D. Véron, A. Ayral, C. Gouédard, D. Husson, J. Lauriou, O. Martin, B. Meyer, M. Rostaing, C. Sauteret, “Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-glass laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 65, 42–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Azechi, H.

H. Nakano, K. Tsubakimoto, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, H. Azechi, T. Jitsuno, S. Nakei, “Spectrally dispersed amplified spontaneous emission for improving irradiation uniformity into high power Nd:glass laser system,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2122–2131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barr, O. C.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bell, J. A.

Bodner, S. E.

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, S. E. Bodner, “Theory of induced spatial incoherence,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2680–2701 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boehly, T. R.

Brown, C.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Colombart, D.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, P. A.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

Craxton, R. S.

S. Skupsky, R. S. Craxton, “Irradiation uniformity for high-compression laser-fusion experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2157–2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dahlburg, J. P.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

De, M.

Deniz, A. V.

A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Comparison between measured and calculated non-uniformities of Nike laser beams smoothed by induced spatial incoherence,” Opt. Commun. 147, 402–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy uniform focal profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, “Effects of random phase distortion and nonlinear optical processes on laser beam uniformity and spatial incoherence (ISI),” in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell, T. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE1870, 163–174 (1993).

Donaldson, W. R.

Emery, M. H.

M. H. Emery, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Hydrodynamic target response to an induced spatial incoherence-smoothed laser beam,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2640–2650 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).

Gardner, J. H.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Emery, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Hydrodynamic target response to an induced spatial incoherence-smoothed laser beam,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2640–2650 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, K.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, K. A.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy uniform focal profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Glendinning, S. G.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goldhar, J.

R. H. Lehmberg, J. Goldhar, “Use of incoherence to produce smooth and controllable irradiation profiles with KrF fusion lasers,” Fusion Technol. 11, 532–541 (1987).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

Gouédard, C.

D. Véron, G. Thiell, C. Gouédard, “Optical smoothing of the high power PHEBUS Nd-glass laser using the multimode optical fiber technique,” Opt. Commun. 97, 259–271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Véron, A. Ayral, C. Gouédard, D. Husson, J. Lauriou, O. Martin, B. Meyer, M. Rostaing, C. Sauteret, “Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-glass laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 65, 42–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Haan, S. W.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hammel, B. A.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hardgrove, J.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, E. C.

J. M. D. Lister, M. J. Shaw, C. J. Hooker, E. C. Harvey, “Uniform target illumination by induced spatial incoherence in a multiplexed KrF laser system,” Opt. Commun. 84, 55–60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, C. J.

J. M. D. Lister, M. J. Shaw, C. J. Hooker, E. C. Harvey, “Uniform target illumination by induced spatial incoherence in a multiplexed KrF laser system,” Opt. Commun. 84, 55–60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Husson, D.

D. Véron, A. Ayral, C. Gouédard, D. Husson, J. Lauriou, O. Martin, B. Meyer, M. Rostaing, C. Sauteret, “Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-glass laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 65, 42–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jaanimagi, P. A.

Jitsuno, T.

H. Nakano, K. Tsubakimoto, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, H. Azechi, T. Jitsuno, S. Nakei, “Spectrally dispersed amplified spontaneous emission for improving irradiation uniformity into high power Nd:glass laser system,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2122–2131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kanabe, T.

H. Nakano, K. Tsubakimoto, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, H. Azechi, T. Jitsuno, S. Nakei, “Spectrally dispersed amplified spontaneous emission for improving irradiation uniformity into high power Nd:glass laser system,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2122–2131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Keck, R. L.

Kelly, J. H.

Kessler, T.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, T. J.

Kilkenny, J. D.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klapisch, M.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, J. P.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lauriou, J.

D. Véron, A. Ayral, C. Gouédard, D. Husson, J. Lauriou, O. Martin, B. Meyer, M. Rostaing, C. Sauteret, “Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-glass laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 65, 42–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lehecka, T.

A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Comparison between measured and calculated non-uniformities of Nike laser beams smoothed by induced spatial incoherence,” Opt. Commun. 147, 402–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy uniform focal profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, “Effects of random phase distortion and nonlinear optical processes on laser beam uniformity and spatial incoherence (ISI),” in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell, T. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE1870, 163–174 (1993).

Lehmberg, R. H.

A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Comparison between measured and calculated non-uniformities of Nike laser beams smoothed by induced spatial incoherence,” Opt. Commun. 147, 402–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy uniform focal profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Emery, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Hydrodynamic target response to an induced spatial incoherence-smoothed laser beam,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2640–2650 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, J. Goldhar, “Use of incoherence to produce smooth and controllable irradiation profiles with KrF fusion lasers,” Fusion Technol. 11, 532–541 (1987).

R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, S. E. Bodner, “Theory of induced spatial incoherence,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2680–2701 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Use of induced spatial incoherence for uniform illumination of laser fusion targets,” Opt. Commun. 46, 27–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, “Effects of random phase distortion and nonlinear optical processes on laser beam uniformity and spatial incoherence (ISI),” in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell, T. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE1870, 163–174 (1993).

Letzring, S.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, D. F.

D. F. Lewis, “A processless film for recording electron beam radiation,” In Hard Copy Output, L. Beiser, S. L. Corsover, J. M. Fleischer, V. S. Mihajlov, K. Shimazu, eds., Proc. SPIE, 1079, 162–169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lindl, J. D.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lister, J. M. D.

J. M. D. Lister, M. J. Shaw, C. J. Hooker, E. C. Harvey, “Uniform target illumination by induced spatial incoherence in a multiplexed KrF laser system,” Opt. Commun. 84, 55–60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O.

D. Véron, A. Ayral, C. Gouédard, D. Husson, J. Lauriou, O. Martin, B. Meyer, M. Rostaing, C. Sauteret, “Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-glass laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 65, 42–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mazoras, J. A.

McGeoch, M. W.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

McLean, E. A.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metzler, N.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, B.

D. Véron, A. Ayral, C. Gouédard, D. Husson, J. Lauriou, O. Martin, B. Meyer, M. Rostaing, C. Sauteret, “Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-glass laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 65, 42–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

Miyanaga, N.

H. Nakano, K. Tsubakimoto, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, H. Azechi, T. Jitsuno, S. Nakei, “Spectrally dispersed amplified spontaneous emission for improving irradiation uniformity into high power Nd:glass laser system,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2122–2131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mostovych, A. N.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Munro, D.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

H. Nakano, K. Tsubakimoto, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, H. Azechi, T. Jitsuno, S. Nakei, “Spectrally dispersed amplified spontaneous emission for improving irradiation uniformity into high power Nd:glass laser system,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2122–2131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

H. Nakano, K. Tsubakimoto, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, H. Azechi, T. Jitsuno, S. Nakei, “Spectrally dispersed amplified spontaneous emission for improving irradiation uniformity into high power Nd:glass laser system,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2122–2131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakei, S.

H. Nakano, K. Tsubakimoto, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, H. Azechi, T. Jitsuno, S. Nakei, “Spectrally dispersed amplified spontaneous emission for improving irradiation uniformity into high power Nd:glass laser system,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2122–2131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Obenschain, S. P.

A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Comparison between measured and calculated non-uniformities of Nike laser beams smoothed by induced spatial incoherence,” Opt. Commun. 147, 402–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy uniform focal profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Emery, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Hydrodynamic target response to an induced spatial incoherence-smoothed laser beam,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2640–2650 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Use of induced spatial incoherence for uniform illumination of laser fusion targets,” Opt. Commun. 46, 27–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, “Effects of random phase distortion and nonlinear optical processes on laser beam uniformity and spatial incoherence (ISI),” in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell, T. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE1870, 163–174 (1993).

Pawley, C. J.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy uniform focal profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, “Effects of random phase distortion and nonlinear optical processes on laser beam uniformity and spatial incoherence (ISI),” in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell, T. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE1870, 163–174 (1993).

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).

Pronko, M. S.

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy uniform focal profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, “Effects of random phase distortion and nonlinear optical processes on laser beam uniformity and spatial incoherence (ISI),” in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell, T. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE1870, 163–174 (1993).

Regan, S. P.

Remington, B. A.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rostaing, M.

D. Véron, A. Ayral, C. Gouédard, D. Husson, J. Lauriou, O. Martin, B. Meyer, M. Rostaing, C. Sauteret, “Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-glass laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 65, 42–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

D. Véron, A. Ayral, C. Gouédard, D. Husson, J. Lauriou, O. Martin, B. Meyer, M. Rostaing, C. Sauteret, “Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-glass laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 65, 42–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, A. J.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, S. E. Bodner, “Theory of induced spatial incoherence,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2680–2701 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seka, W.

Serlin, V.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sethian, J. D.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, M. J.

J. M. D. Lister, M. J. Shaw, C. J. Hooker, E. C. Harvey, “Uniform target illumination by induced spatial incoherence in a multiplexed KrF laser system,” Opt. Commun. 84, 55–60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Short, R. W.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Skupsky, S.

S. P. Regan, J. A. Mazoras, J. H. Kelly, T. R. Boehly, W. R. Donaldson, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, T. J. Kessler, D. D. Meyerhofer, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, “Experimental investigation of smoothing by spectral dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1483–1489 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupsky, R. S. Craxton, “Irradiation uniformity for high-compression laser-fusion experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2157–2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smalyuk, V. A.

Smith, I. D.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

Soures, J. M.

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stamper, J. A.

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steel, W. H.

Sullivan, C. A.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy uniform focal profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).

Thiell, G.

D. Véron, G. Thiell, C. Gouédard, “Optical smoothing of the high power PHEBUS Nd-glass laser using the multimode optical fiber technique,” Opt. Commun. 97, 259–271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B. J.

B. J. Thompson, “Image formation with partially coherent light,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1969), Vol. 7, pp. 169–191.
[CrossRef]

Tsubakimoto, K.

H. Nakano, K. Tsubakimoto, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, H. Azechi, T. Jitsuno, S. Nakei, “Spectrally dispersed amplified spontaneous emission for improving irradiation uniformity into high power Nd:glass laser system,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2122–2131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Verdon, C. P.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Véron, D.

D. Véron, G. Thiell, C. Gouédard, “Optical smoothing of the high power PHEBUS Nd-glass laser using the multimode optical fiber technique,” Opt. Commun. 97, 259–271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Véron, A. Ayral, C. Gouédard, D. Husson, J. Lauriou, O. Martin, B. Meyer, M. Rostaing, C. Sauteret, “Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-glass laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 65, 42–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).

Weber, S. V.

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Webster, W.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fusion Technol.

R. H. Lehmberg, J. Goldhar, “Use of incoherence to produce smooth and controllable irradiation profiles with KrF fusion lasers,” Fusion Technol. 11, 532–541 (1987).

M. W. McGeoch, P. A. Corcoran, R. G. Altes, I. D. Smith, S. E. Bodner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, “Conceptual design of a 2-MJ KrF laser fusion facility,” Fusion Technol. 32, 610–643 (1997).

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Nakano, K. Tsubakimoto, N. Miyanaga, M. Nakatsuka, T. Kanabe, H. Azechi, T. Jitsuno, S. Nakei, “Spectrally dispersed amplified spontaneous emission for improving irradiation uniformity into high power Nd:glass laser system,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 2122–2131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, A. J. Schmitt, S. E. Bodner, “Theory of induced spatial incoherence,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2680–2701 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupsky, R. W. Short, T. Kessler, R. S. Craxton, S. Letzring, J. M. Soures, “Improved laser-beam uniformity using the angular dispersion of frequency-modulated light,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3456–3462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

D. Véron, A. Ayral, C. Gouédard, D. Husson, J. Lauriou, O. Martin, B. Meyer, M. Rostaing, C. Sauteret, “Optical spatial smoothing of Nd-glass laser beam,” Opt. Commun. 65, 42–46 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Véron, G. Thiell, C. Gouédard, “Optical smoothing of the high power PHEBUS Nd-glass laser using the multimode optical fiber technique,” Opt. Commun. 97, 259–271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Use of induced spatial incoherence for uniform illumination of laser fusion targets,” Opt. Commun. 46, 27–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. M. D. Lister, M. J. Shaw, C. J. Hooker, E. C. Harvey, “Uniform target illumination by induced spatial incoherence in a multiplexed KrF laser system,” Opt. Commun. 84, 55–60 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, A. V. Deniz, K. A. Gerber, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, C. A. Sullivan, “Production of high energy uniform focal profiles with the Nike laser,” Opt. Commun. 117, 485–491 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Comparison between measured and calculated non-uniformities of Nike laser beams smoothed by induced spatial incoherence,” Opt. Commun. 147, 402–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids B

M. H. Emery, J. H. Gardner, R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, “Hydrodynamic target response to an induced spatial incoherence-smoothed laser beam,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2640–2650 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas

J. D. Kilkenny, S. G. Glendinning, S. W. Haan, B. A. Hammel, J. D. Lindl, D. Munro, B. A. Remington, S. V. Weber, J. P. Knauer, C. P. Verdon, “A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1379–1389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, M. S. Pronko, C. J. Pawley, A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, J. P. Dahlburg, J. H. Gardner, Y. Chan, A. V. Deniz, J. Hardgrove, T. Lehecka, M. Klapisch, “The Nike laser facility: performance and initial target experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098–2107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Pawley, K. Gerber, R. H. Lehmberg, E. A. McLean, A. N. Mostovych, S. P. Obenschain, J. D. Sethian, V. Serlin, J. A. Stamper, C. A. Sullivan, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombart, J. P. Dahlburg, A. J. Schmitt, J. H. Gardner, C. Brown, J. F. Seely, T. Lehecka, Y. Aglitsky, A. V. Deniz, Y. Chan, N. Metzler, M. Klapisch, “Measurements of laser-imprinted perturbations and Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Nike laser,” Phys. Plasmas 4, 1969–1977 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Skupsky, R. S. Craxton, “Irradiation uniformity for high-compression laser-fusion experiments,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2157–2163 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain, K. A. Gerber, C. J. Pawley, V. Serlin, C. A. Sullivan, W. Webster, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, M. W. McGeoch, R. A. Altas, P. A. Corcoran, I. D. Smith, O. C. Barr, “Large area electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser amplifier,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2357–2366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. H. Lehmberg, S. P. Obenschain, C. J. Pawley, M. S. Pronko, A. V. Deniz, T. Lehecka, “Effects of random phase distortion and nonlinear optical processes on laser beam uniformity and spatial incoherence (ISI),” in Laser Coherence Control: Technology and Applications, H. T. Powell, T. Kessler, eds., Proc. SPIE1870, 163–174 (1993).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

B. J. Thompson, “Image formation with partially coherent light,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1969), Vol. 7, pp. 169–191.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

D. F. Lewis, “A processless film for recording electron beam radiation,” In Hard Copy Output, L. Beiser, S. L. Corsover, J. M. Fleischer, V. S. Mihajlov, K. Shimazu, eds., Proc. SPIE, 1079, 162–169 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nike amplifier staging and angularly multiplexed optical system. The object aperture is uniformly illuminated by spatially and temporally incoherent light, then imaged onto the target through the amplifier system. The beams overlap at the amplifiers, which are placed at or near images of the object's Fourier-transform (pupil) plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of one beam of the Nike optical system starting at the 60-cm amplifier (aperture stop A), converging to the recol-limating mirror C, then propagating along delay path zCL = zCM + zML to focusing lens L. The wavy line at A represents the random phase of complex transmission TA(x). The amplifier is double passed, so the large lens represents a concave mirror. The dotted lines near C and L illustrate the placement of the film packs where the beam 10 profiles were measured.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulations of the point-spread function and ISI focal profile of the Nike laser, assuming a 75-XDL-wide top-hat object profile, a uniformly illuminated 60-cm amplifier, and a random-phase aberration of λ/4 rms amplitude and ∼15-XDL point-spread width.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of ISI far-field and near-field intensities averaged over 8000 coherence times (thin curves) with envelope intensities (heavy curves). In these simulations, the object fluence is a 32-XDL-wide top-hat profile and the random-phase aberration is modeled by ∼7-XDL point-spread width.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photochromatic film images and calibrated lineouts at the Nike laser recollimator mirror array and target chamber windows: (a) beam 10 at the recollimator mirror and (b) beams 38 and (c) 10, respectively, at the target chamber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulations of ISI intensity envelope images and lineouts at the Nike laser recollimator array and target chamber windows: (a) beam 10 (or 38) at the recollimator mirror and (b) beams 38 and (c) 10, respectively, at the target chamber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

One-dimensional mode spectra of measured (solid curves) and simulated (dashed curves) near-field fluence structure at the Nike laser recollimator array and target chamber windows: (a) beam 10 recollimator mirror and (b) beams 38 and (c) 10, respectively, at the target chamber. The measured data have larger statistical variations because they average over fewer horizontal lines.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulations of coherent intensity images and lineouts at (a) the recollimator mirror and (b) the target chamber window of Nike beam 10. (Note the extended ordinate scale in the lineouts, compared with Figs. 57.)

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic of an alternate ISI optical system at and beyond the final aperture stop A, showing the beam focusing before the recollimating mirror C, propagating through the first amplifier image plane I1 to a 1:1 relay telescope beginning at R1, and producing a second amplifier image plane I2 before the final focusing lens.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Figs. 6(a) and 6(b), except that the point-spread width is 8 XDL instead of 15 XDL.

Equations (29)

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E E ( x E ) = ( λ f E ) 1 F [ E O , x E / ( λ f E ) ] ,
F ( E , ± x ) E ( ξ ) exp ( ± i 2 π ξ · x ) d 2 ξ
T A ( x A ) A ( x A ) [ G ( x A ) ] 1 / 2 exp [ i ϕ ( x A ) ] ,
E A ( x A ) T A ( x A ) E A ( x A ) = T A ( x A ) E E ( x A / M E A ) / M E A .
X A x A / D A , X O x O / d O .
E A ( X A ) = F A E O ( X O ) exp ( i 2 π X A · X O ) d 2 X O = F A F ( E O X A ) ,
| f C | / f A = D C / D A , | f C | + z A C = f A .
E C ( X C ) = D A 2 λ z A C exp ( i π | D C X C | 2 λ | f C | ) × E A ( X A ) exp ( i π | D A X A | 2 λ f A ) × exp ( i π λ z A C | D C X C D A X A | 2 ) d 2 X A = 1 M A C Z A C E A ( X A ) exp ( i π Z A C | X C X A | 2 ) d 2 X A ,
E L ( X L ) = 1 Z C L E C ( X C ) exp ( i π Z C L | X L X C | 2 ) d 2 X C ,
E L ( X L ) = 1 M A C Z A L E A ( X A ) × exp ( i π Z A L | X L X A | 2 ) d 2 X A ,
E F ( X F ) = ( 1 / F L ) exp ( i π F L | X F | 2 ) F ( E L X F ) ,
E F ( X F ) = ( 1 / M A C F L ) exp [ i π ( F L Z A L ) | X F | 2 ] × F ( E A , X F ) .
L ( β ) = ( M A C ) 1 A ( β ) exp ( i π Z A L | β | 2 ) .
Γ A ( X A , X A ) E A ( X A ) E A * ( X A ) = T A ( X A ) T A * ( X A ) Γ A ( X A , X A ) ,
Γ A ( X A , X A ) = F A 2 Γ O ( X O , X O ) exp [ i 2 π ( X A · X O X A · X O ) ] d 2 X O d 2 X O .
Γ A ( X A X A ) = F A 2 F [ I O , ( X A X A ) ] .
I ( X ) = Γ A ( X A , X A ) T A ( X A ) K ( X , X A ) T A * ( X A ) × K * ( X , X A ) d 2 X A d 2 X A = I O ( X O ) | F A T A ( X A ) K ( X , X A ) × exp ( i 2 π X A · X O ) d 2 X A | 2 d 2 X O ,
K F ( X F , X A ) ( M A C F L ) 1 exp ( i 2 π X F · X A ) ,
K L ( X L , X A ) ( M A C Z A L ) 1 exp ( i π Z A L 1 | X L X A | 2 ) .
I F ( X F ) = I O ( X O ) S F ( X F + X O ) d 2 X O ,
I L ( X L ) = I O ( X O ) S L ( X L + Z A L X O ) d 2 X O ,
S F ( X ) | ( C / F L ) F ( T A , X ) | 2 ,
S L ( X ) | C Z A L T A ( X A ) exp ( i π Z A L | X X A | 2 ) d 2 X A | 2 ,
S L ( X ) = | C T L ( β ) exp ( i 2 π X · β ) d 2 β | 2 = | C F ( T L , X ) | 2 ,
Ĩ F ( β ) = F ( I O , + β ) F ( S F , β ) = F A 2 Γ A ( β ) F ( S F , β ) ,
Ĩ L ( β ) = F ( I O , + Z A L β ) F ( S L , β ) = F A 2 Γ A ( Z A L β ) F ( S L , β ) .
l ( X A , X L ) z A C + z C L + ( 2 π / λ ) 1 × ( π / Z A L ) | X L X A | 2 ,
Z AL 1 | | X L X A | 2 | X L X A | 2 | < 2 ν 0 / Δ ν ,
Z A L > ( 2 N F ) 2 Δ ν / ν 0 ,

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