Abstract

Recording of periodic variations of amplitude and phase by the interference of coherent laser beams in a hologram offers a natural means for creating one-, two-, and three-dimensional photonic crystals. For device applications such as waveguides in optical communications, one usually needs to create defects in photonic crystals. We present an analysis and an experimental demonstration of a double-exposure method for creating photonic crystals with line defects. The idea is based on the principle of superposition of holographic grating patterns of different spatial periods while the recording medium is held stationary and on the application of a threshold to the recording medium. We use the same symmetrical optical architecture to achieve nondefective and defective holographic photonic crystals. The technique may be extended to the creation of defects based on functional synthesis by means of Fourier series, by use of light sources of other wavelengths with an appropriate high-contrast recording material.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (2)

2003 (4)

S. Shoji, H. B. Sun, S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of woodpile three-dimensional photonic crystals using four-beam laser interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 608–610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284–1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Divliansky, T. S. Mayer, K. S. Holliday, V. H. Crespi, “Fabrication of three-dimensional polymer photonic crystal structures using single diffraction element interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1667–1669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212–2214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392–3394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, T. Pearsall, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937–1939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Shoji, S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668–2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add–drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, “Photonic crystals in the optical regime—past, present and future,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23, 51–96 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D'Urso, O. Painter, J. O'Brien, T. Tombrello, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, “Modal reflectivity in finite-depth two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1155–1159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

1976 (1)

Blanco, A.

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284–1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284–1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L. Z.

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J. L.-H.

Chen, Y. L.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212–2214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crespi, V. H.

I. B. Divliansky, T. S. Mayer, K. S. Holliday, V. H. Crespi, “Fabrication of three-dimensional polymer photonic crystal structures using single diffraction element interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1667–1669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, “Photonic crystals in the optical regime—past, present and future,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23, 51–96 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deubel, M.

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284–1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Divliansky, I. B.

I. B. Divliansky, T. S. Mayer, K. S. Holliday, V. H. Crespi, “Fabrication of three-dimensional polymer photonic crystal structures using single diffraction element interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1667–1669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392–3394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doll, T.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, T. Pearsall, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937–1939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D'Urso, B.

Enkrich, C.

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284–1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add–drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, J.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add–drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holliday, K. S.

I. B. Divliansky, T. S. Mayer, K. S. Holliday, V. H. Crespi, “Fabrication of three-dimensional polymer photonic crystal structures using single diffraction element interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1667–1669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add–drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

S. Shoji, H. B. Sun, S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of woodpile three-dimensional photonic crystals using four-beam laser interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 608–610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Shoji, S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668–2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keating, C. D.

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392–3394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. J.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add–drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392–3394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koch, W.

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284–1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, “Photonic crystals in the optical regime—past, present and future,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23, 51–96 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. K.

Liu, H.-K.

Liu, Q.

Loncar, M.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, T. Pearsall, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937–1939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mallouk, T. E.

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392–3394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add–drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, T. S.

I. B. Divliansky, T. S. Mayer, K. S. Holliday, V. H. Crespi, “Fabrication of three-dimensional polymer photonic crystal structures using single diffraction element interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1667–1669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392–3394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meisel, D. C.

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284–1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miklyaev, Yu. V.

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284–1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nedeljkovic, D.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, T. Pearsall, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937–1939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392–3394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, J.

Painter, O.

Pang, Y. K.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212–2214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pearsall, T.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, T. Pearsall, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937–1939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pena, D.

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392–3394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, T. Pearsall, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937–1939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. D'Urso, O. Painter, J. O'Brien, T. Tombrello, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, “Modal reflectivity in finite-depth two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1155–1159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, D. N.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishido, A.

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392–3394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, S.

S. Shoji, H. B. Sun, S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of woodpile three-dimensional photonic crystals using four-beam laser interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 608–610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Shoji, S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668–2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Su, H. M.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212–2214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

S. Shoji, H. B. Sun, S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of woodpile three-dimensional photonic crystals using four-beam laser interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 608–610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tam, W. Y.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212–2214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tombrello, T.

Turberfield, A. J.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, P. R.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add–drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284–1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, T. Pearsall, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937–1939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. Z.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212–2214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212–2214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. R.

Wegener, M.

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284–1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. F.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212–2214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, T. M.

Yang, X. L.

Yariv, A.

Zeng, Z. H.

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212–2214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

Yu. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284–1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, “Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392–3394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Divliansky, T. S. Mayer, K. S. Holliday, V. H. Crespi, “Fabrication of three-dimensional polymer photonic crystal structures using single diffraction element interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1667–1669 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. F. Xu, H. M. Su, Z. H. Zeng, Y. L. Chen, H. Z. Wang, Y. K. Pang, W. Y. Tam, “Three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by visible light holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2212–2214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, “Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725–727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, T. Pearsall, “Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937–1939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Shoji, S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668–2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Shoji, H. B. Sun, S. Kawata, “Photofabrication of woodpile three-dimensional photonic crystals using four-beam laser interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 608–610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add–drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (4)

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, “Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides,” Nature 390, 143–145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De La Rue, “Photonic crystals in the optical regime—past, present and future,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23, 51–96 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept diagram of an optical architecture. In aperture array 1 the length and width are LM and LR, respectively. The location of the hole opening is (m, r). In aperture array 2 the length and width are LP and LQ. The location of the hole opening is (p, q). The focal lengths of lens 1 and lens 2 are f1 and f2, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity and dielectric constant distribution with fixed relative period T. (a)–(j) Photonic crystal samples a–j described in Example 1 and Table 1. The horizontal line in the field intensity plot denotes the threshold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dielectric constant distribution of Example 2: (a) air defect, (b) dielectric defect.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for the conceptual optical architecture shown in Fig. 1: M1–M5, mirrors; BS, beam splitter; AG1, AG2, array generators; AA1, A2, aperture arrays; HRM, holographic recording medium; L1–L3, lenses; SF, spatial filter; Ir1, Ir2, irises.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

1000× microscope image in the x–z plane of a 2-D photonic crystal. (a) Exposure time, is 0.5 s. A = 5.770 µm, B = 5.229 µm. (b) Exposure time, 0.25 s. A = 5.714 µm, B = 5.294 µm. (c) Exposure time, 0.125 s. A = 5.826 µm, B = 5.177 µm. Notice that we call the y axis the axis of propagation, not the z axis as is conventionally done.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Microscopic image of a 2-D photonic crystal with line dielectric defects. The measured lengths of , B ¯ and D ¯ are 2.531, 2.353, and 16.255 µm, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Photonic Crystal Samples with Fixed Relative Period T and Various Relative Amplitudes A and Thresholds Ith

Tables Icon

Table 2 Photonic Crystal Samples Classified with Fixed Relative Amplitude A and Varying Relative Period T and Threshold Ith

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ē j = E j exp [ i ( K ¯ j · r ¯ + φ o j ) ] ē j , j = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ,
K ¯ j = ( K j x , K j y , K j z ) = ( 2 π / λ ) ( s j , t j , u j ) ,
I = j E j 2 + i < j 2 E i E j cos θ i j × cos [ ( K ¯ i K ¯ j ) · r ¯ + ( φ o i φ o j ) ] ,
I ( x ) = B + A cos ( 2 π T x ) ,
I t ( x ) = B 1 + A 1 cos ( 2 π T 1 x ) + B 2 + A 2 cos ( 2 π T 2 x ) = C + A 1 cos ( 2 π T 1 x ) + A 2 cos ( 2 π T 2 x ) ,
I t ( x ) = C + cos ( 2 π x) + A cos ( 2 π T x ) .
K ¯ 1 = ( 0.0560 , 0.9969 , 0.0560 ) , K ¯ 2 = ( 0.0560 , 0.9969 , 0.0560 ) , K ¯ 3 = ( 0.0560 , 0.9969 , 0.0560 ) ,
Ā = ( 5.804 , 0 , 0 ) , B ¯ = ( 0 , 0 , 5.804 ) .
First exposure : Ā = ( 2.291 , 0 , 0 ) µ m , B ¯ = ( 0 , 0 , 2.291 ) µ m , Second exposure : D ¯ = ( 0 , 0 , 15.720 ) µ m ,
First exposure : Ā = ( 1.314 , 0 , 0 ) µ m , B ¯ = ( 0 , 0 , 1.314 ) µ m , t = 0.03 s ; Second exposure : D ¯ = ( 0 , 0 , 6.563 ) µ m , t = 0.004 s .

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