Abstract

A radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere–sea ice system is used to study the change in downward irradiance across the air–ice interface. Computations demonstrate that the downward solar irradiance can be significantly enhanced across the air–ice interface. The enhancement is mainly due to light in the ice that is scattered upward and then totally reflected by the air–ice interface. It depends primarily on the change in the index of refraction across this interface and the optical properties of the sea ice, but also on the direct solar and sky illumination of the interface.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  46. D. K. Perovich, “Light reflection from sea ice during the onset of melt,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3351–3359 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  49. G. F. Cota, R. E. H. Smith, “Ecology of bottom ice algae: II. Dynamics, distribution and productivity,” J. Mar. Syst. 2, 279–295 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  50. C. W. Sullivan, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, S. M. Grossi, R. L. Moe, G. T. Taylor, “The influence of light on development and growth of sea-ice microbial communities in McMurdo Sound,” Antarct. J. U.S. 18, 100–102 (1983).
  51. G. F. Cota, E. P. W. Horne, “Physical control of arctic ice algal production,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 52, 111–121 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2003

2002

B. Yan, K. Stamnes, M. Toratani, W. Li, J. J. Stamnes, “Evaluation of a reflectance model used in the SeaWiFS ocean color algorithm: implication for chlorophyll concentration retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6243–6259 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Cockell, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, D. D. Wynn-Williams, K. Scherer, A. Gugg-Helminger, “Influence of ice and snow covers on the UV exposure of terrestrial microbial communities: dosimetric studies,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 68, 23–32 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

F. Fell, J. Fischer, “Numerical simulation of the light field in the atmosphere-ocean system using the matrix-operator method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 351–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, I. Laszlo, “DISORT, a general-purpose Fortran program for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in scattering and emitting layered media: documentation of methodology,” available from ftp://climatel.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiscombe/Multiple_Scatt/ (2000).

1999

Z. Jin, J. J. Simpson, “Birectional anisotropic reflectance of snow and sea ice in AVHRR channel 1 and 2 spectral regions. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 543–554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Mobley, G. Cota, T. Grenfell, R. Maffione, W. Pegau, D. Perovich, “Modeling light propagation in sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1743–1749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380-700) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Robineau, L. Legendre, M. Kishino, S. Kudoh, “Horizontal heterogeneity of microalgal biomass in the first-year sea ice of Saroma-ko Lagoon (Hokkaido, Japan),” J. Mar. Syst. 11, 81–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. K. Perovich, A. J. Gow, “A quantitative description of sea ice inclusions,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18327–18343 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere–ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, W. F. Weeks, S.-C. Tsay, “The effect of sea ice on the solar energy budget in the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system: a model study,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25281–25294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Perovich, “Light reflection from sea ice during the onset of melt,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3351–3359 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Arrigo, J. N. Kremer, C. W. Sullivan, “A simulated Antarctic fast ecosystem,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 6929–6946 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Perovich, G. F. Cota, G. A. Maykut, T. C. Grenfell, “Bio-optical observations of first-year arctic sea ice,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1059–1062 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6, 728–742 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. C. Grenfell, “A radiative transfer model for sea ice with vertical structure variations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 16991–17002 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceangr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cota, R. E. H. Smith, “Ecology of bottom ice algae: II. Dynamics, distribution and productivity,” J. Mar. Syst. 2, 279–295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

S.-C. Tsay, K. Stamnes, K. Jayaweera, “Radiative energy budget in the cloudy and hazy arctic,” J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 1002–1018 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cota, E. P. W. Horne, “Physical control of arctic ice algal production,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 52, 111–121 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Welch, M. A. Bergmann, “Seasonal development of ice algae and its prediction from environmental factors near Resolute, N. W. T., Canada,” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46, 1793–1799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolet, “Solar spectral irradiance with their diversity between 120 and 900 nm,” Planet. Space Sci. 37, 1249–1289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

J. B. Soo Hoo, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, M. P. Lizotte, S. L. Soo Hoo, C. W. Sullivan, “Spectral light absorption and quantum yield of photosynthesis in sea ice microalgae and bloom of Phaeocystis Pouchetii from McMurdo Sound, Antarctic,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 39, 175–189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

S. G. Warren, “Optical constants of ice from the ultraviolet to the microwave,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1206–1225 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Herman, J. Curry, “Observational and theoretical studies of solar radiation in arctic status clouds,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 5–24 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Tsay, K. Jayaweera, “Physical characteristics of Arctic stratus clouds,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 584–596 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, D. K. Perovich, “Spectral albedos of sea ice and incident solar irradiance in the southern Beaufort Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 3573–3580 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

C. W. Sullivan, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, S. M. Grossi, R. L. Moe, G. T. Taylor, “The influence of light on development and growth of sea-ice microbial communities in McMurdo Sound,” Antarct. J. U.S. 18, 100–102 (1983).

G. F. N. Cox, W. F. Weeks, “Equations for determining the gas and brine volume in sea ice samples,” J. Glaciol. 29, 306–316 (1983).

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

1941

L. G. Henyey, J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110 (OPI) (Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Arrigo, K. L.

K. L. Arrigo, J. N. Kremer, C. W. Sullivan, “A simulated Antarctic fast ecosystem,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 6929–6946 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

Barber, D. G.

K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A.

Bergmann, M. A.

H. E. Welch, M. A. Bergmann, “Seasonal development of ice algae and its prediction from environmental factors near Resolute, N. W. T., Canada,” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46, 1793–1799 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110 (OPI) (Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Clough, S. A.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110 (OPI) (Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Cockell, C. S.

C. S. Cockell, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, D. D. Wynn-Williams, K. Scherer, A. Gugg-Helminger, “Influence of ice and snow covers on the UV exposure of terrestrial microbial communities: dosimetric studies,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 68, 23–32 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cota, G.

C. Mobley, G. Cota, T. Grenfell, R. Maffione, W. Pegau, D. Perovich, “Modeling light propagation in sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1743–1749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cota, G. F.

D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Perovich, G. F. Cota, G. A. Maykut, T. C. Grenfell, “Bio-optical observations of first-year arctic sea ice,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1059–1062 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cota, R. E. H. Smith, “Ecology of bottom ice algae: II. Dynamics, distribution and productivity,” J. Mar. Syst. 2, 279–295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cota, E. P. W. Horne, “Physical control of arctic ice algal production,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 52, 111–121 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cox, G. F. N.

G. F. N. Cox, W. F. Weeks, “Equations for determining the gas and brine volume in sea ice samples,” J. Glaciol. 29, 306–316 (1983).

Curry, J.

G. F. Herman, J. Curry, “Observational and theoretical studies of solar radiation in arctic status clouds,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 5–24 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Eide, H.

Fell, F.

F. Fell, J. Fischer, “Numerical simulation of the light field in the atmosphere-ocean system using the matrix-operator method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 351–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of atmospheric aerosols and their optical properties,” in Optical Propagation in the Atmosphere, AGARD-CP-183 (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1976).

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” AFCRL Rep. AFCRL-72-0497 (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Fischer, J.

F. Fell, J. Fischer, “Numerical simulation of the light field in the atmosphere-ocean system using the matrix-operator method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 351–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Gallegos, C.

R. Stavn, R. Schiebe, C. Gallegos, “Optical control on the radiant energy dynamics of the air/water interface: the average cosine and the absorption coefficient,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE489, 62–67 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” AFCRL Rep. AFCRL-72-0497 (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Gentili, B.

Gjerstad, K. I.

Gogineni, P.

K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Golden, K. M.

K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, “Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery: a review,” in Lecture Notes on Coastal on Estuarine Studies, R. T. Barbers, N. K. Mooers, M. J. Bowman, B. Zeitzschel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), Vol. 4.
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D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
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D. K. Perovich, A. J. Gow, “A quantitative description of sea ice inclusions,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18327–18343 (1996).
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L. G. Henyey, J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
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C. Mobley, G. Cota, T. Grenfell, R. Maffione, W. Pegau, D. Perovich, “Modeling light propagation in sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1743–1749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Perovich, G. F. Cota, G. A. Maykut, T. C. Grenfell, “Bio-optical observations of first-year arctic sea ice,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1059–1062 (1993).
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T. C. Grenfell, “A radiative transfer model for sea ice with vertical structure variations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 16991–17002 (1991).
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T. C. Grenfell, D. K. Perovich, “Spectral albedos of sea ice and incident solar irradiance in the southern Beaufort Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 3573–3580 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, D. K. Perovich, “Radiation absorption coefficients of polycrystalline ice from 400 to 1400 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7447–7450 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Grossi, S. M.

C. W. Sullivan, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, S. M. Grossi, R. L. Moe, G. T. Taylor, “The influence of light on development and growth of sea-ice microbial communities in McMurdo Sound,” Antarct. J. U.S. 18, 100–102 (1983).

Gugg-Helminger, A.

C. S. Cockell, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, D. D. Wynn-Williams, K. Scherer, A. Gugg-Helminger, “Influence of ice and snow covers on the UV exposure of terrestrial microbial communities: dosimetric studies,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 68, 23–32 (2002).
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Hamre, B.

Henyey, L. G.

L. G. Henyey, J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
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G. F. Herman, J. Curry, “Observational and theoretical studies of solar radiation in arctic status clouds,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 5–24 (1984).
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G. F. Cota, E. P. W. Horne, “Physical control of arctic ice algal production,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 52, 111–121 (1989).
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C. S. Cockell, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, D. D. Wynn-Williams, K. Scherer, A. Gugg-Helminger, “Influence of ice and snow covers on the UV exposure of terrestrial microbial communities: dosimetric studies,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 68, 23–32 (2002).
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Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, “An accurate parameterization of the radiative properties of water clouds suitable for use in climate models,” J. Clim. 6, 728–742 (1993).
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S.-C. Tsay, K. Stamnes, K. Jayaweera, “Radiative energy budget in the cloudy and hazy arctic,” J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 1002–1018 (1989).
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K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
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S.-C. Tsay, K. Jayaweera, “Physical characteristics of Arctic stratus clouds,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 23, 584–596 (1984).
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K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Z. Jin, J. J. Simpson, “Birectional anisotropic reflectance of snow and sea ice in AVHRR channel 1 and 2 spectral regions. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 543–554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere–ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, W. F. Weeks, S.-C. Tsay, “The effect of sea ice on the solar energy budget in the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system: a model study,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25281–25294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, A. K.

K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
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Kattawar, G.

Kishino, M.

B. Robineau, L. Legendre, M. Kishino, S. Kudoh, “Horizontal heterogeneity of microalgal biomass in the first-year sea ice of Saroma-ko Lagoon (Hokkaido, Japan),” J. Mar. Syst. 11, 81–91 (1997).
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G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110 (OPI) (Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Kottmeier, S. T.

J. B. Soo Hoo, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, M. P. Lizotte, S. L. Soo Hoo, C. W. Sullivan, “Spectral light absorption and quantum yield of photosynthesis in sea ice microalgae and bloom of Phaeocystis Pouchetii from McMurdo Sound, Antarctic,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 39, 175–189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Sullivan, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, S. M. Grossi, R. L. Moe, G. T. Taylor, “The influence of light on development and growth of sea-ice microbial communities in McMurdo Sound,” Antarct. J. U.S. 18, 100–102 (1983).

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K. L. Arrigo, J. N. Kremer, C. W. Sullivan, “A simulated Antarctic fast ecosystem,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 6929–6946 (1993).
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B. Robineau, L. Legendre, M. Kishino, S. Kudoh, “Horizontal heterogeneity of microalgal biomass in the first-year sea ice of Saroma-ko Lagoon (Hokkaido, Japan),” J. Mar. Syst. 11, 81–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Landry, M.

D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laszlo, I.

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, I. Laszlo, “DISORT, a general-purpose Fortran program for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in scattering and emitting layered media: documentation of methodology,” available from ftp://climatel.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiscombe/Multiple_Scatt/ (2000).

Legendre, L.

B. Robineau, L. Legendre, M. Kishino, S. Kudoh, “Horizontal heterogeneity of microalgal biomass in the first-year sea ice of Saroma-ko Lagoon (Hokkaido, Japan),” J. Mar. Syst. 11, 81–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Light, B.

Lizotte, M. P.

J. B. Soo Hoo, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, M. P. Lizotte, S. L. Soo Hoo, C. W. Sullivan, “Spectral light absorption and quantum yield of photosynthesis in sea ice microalgae and bloom of Phaeocystis Pouchetii from McMurdo Sound, Antarctic,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 39, 175–189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Longacre, J.

D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
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Lotsberg, J. K.

Luther, C.

K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maffione, R.

D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Mobley, G. Cota, T. Grenfell, R. Maffione, W. Pegau, D. Perovich, “Modeling light propagation in sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1743–1749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
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G. A. Maykut, B. Light, “Refractive-index measurements in freezing sea-ice and sodium chloride brines,” Appl. Opt. 34, 950–961 (1995).
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D. K. Perovich, G. F. Cota, G. A. Maykut, T. C. Grenfell, “Bio-optical observations of first-year arctic sea ice,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1059–1062 (1993).
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McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” AFCRL Rep. AFCRL-72-0497 (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Mobley, C.

C. Mobley, G. Cota, T. Grenfell, R. Maffione, W. Pegau, D. Perovich, “Modeling light propagation in sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1743–1749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mobley, C. D.

D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
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C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

Moe, R. L.

C. W. Sullivan, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, S. M. Grossi, R. L. Moe, G. T. Taylor, “The influence of light on development and growth of sea-ice microbial communities in McMurdo Sound,” Antarct. J. U.S. 18, 100–102 (1983).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
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A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceangr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
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H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, “Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery: a review,” in Lecture Notes on Coastal on Estuarine Studies, R. T. Barbers, N. K. Mooers, M. J. Bowman, B. Zeitzschel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), Vol. 4.
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T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537 (1983).
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K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
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M. Nicolet, “Solar spectral irradiance with their diversity between 120 and 900 nm,” Planet. Space Sci. 37, 1249–1289 (1989).
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D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Palmisano, A. C.

J. B. Soo Hoo, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, M. P. Lizotte, S. L. Soo Hoo, C. W. Sullivan, “Spectral light absorption and quantum yield of photosynthesis in sea ice microalgae and bloom of Phaeocystis Pouchetii from McMurdo Sound, Antarctic,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 39, 175–189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Sullivan, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, S. M. Grossi, R. L. Moe, G. T. Taylor, “The influence of light on development and growth of sea-ice microbial communities in McMurdo Sound,” Antarct. J. U.S. 18, 100–102 (1983).

C. W. Sullivan, A. C. Palmisano, J. B. Soo Hoo, “Influence of sea ice biota on downwelling irradiance and spectral composition of light in McMurdo Sound,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE489, 159–165 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W.

C. Mobley, G. Cota, T. Grenfell, R. Maffione, W. Pegau, D. Perovich, “Modeling light propagation in sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1743–1749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Yan, H. Eide, A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. J. Stamnes, “Accurate and self-consistent ocean color algorithm: simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical properties and chlorophyll concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 939–951 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perovich, D.

C. Mobley, G. Cota, T. Grenfell, R. Maffione, W. Pegau, D. Perovich, “Modeling light propagation in sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1743–1749 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perovich, D. K.

D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Jezek, D. K. Perovich, K. M. Golden, C. Luther, D. G. Barber, P. Gogineni, T. C. Grenfell, A. K. Jordan, C. D. Mobley, S. V. Nghiem, R. G. Onstott, “A broad spectral, interdisciplinary investigation of the electromagnetic properties of sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1633–1641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Perovich, A. J. Gow, “A quantitative description of sea ice inclusions,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18327–18343 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Perovich, “Light reflection from sea ice during the onset of melt,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3351–3359 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Perovich, G. F. Cota, G. A. Maykut, T. C. Grenfell, “Bio-optical observations of first-year arctic sea ice,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1059–1062 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, D. K. Perovich, “Spectral albedos of sea ice and incident solar irradiance in the southern Beaufort Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 3573–3580 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, D. K. Perovich, “Radiation absorption coefficients of polycrystalline ice from 400 to 1400 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7447–7450 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

Pope, R. M.

Reinersman, P.

Rettberg, P.

C. S. Cockell, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, D. D. Wynn-Williams, K. Scherer, A. Gugg-Helminger, “Influence of ice and snow covers on the UV exposure of terrestrial microbial communities: dosimetric studies,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 68, 23–32 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robineau, B.

B. Robineau, L. Legendre, M. Kishino, S. Kudoh, “Horizontal heterogeneity of microalgal biomass in the first-year sea ice of Saroma-ko Lagoon (Hokkaido, Japan),” J. Mar. Syst. 11, 81–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

D. K. Perovich, J. Longacre, D. G. Barber, R. Maffione, G. F. Cota, C. D. Mobley, A. J. Gow, R. G. Onstott, T. C. Grenfell, W. S. Pegau, M. Landry, C. S. Roesler, “Field observations of the electromagnetic properties of first-year sea ice,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1705–1715 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, K.

C. S. Cockell, P. Rettberg, G. Horneck, D. D. Wynn-Williams, K. Scherer, A. Gugg-Helminger, “Influence of ice and snow covers on the UV exposure of terrestrial microbial communities: dosimetric studies,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 68, 23–32 (2002).
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Schiebe, R.

R. Stavn, R. Schiebe, C. Gallegos, “Optical control on the radiant energy dynamics of the air/water interface: the average cosine and the absorption coefficient,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE489, 62–67 (1984).
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Selby, J. E. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” AFCRL Rep. AFCRL-72-0497 (U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., 1972).

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of atmospheric aerosols and their optical properties,” in Optical Propagation in the Atmosphere, AGARD-CP-183 (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1976).

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” AFGL-TR-86-0110 (OPI) (Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Simpson, J. J.

Z. Jin, J. J. Simpson, “Birectional anisotropic reflectance of snow and sea ice in AVHRR channel 1 and 2 spectral regions. Part I: theoretical analysis,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 543–554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Smith, R. E. H.

G. F. Cota, R. E. H. Smith, “Ecology of bottom ice algae: II. Dynamics, distribution and productivity,” J. Mar. Syst. 2, 279–295 (1991).
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Soo Hoo, J. B.

J. B. Soo Hoo, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, M. P. Lizotte, S. L. Soo Hoo, C. W. Sullivan, “Spectral light absorption and quantum yield of photosynthesis in sea ice microalgae and bloom of Phaeocystis Pouchetii from McMurdo Sound, Antarctic,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 39, 175–189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Sullivan, A. C. Palmisano, J. B. Soo Hoo, “Influence of sea ice biota on downwelling irradiance and spectral composition of light in McMurdo Sound,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE489, 159–165 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Soo Hoo, S. L.

J. B. Soo Hoo, A. C. Palmisano, S. T. Kottmeier, M. P. Lizotte, S. L. Soo Hoo, C. W. Sullivan, “Spectral light absorption and quantum yield of photosynthesis in sea ice microalgae and bloom of Phaeocystis Pouchetii from McMurdo Sound, Antarctic,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 39, 175–189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, J. J.

Stamnes, K.

K. Stamnes, W. Li, B. Yan, H. Eide, A. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. J. Stamnes, “Accurate and self-consistent ocean color algorithm: simultaneous retrieval of aerosol optical properties and chlorophyll concentrations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 939–951 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Gjerstad, J. J. Stamnes, B. Hamre, J. K. Lotsberg, B. Yan, K. Stamnes, “Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2609–2622 (2003).
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B. Yan, K. Stamnes, M. Toratani, W. Li, J. J. Stamnes, “Evaluation of a reflectance model used in the SeaWiFS ocean color algorithm: implication for chlorophyll concentration retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6243–6259 (2002).
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K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, I. Laszlo, “DISORT, a general-purpose Fortran program for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in scattering and emitting layered media: documentation of methodology,” available from ftp://climatel.gsfc.nasa.gov/wiscombe/Multiple_Scatt/ (2000).

Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere–ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of the air–water system. Light in the water within region I will be totally reflected when striking the interface. Multiple scattering by inclusions in the ice gives rise to upward light that is reflected by the interface. (b) Downward irradiance components just above and just below the interface. The length of the arrows is proportional to the magnitude of the various components (see Table 1). Here Esol is the direct solar beam irradiance striking the interface from above, Ediff is the diffuse downward irradiance striking the interface from above, Epref is the downward irradiance due to partial reflection by the interface, Ediff, tr is the downward diffuse irradiance transmitted through the interface, Etref is the downward irradiance due to total reflection by the interface, and Esol, tr is the downward direct irradiance transmitted through the interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured vertical profiles of (a) ice temperature, (b) salinity, (c) density, and (d) chlorophyll concentration in first-year ice.15

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient spectrum normalized at 440 nm. (b) The inferred total absorption coefficient aimp(λ) of algae and other impurities in the bottom 11-cm-thick layer. aimp(λ) is normalized at its maximum absorption at ≈420 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Comparison between measured (crosses) and modeled (dotted curve) ice albedo. (b) Comparison between measured (crosses) and modeled (dotted curve) transmittance. (c) The spectral downward irradiance under the bottom of the ice.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Computed downward diffuse radiance Idiff(0+, cos θ) (µein m−2 s−1 nm−1) (a) and (b) just above the interface and (c) and (d) just below the interface Idiff (0, cos θ) versus the cosine of the polar angle. The solid curves represent clear sky conditions and the dotted curves represent cloudy sky conditions. (a) and (c) SZA of 45°; (b) and (d) SZA of 60°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Dependence of ΔEd(λ) (µein m−2 s−1 nm−1) on the cosine of the beam illumination angle for unit flux (normal to the beam) incident on the air–ice interface. The three different curves correspond to wavelengths 450 nm (solid curve), 550 nm (dotted curve), and 650 nm (dashed curve). (b) Dependence of transmittance T ( θ i ) on the cosine of the beam illumination angle.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of ΔEd(λ) between clear and cloudy sky conditions for a SZA of 60°. Solid curve, clear sky; dotted curve, cloudy sky.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of ice algae on the ΔEd(λ) under clear sky conditions. The ice algae is distributed in the bottom layer from depth 1.58 to 1.69 m. Solid curve, no ice algae; dotted curve, Cchl = 150 mg chl-a m−3; dashed curve, Cchl = 300 mg chl-a m−3. SZA is 60°.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Downward Irradiance Components (in units of µein m−2 s−1 nm−1) at 550 nm Just Above and Just Below the Atmosphere-Ice Interfacea

Tables Icon

Table 2 Ice Physical Propertiesa: Vertical Profiles of Temperature, Salinity, Brine Volume, and Air Volume Fraction

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of the Physical and Optical Properties of the Atmosphere and First-Year Sea Ice Used in this Study

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ E d ( λ ) = E d ( 0 , λ ) E d ( 0 + , λ ) ,
E d ( 0 + , λ ) = E sol ( 0 + , λ ) + E diff ( 0 + , λ ) ,
E d ( 0 , λ ) = E trans ( 0 , λ ) + E pref ( 0 , λ ) + E tref ( 0 , λ ) .
Δ Ω ( ξ ̂ t ) = n air 2 n ice 2 cos θ i cos θ t Δ Ω + ( ξ ̂ i ) .
R ( µ i ) = 1 2 [ ( µ i n rel µ t µ i + n rel µ t ) 2 + ( µ t n rel µ i µ t + n rel µ i ) 2 ] ,
T ( µ i ) = 2 n ice µ i µ t [ ( 1 µ i + n rel µ t ) 2 + ( 1 µ t + n rel µ i ) 2 ] .
I ( 0 , θ t = 0 ) = T ( 0 ) n ice 2 I ( 0 + ; θ i ) = 0.98 ( 1.31 ) 2 I ( 0 + ; θ i = 0 ) 1.68 I ( 0 + ; θ i = 0 ) ,
P p ( cos Θ ) = 1 g 2 ( 1 + g 2 2 g cos Θ ) 3 / 2 ,
V br = ρ S i F 1 ( T , ρ br ) ,
V bu = 1 ρ ρ i ( T ) + ρ S i F 2 ( T , ρ br ) F 1 ( T , ρ br ) ,
ρ i ( T ) = 0.917 1.403 × 10 4 T ,
a c ( λ ) = 0.06 A c ( λ ) C chl 0.65 ,
b c ( λ ) = 0.3 550 λ C chl 0.62 .
g ice = g br b br + g bu b bu + g c b c b br + b bu + b c ,
P w ( cos Θ ) = 3 3 + x w ( 1 + x w cos 2 Θ ) ,
P sea ( cos Θ ) = P w ( cos Θ ) b w + P c ( cos Θ ) b c b w + b c ,

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