We propose a new recursive filtering algorithm for wave-front reconstruction in a large-scale adaptive optics system. An embedding step is used in this recursive filtering algorithm to permit fast methods to be used for wave-front reconstruction on an annular aperture. This embedding step can be used alone with a direct residual error updating procedure or used with the preconditioned conjugate-gradient method as a preconditioning step. We derive the Hudgin and Fried filters for spectral-domain filtering, using the eigenvalue decomposition method. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compare the performance of discrete Fourier transform domain filtering, discrete cosine transform domain filtering, multigrid, and alternative-direction-implicit methods in the embedding step of the recursive filtering algorithm. We also simulate the performance of this recursive filtering in a closed-loop adaptive optics system.
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