Abstract

We report the scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) characterization of a 4 × 4 multimode interference (MMI) device working at a wavelength of 1.55 µm and designed for astronomical signal recombination. A comprehensive analysis of the mapped propagating field is presented. We compare SNOM measurements with beam-propagation-method simulations and thus are able to determine the MMI structure's refractive-index contrast and show that the measured value is higher than the expected value. Further investigation allows us to demonstrate that good care must be taken with the refractive-index profile used in simulation when one deals with low-index contrast structures. We show evidence that a step-index contrast is not suitable for adequate simulation of our structure and present a model that permits good agreement between measured and simulated propagating fields.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguides and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947–949 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Bourzeix, J.-M. Moison, A. F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. H. Van der Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlu, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, B. E. Little, “Measurement of internal spatial modes and local propagation properties in optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368–2370 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, C. D. W. Jones, “Direct measurement of the guided modes in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2239–2241 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. T. Augustsson, “Proposal of a wavelength-selective switch based on an MMIMZI configuration with wavelength-selective phase-tuning circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 120–125 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Nagai, G. Morishima, H. Inayoshi, K. Utaka, “Multimode interference photonic switches (MIPS),” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 675–681 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. P. Earnshaw, D. W. E. Allsopp, “Semiconductor space switches based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 643–650 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, T. Benyattou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multimode interferences (MMI),” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE4838, 1359–1369 (2003).
  9. A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, “Direct imaging of multimode interference in a channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 28, 399–401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. L. Campillo, C. K. Madsen, J. P. W. Hsu, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy imaging of multimode interference,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1111–1113 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. D. Monnier, “Introduction to closure phases,” in Principles of Long Baseline Stellar Interferometry, P. R. Lawson, ed., JPL Publication 00-009 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1999).
  12. L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, P. Benech, S. Blaize, “A complete physical approach to position the access waveguides of weakly confined multi-mode interference couplers,” Opt. Commun. 221, 317–322 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J. P. Berger, P. Benech, “Design of a three telescope interferometers using a multimode interference waveguide,” in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VI, Y. S. Sidorin, A. Tervonen, eds., Proc. SPIE4640, 246–254 (2003).
  15. F. Rooms, “Etudes et réalizations de nouvelles fonctions en optique intégrée sur verre pour des applications astrophysiques,” Ph.D. dissertation (Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble, France, 2003).
  16. J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Wide single-mode channels and directional coupler by two-step ion-exchange in glass,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 552–563 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (3)

2002 (4)

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, C. D. W. Jones, “Direct measurement of the guided modes in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2239–2241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Augustsson, “Proposal of a wavelength-selective switch based on an MMIMZI configuration with wavelength-selective phase-tuning circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 120–125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagai, G. Morishima, H. Inayoshi, K. Utaka, “Multimode interference photonic switches (MIPS),” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 675–681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Earnshaw, D. W. E. Allsopp, “Semiconductor space switches based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 643–650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. H. Van der Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlu, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, B. E. Little, “Measurement of internal spatial modes and local propagation properties in optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368–2370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Bourzeix, J.-M. Moison, A. F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguides and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947–949 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Wide single-mode channels and directional coupler by two-step ion-exchange in glass,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 552–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Wide single-mode channels and directional coupler by two-step ion-exchange in glass,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 552–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Allovon, M.

S. Bourzeix, J.-M. Moison, A. F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allsopp, D. W. E.

M. P. Earnshaw, D. W. E. Allsopp, “Semiconductor space switches based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 643–650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Augustsson, J. T.

J. T. Augustsson, “Proposal of a wavelength-selective switch based on an MMIMZI configuration with wavelength-selective phase-tuning circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 120–125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barthe, F.

S. Bourzeix, J.-M. Moison, A. F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benech, P.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, P. Benech, S. Blaize, “A complete physical approach to position the access waveguides of weakly confined multi-mode interference couplers,” Opt. Commun. 221, 317–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J. P. Berger, P. Benech, “Design of a three telescope interferometers using a multimode interference waveguide,” in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VI, Y. S. Sidorin, A. Tervonen, eds., Proc. SPIE4640, 246–254 (2003).

Benyattou, T.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, T. Benyattou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multimode interferences (MMI),” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE4838, 1359–1369 (2003).

Berger, J. P.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J. P. Berger, P. Benech, “Design of a three telescope interferometers using a multimode interference waveguide,” in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VI, Y. S. Sidorin, A. Tervonen, eds., Proc. SPIE4640, 246–254 (2003).

Berger, J.-P.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, T. Benyattou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multimode interferences (MMI),” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE4838, 1359–1369 (2003).

Blaize, S.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, P. Benech, S. Blaize, “A complete physical approach to position the access waveguides of weakly confined multi-mode interference couplers,” Opt. Commun. 221, 317–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

S. Bourzeix, J.-M. Moison, A. F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bourzeix, S.

S. Bourzeix, J.-M. Moison, A. F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguides and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947–949 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Broquin, J.-E.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, T. Benyattou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multimode interferences (MMI),” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE4838, 1359–1369 (2003).

Campillo, A. L.

Choo, A. G.

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguides and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947–949 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

G. H. Van der Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlu, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, B. E. Little, “Measurement of internal spatial modes and local propagation properties in optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368–2370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Brabander, G. N.

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguides and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947–949 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Earnshaw, M. P.

M. P. Earnshaw, D. W. E. Allsopp, “Semiconductor space switches based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 643–650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Goldberg, B. B.

G. H. Van der Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlu, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, B. E. Little, “Measurement of internal spatial modes and local propagation properties in optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368–2370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, T. Benyattou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multimode interferences (MMI),” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE4838, 1359–1369 (2003).

Hsu, J. P. W.

Hsu, J. W. P.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, “Direct imaging of multimode interference in a channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 28, 399–401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, C. D. W. Jones, “Direct measurement of the guided modes in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2239–2241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inayoshi, H.

S. Nagai, G. Morishima, H. Inayoshi, K. Utaka, “Multimode interference photonic switches (MIPS),” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 675–681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, H. E.

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguides and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947–949 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jones, C. D. W.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, C. D. W. Jones, “Direct measurement of the guided modes in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2239–2241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, T.

G. H. Van der Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlu, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, B. E. Little, “Measurement of internal spatial modes and local propagation properties in optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368–2370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kokobun, Y.

G. H. Van der Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlu, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, B. E. Little, “Measurement of internal spatial modes and local propagation properties in optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368–2370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Licoppe, C.

S. Bourzeix, J.-M. Moison, A. F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

G. H. Van der Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlu, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, B. E. Little, “Measurement of internal spatial modes and local propagation properties in optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368–2370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

Martin, M.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, T. Benyattou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multimode interferences (MMI),” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE4838, 1359–1369 (2003).

Mersali, B.

S. Bourzeix, J.-M. Moison, A. F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mignard, A. F.

S. Bourzeix, J.-M. Moison, A. F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moison, J.-M.

S. Bourzeix, J.-M. Moison, A. F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monnier, J. D.

J. D. Monnier, “Introduction to closure phases,” in Principles of Long Baseline Stellar Interferometry, P. R. Lawson, ed., JPL Publication 00-009 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1999).

Morand, A.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, P. Benech, S. Blaize, “A complete physical approach to position the access waveguides of weakly confined multi-mode interference couplers,” Opt. Commun. 221, 317–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, T. Benyattou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multimode interferences (MMI),” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE4838, 1359–1369 (2003).

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J. P. Berger, P. Benech, “Design of a three telescope interferometers using a multimode interference waveguide,” in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VI, Y. S. Sidorin, A. Tervonen, eds., Proc. SPIE4640, 246–254 (2003).

Morishima, G.

S. Nagai, G. Morishima, H. Inayoshi, K. Utaka, “Multimode interference photonic switches (MIPS),” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 675–681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, S.

S. Nagai, G. Morishima, H. Inayoshi, K. Utaka, “Multimode interference photonic switches (MIPS),” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 675–681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

G. H. Van der Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlu, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, B. E. Little, “Measurement of internal spatial modes and local propagation properties in optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368–2370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K. R.

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rooms, F.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, P. Benech, S. Blaize, “A complete physical approach to position the access waveguides of weakly confined multi-mode interference couplers,” Opt. Commun. 221, 317–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Rooms, “Etudes et réalizations de nouvelles fonctions en optique intégrée sur verre pour des applications astrophysiques,” Ph.D. dissertation (Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble, France, 2003).

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, T. Benyattou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multimode interferences (MMI),” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE4838, 1359–1369 (2003).

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J. P. Berger, P. Benech, “Design of a three telescope interferometers using a multimode interference waveguide,” in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VI, Y. S. Sidorin, A. Tervonen, eds., Proc. SPIE4640, 246–254 (2003).

Schanen, I.

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, P. Benech, S. Blaize, “A complete physical approach to position the access waveguides of weakly confined multi-mode interference couplers,” Opt. Commun. 221, 317–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, T. Benyattou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multimode interferences (MMI),” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE4838, 1359–1369 (2003).

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J. P. Berger, P. Benech, “Design of a three telescope interferometers using a multimode interference waveguide,” in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VI, Y. S. Sidorin, A. Tervonen, eds., Proc. SPIE4640, 246–254 (2003).

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, U.

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguides and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947–949 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Unlu, M. S.

G. H. Van der Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlu, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, B. E. Little, “Measurement of internal spatial modes and local propagation properties in optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368–2370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Utaka, K.

S. Nagai, G. Morishima, H. Inayoshi, K. Utaka, “Multimode interference photonic switches (MIPS),” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 675–681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van der Rhodes, G. H.

G. H. Van der Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlu, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, B. E. Little, “Measurement of internal spatial modes and local propagation properties in optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368–2370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

White, C. A.

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, C. D. W. Jones, “Direct measurement of the guided modes in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2239–2241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yip, G. L.

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Wide single-mode channels and directional coupler by two-step ion-exchange in glass,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 552–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. G. Choo, H. E. Jackson, U. Thiel, G. N. De Brabander, J. T. Boyd, “Near field measurements of optical channel waveguides and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 947–949 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, J.-M. Moison, A. F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semiconductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Van der Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlu, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokobun, B. E. Little, “Measurement of internal spatial modes and local propagation properties in optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2368–2370 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Campillo, J. W. P. Hsu, C. A. White, C. D. W. Jones, “Direct measurement of the guided modes in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2239–2241 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. T. Augustsson, “Proposal of a wavelength-selective switch based on an MMIMZI configuration with wavelength-selective phase-tuning circuits,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 120–125 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Nagai, G. Morishima, H. Inayoshi, K. Utaka, “Multimode interference photonic switches (MIPS),” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 675–681 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Earnshaw, D. W. E. Allsopp, “Semiconductor space switches based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 643–650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, “Wide single-mode channels and directional coupler by two-step ion-exchange in glass,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 552–563 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, P. Benech, S. Blaize, “A complete physical approach to position the access waveguides of weakly confined multi-mode interference couplers,” Opt. Commun. 221, 317–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J. P. Berger, P. Benech, “Design of a three telescope interferometers using a multimode interference waveguide,” in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies VI, Y. S. Sidorin, A. Tervonen, eds., Proc. SPIE4640, 246–254 (2003).

F. Rooms, “Etudes et réalizations de nouvelles fonctions en optique intégrée sur verre pour des applications astrophysiques,” Ph.D. dissertation (Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Grenoble, France, 2003).

F. Rooms, A. Morand, I. Schanen, J.-E. Broquin, P. Haguenauer, J.-P. Berger, M. Martin, T. Benyattou, “New concept for combining three telescopes with integrated optics: multimode interferences (MMI),” in Interferometry for Optical Astronomy II, W. A. Traub, ed., Proc. SPIE4838, 1359–1369 (2003).

J. D. Monnier, “Introduction to closure phases,” in Principles of Long Baseline Stellar Interferometry, P. R. Lawson, ed., JPL Publication 00-009 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1999).

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