Abstract

The investigation of the Martian atmosphere is of key importance for an understanding of the planets present and past. Passive limb observations of thermal radiation at submillimeter wavelengths in the 320–350-GHz range by use of a state-of-the-art satellite receiver on a low Mars orbit allow important parameters such as the mixing ratios of H2O, HDO, 12CO, 13CO, O3, and H2O2 as well as the thermal profile to be retrieved with high precision and unprecedented vertical range and resolution, providing valuable information for better understanding of the planet’s water cycle, atmospheric dynamics, and photochemistry. The feasibility of these kinds of measurement is demonstrated by means of model simulations based on realistic atmospheric, spectroscopic, and instrumental parameters. Temperature can be retrieved to ∼90 km with half-scale height vertical resolution from single-scan measurements of emission lines of the long-lived species 12CO and 13CO. The global water-vapor distribution can be measured even under dry or wet conditions with good vertical resolution from the surface to ∼45 km, and simultaneous observations of HDO allow useful information on the D/H ratio up to an altitude of ∼30 km to be derived. The sensitivity of the limb-sounding technique also permits information on the photochemically important minor species O3 and H2O2 to be obtained. It is shown that spectral averaging may improve precision, altitude range, and resolution of the retrieved profiles. Other frequency bands are explored, and the 435–465-GHz range is suggested as a possible alternative to the 320–350-GHz range.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2005

C. Melsheimer, C. Verdes, S. Buehler, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, D. Feist, S. Ichizawa, V. John, Y. Kasai, G. Kopp, N. Koulev, T. Kuhn, O. Lemke, S. Ochiai, F. Schreier, T. Sreerekha, M. Suzuki, C. Takahashi, S. Tsujimaru, J. Urban, “Intercomparison of general purpose clear-sky atmospheric radiative transfer models for the millimeter/sub-millimeter spectral range,” Radio Sci. 40, R51007, doi: (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Urban, P. Baron, N. Lautié, K. Dassas, N. Schneider, P. Ricaud, J. de La Noë, “MOLIERE (v5): a versatile forward-and inversion model for the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 83, 529–554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Emde, S. Buehler, P. Eriksson, T. Sreerekha, “The effect of cirrus clouds on microwave limb radiances,” J. Atmos. Res. 72(1-4) 383–401 (2004), doi: .
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Wolff, R. Clancy, “Constraints on the Size of Martian Aerosols from TES spectral observation,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(E9) 1-1–1-23 (2003), doi: .
[CrossRef]

R. Clancy, M. Wolff, P. Christensen, “Mars Aerosol Studies with the MGS TES emission phase function observations: optical depths, particle sizes, and ice cloud types versus latitude and solar longitude,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(E9) 2-1–2-20 (2003), doi: .
[CrossRef]

L. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Benner, L. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. Devi, A. Fayr, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jaquemart, K. Jucks, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. Smith, M. Smith, K. Tang, R. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Frisk, M. Hagström, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Andersson, J.-C. Berges, J.-P. Chabaud, M. Dahlgren, A. Emrich, H.-G. Florén, G. Florin, M. Fredrixon, T. Gaier, R. Haas, T. Hirvonen, A. Hjalmarsson, B. Jakobsson, P. Jukkala, P. Kildal, E. Kollberg, J. Lassing, A. Lecacheux, P. Lehikoinen, A. Lehto, J. Mallat, C. Marty, D. Michet, J. Narbonne, M. Nexon, M. Olberg, O. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, A. Origné, M. Petersson, P. Piironen, R. Pons, D. Pouliquen, I. Ristocelli, C. Rosolen, G. Rouaix, A. Räisänen, G. Serra, F. Sjöberg, L. Stenmark, S. Torchinsky, J. Tuovinen, C. Ullberg, E. Vinterhav, N. Wadefalk, H. Zirath, P. Zimmermann, R. Zimmermann, “The Odin satellite. I. Radiometer design and test,” Astron. Astrophys. 402, L27–L34 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. Formisano, D. Grassi, N. Ignatiev, L. Zasova, A. Maturilli, “PFS for Mars Express: a new approach to study Martian atmosphere,” Adv. Space Res. 29, 131–142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Smith, “The annual cycle of water vapor on Mars as observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 25-1–25-19 (2002).

2001

T. Encrenaz, E. Lellouch, G. Paubert, S. Gulkis, “The water vapor vertical distribution on Mars from millimeter transitions of HDO and H2O,” Planet. Space Sci. 49, 731–741 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Smith, J. Pearl, C. Conrath, P. Christensen, “Thermal Emission Spectrometer results: Mars atmospheric thermal structure and aerosol distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23, 929–23, 945 (2001).

B. M. Jakosky, R. J. Phillips, “Mars volatile and climate history,” Nature 412, 237–244 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Leovy, “Weather and climate on Mars,” Nature 412, 245–249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Albee, R. E. Arvidson, F. Palluconi, T. Thorpe, “Overview of the Mars Global Surveyor mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23291–23316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Bertaux, F. Montmessin, “Isotopic fractionation through water vapor condensation: the deuteropause, a cold trap for deuterium in the atmosphere of Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,879–32,884 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Encrenaz, A. Coradini, G. Beaudin, J. Crovisier, P. Drossart, S. Erard, B. Germain, S. Gulkis, Y. Langevin, E. Lellouch, “The Mars flyby of ROSETTA: an opportunity for infrared and microwave high-resolution sounding,” Planet. Space Sci. 49, 673–687 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Melnick, J. Stauffer, M. Ashby, E. Bergin, G. Chin, N. Erickson, P. Goldsmith, M. Harwit, J. Howe, S. Kleiner, D. Koch, D. Neufeld, B. Patten, R. Plume, R. Schieder, R. Snell, V. Tolls, Z. Wang, G. Winnewisser, Y. Zhang, “The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite: science objectives and instrument description,” Astrophys. J. 539, L77–L85 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Priem, F. Rohart, J.-M. Colmont, G. Wlodarcsak, J. Bouanich, “Lineshape study of the J = 3–2 rotational transition of CO perturbed by N2 and O2,” J. Mol. Struct. 517–518435–454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Fouchet, E. Lellouch, “Vapor pressure isotope fractionation effects in planetary atmospheres: application to deuterium,” Icarus 144, 114–123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Conrath, J. C. Pearl, M. D. Smith, W. C. Maguire, P. R. Christensen, S. Dason, M. S. Kaelberer, “Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations: atmospheric temperatures during aerobraking and science phasing,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9509–9520 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Clancy, B. J. Sandor, M. J. Wolff, P. R. Christensen, M. D. Smith, J. C. Pearl, B. J. Conrath, R. J. Wilson, “An intercomparison of ground-based millimeter, MGS TES, and Viking atmospheric temperature measurements: seasonal and interannual variability of temperatures and dust loading in the global Mars atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9553–9572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303–1320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Forget, F. Hourdin, R. Fournier, C. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, M. Collins, S. Louis, P. Read, J.-P. Huot, “An improved general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere from the surface to above 80 km,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24, 155–24, 176 (1999).

1998

P. R. Christensen, D. L. Anderson, S. C. Chase, R. T. Clancy, R. N. Clark, B. J. Conrath, H. H. Kieffer, R. O. Kuzmin, M. C. Malin, J. C. Pearl, T. L. Roush, M. D. Smith, “Results from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer,” Science 279, 1692–1698 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pickett, R. Poynter, E. Cohen, M. Delitsky, J. Pearson, H. Müller, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 883–890 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. A. Krasnopolsky, G. L. Bjoraker, M. J. Mumma, D. E. Jennings, “High-resolution spectroscopy of Mars at 3.7 and 8 µm: a sensitive search of H2O2, H2CO, HCl, and CH4, and detection of HDO,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 6525–6534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. T. Clancy, H. Nair, “Annual (perihelion–aphelion) cycles in the photochemical behavior of the global Mars atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 12,785–12,790 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilson, K. Hamilton, “Comprehensive model simulation of thermal tides in the Martian atmosphere,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1290–1326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

M. A. Lopez-Valverde, M. Lopez-Puertas, “A non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer model for infrared emissions in the atmosphere of Mars. 1. Theoretical basis and nighttime populations of vibrational levels,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 13,093–13,115 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Bullock, C. R. Stoker, C. P. McKay, A. P. Zent, “A coupled soil-atmosphere model of H2O2 on Mars,” Icarus 107, 142–154 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

R. M. Haberle, J. B. Pollack, J. R. Barnes, R. W. Zurek, C. B. Leovy, J. R. Murphy, H. Lee, J. Schaeffer, “Mars atmospheric dynamics as simulated by the NASA AMES General Circulation Model. I. The zonal-mean circulation,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 3093–3123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. Lellouch, J. Rosenqvist, J. J. Goldstein, S. W. Bougher, G. Paubert, “First absolute wind measurements in the middle atmosphere of Mars,” Astrophys. J. 383, 401–406 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Lellouch, G. Paubert, T. Encrenaz, “Mapping of CO millimeter-wave lines in Mars’ atmosphere—the spatial variability of carbon monoxide on Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 219–224 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

S. Clough, F. Kneizys, R. Davies, “Line shape and the water vapor continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

T. Owen, J. P. Maillard, C. de Bergh, B. L. Lutz, “Deuterium on Mars—the abundance of HDO and the value of D/H,” Science 240, 1767–1770 (1988).
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U. Frisk, M. Hagström, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Andersson, J.-C. Berges, J.-P. Chabaud, M. Dahlgren, A. Emrich, H.-G. Florén, G. Florin, M. Fredrixon, T. Gaier, R. Haas, T. Hirvonen, A. Hjalmarsson, B. Jakobsson, P. Jukkala, P. Kildal, E. Kollberg, J. Lassing, A. Lecacheux, P. Lehikoinen, A. Lehto, J. Mallat, C. Marty, D. Michet, J. Narbonne, M. Nexon, M. Olberg, O. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, A. Origné, M. Petersson, P. Piironen, R. Pons, D. Pouliquen, I. Ristocelli, C. Rosolen, G. Rouaix, A. Räisänen, G. Serra, F. Sjöberg, L. Stenmark, S. Torchinsky, J. Tuovinen, C. Ullberg, E. Vinterhav, N. Wadefalk, H. Zirath, P. Zimmermann, R. Zimmermann, “The Odin satellite. I. Radiometer design and test,” Astron. Astrophys. 402, L27–L34 (2003).
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F. Forget, K. Dassas, M. Capderou, S. Lebonnois, G. Beaudin, A. Deschamps, P. Encrenaz, B. Germain, M. Gheudin, A. Maestrini, C. Prigent, B. Thomas, P. Ricaud, J. Urban, M. Janssen, M. Frerking, S. Gulkis, L. Riley, M. Allen, T. Encrenaz, E. Lellouch, P. Hartogh, R. Clancy, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefèvre, F. Montmessin, A. Emrich, D. Murtagh, R. Booth, U. Frisk, A. Raisanen, “Mars atmosphere microwave brightness observer,” Tech. Rep. (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL, Université de Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (May2002).

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U. Frisk, M. Hagström, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Andersson, J.-C. Berges, J.-P. Chabaud, M. Dahlgren, A. Emrich, H.-G. Florén, G. Florin, M. Fredrixon, T. Gaier, R. Haas, T. Hirvonen, A. Hjalmarsson, B. Jakobsson, P. Jukkala, P. Kildal, E. Kollberg, J. Lassing, A. Lecacheux, P. Lehikoinen, A. Lehto, J. Mallat, C. Marty, D. Michet, J. Narbonne, M. Nexon, M. Olberg, O. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, A. Origné, M. Petersson, P. Piironen, R. Pons, D. Pouliquen, I. Ristocelli, C. Rosolen, G. Rouaix, A. Räisänen, G. Serra, F. Sjöberg, L. Stenmark, S. Torchinsky, J. Tuovinen, C. Ullberg, E. Vinterhav, N. Wadefalk, H. Zirath, P. Zimmermann, R. Zimmermann, “The Odin satellite. I. Radiometer design and test,” Astron. Astrophys. 402, L27–L34 (2003).
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F. Forget, K. Dassas, M. Capderou, S. Lebonnois, G. Beaudin, A. Deschamps, P. Encrenaz, B. Germain, M. Gheudin, A. Maestrini, C. Prigent, B. Thomas, P. Ricaud, J. Urban, M. Janssen, M. Frerking, S. Gulkis, L. Riley, M. Allen, T. Encrenaz, E. Lellouch, P. Hartogh, R. Clancy, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefèvre, F. Montmessin, A. Emrich, D. Murtagh, R. Booth, U. Frisk, A. Raisanen, “Mars atmosphere microwave brightness observer,” Tech. Rep. (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL, Université de Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (May2002).

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U. Frisk, M. Hagström, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Andersson, J.-C. Berges, J.-P. Chabaud, M. Dahlgren, A. Emrich, H.-G. Florén, G. Florin, M. Fredrixon, T. Gaier, R. Haas, T. Hirvonen, A. Hjalmarsson, B. Jakobsson, P. Jukkala, P. Kildal, E. Kollberg, J. Lassing, A. Lecacheux, P. Lehikoinen, A. Lehto, J. Mallat, C. Marty, D. Michet, J. Narbonne, M. Nexon, M. Olberg, O. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, A. Origné, M. Petersson, P. Piironen, R. Pons, D. Pouliquen, I. Ristocelli, C. Rosolen, G. Rouaix, A. Räisänen, G. Serra, F. Sjöberg, L. Stenmark, S. Torchinsky, J. Tuovinen, C. Ullberg, E. Vinterhav, N. Wadefalk, H. Zirath, P. Zimmermann, R. Zimmermann, “The Odin satellite. I. Radiometer design and test,” Astron. Astrophys. 402, L27–L34 (2003).
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L. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Benner, L. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. Devi, A. Fayr, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jaquemart, K. Jucks, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. Smith, M. Smith, K. Tang, R. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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F. Forget, K. Dassas, M. Capderou, S. Lebonnois, G. Beaudin, A. Deschamps, P. Encrenaz, B. Germain, M. Gheudin, A. Maestrini, C. Prigent, B. Thomas, P. Ricaud, J. Urban, M. Janssen, M. Frerking, S. Gulkis, L. Riley, M. Allen, T. Encrenaz, E. Lellouch, P. Hartogh, R. Clancy, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefèvre, F. Montmessin, A. Emrich, D. Murtagh, R. Booth, U. Frisk, A. Raisanen, “Mars atmosphere microwave brightness observer,” Tech. Rep. (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL, Université de Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (May2002).

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F. Forget, K. Dassas, M. Capderou, S. Lebonnois, G. Beaudin, A. Deschamps, P. Encrenaz, B. Germain, M. Gheudin, A. Maestrini, C. Prigent, B. Thomas, P. Ricaud, J. Urban, M. Janssen, M. Frerking, S. Gulkis, L. Riley, M. Allen, T. Encrenaz, E. Lellouch, P. Hartogh, R. Clancy, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefèvre, F. Montmessin, A. Emrich, D. Murtagh, R. Booth, U. Frisk, A. Raisanen, “Mars atmosphere microwave brightness observer,” Tech. Rep. (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL, Université de Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (May2002).

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L. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Benner, L. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. Devi, A. Fayr, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jaquemart, K. Jucks, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. Smith, M. Smith, K. Tang, R. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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T. Encrenaz, A. Coradini, G. Beaudin, J. Crovisier, P. Drossart, S. Erard, B. Germain, S. Gulkis, Y. Langevin, E. Lellouch, “The Mars flyby of ROSETTA: an opportunity for infrared and microwave high-resolution sounding,” Planet. Space Sci. 49, 673–687 (2001).
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T. Encrenaz, E. Lellouch, G. Paubert, S. Gulkis, “The water vapor vertical distribution on Mars from millimeter transitions of HDO and H2O,” Planet. Space Sci. 49, 731–741 (2001).
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F. Forget, K. Dassas, M. Capderou, S. Lebonnois, G. Beaudin, A. Deschamps, P. Encrenaz, B. Germain, M. Gheudin, A. Maestrini, C. Prigent, B. Thomas, P. Ricaud, J. Urban, M. Janssen, M. Frerking, S. Gulkis, L. Riley, M. Allen, T. Encrenaz, E. Lellouch, P. Hartogh, R. Clancy, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefèvre, F. Montmessin, A. Emrich, D. Murtagh, R. Booth, U. Frisk, A. Raisanen, “Mars atmosphere microwave brightness observer,” Tech. Rep. (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL, Université de Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (May2002).

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U. Frisk, M. Hagström, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Andersson, J.-C. Berges, J.-P. Chabaud, M. Dahlgren, A. Emrich, H.-G. Florén, G. Florin, M. Fredrixon, T. Gaier, R. Haas, T. Hirvonen, A. Hjalmarsson, B. Jakobsson, P. Jukkala, P. Kildal, E. Kollberg, J. Lassing, A. Lecacheux, P. Lehikoinen, A. Lehto, J. Mallat, C. Marty, D. Michet, J. Narbonne, M. Nexon, M. Olberg, O. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, A. Origné, M. Petersson, P. Piironen, R. Pons, D. Pouliquen, I. Ristocelli, C. Rosolen, G. Rouaix, A. Räisänen, G. Serra, F. Sjöberg, L. Stenmark, S. Torchinsky, J. Tuovinen, C. Ullberg, E. Vinterhav, N. Wadefalk, H. Zirath, P. Zimmermann, R. Zimmermann, “The Odin satellite. I. Radiometer design and test,” Astron. Astrophys. 402, L27–L34 (2003).
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U. Frisk, M. Hagström, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Andersson, J.-C. Berges, J.-P. Chabaud, M. Dahlgren, A. Emrich, H.-G. Florén, G. Florin, M. Fredrixon, T. Gaier, R. Haas, T. Hirvonen, A. Hjalmarsson, B. Jakobsson, P. Jukkala, P. Kildal, E. Kollberg, J. Lassing, A. Lecacheux, P. Lehikoinen, A. Lehto, J. Mallat, C. Marty, D. Michet, J. Narbonne, M. Nexon, M. Olberg, O. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, A. Origné, M. Petersson, P. Piironen, R. Pons, D. Pouliquen, I. Ristocelli, C. Rosolen, G. Rouaix, A. Räisänen, G. Serra, F. Sjöberg, L. Stenmark, S. Torchinsky, J. Tuovinen, C. Ullberg, E. Vinterhav, N. Wadefalk, H. Zirath, P. Zimmermann, R. Zimmermann, “The Odin satellite. I. Radiometer design and test,” Astron. Astrophys. 402, L27–L34 (2003).
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F. Forget, K. Dassas, M. Capderou, S. Lebonnois, G. Beaudin, A. Deschamps, P. Encrenaz, B. Germain, M. Gheudin, A. Maestrini, C. Prigent, B. Thomas, P. Ricaud, J. Urban, M. Janssen, M. Frerking, S. Gulkis, L. Riley, M. Allen, T. Encrenaz, E. Lellouch, P. Hartogh, R. Clancy, E. Chassefiere, F. Lefèvre, F. Montmessin, A. Emrich, D. Murtagh, R. Booth, U. Frisk, A. Raisanen, “Mars atmosphere microwave brightness observer,” Tech. Rep. (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL, Université de Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (May2002).

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G. Melnick, J. Stauffer, M. Ashby, E. Bergin, G. Chin, N. Erickson, P. Goldsmith, M. Harwit, J. Howe, S. Kleiner, D. Koch, D. Neufeld, B. Patten, R. Plume, R. Schieder, R. Snell, V. Tolls, Z. Wang, G. Winnewisser, Y. Zhang, “The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite: science objectives and instrument description,” Astrophys. J. 539, L77–L85 (2000).
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J.-L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303–1320 (2000).
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U. Frisk, M. Hagström, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Andersson, J.-C. Berges, J.-P. Chabaud, M. Dahlgren, A. Emrich, H.-G. Florén, G. Florin, M. Fredrixon, T. Gaier, R. Haas, T. Hirvonen, A. Hjalmarsson, B. Jakobsson, P. Jukkala, P. Kildal, E. Kollberg, J. Lassing, A. Lecacheux, P. Lehikoinen, A. Lehto, J. Mallat, C. Marty, D. Michet, J. Narbonne, M. Nexon, M. Olberg, O. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, A. Origné, M. Petersson, P. Piironen, R. Pons, D. Pouliquen, I. Ristocelli, C. Rosolen, G. Rouaix, A. Räisänen, G. Serra, F. Sjöberg, L. Stenmark, S. Torchinsky, J. Tuovinen, C. Ullberg, E. Vinterhav, N. Wadefalk, H. Zirath, P. Zimmermann, R. Zimmermann, “The Odin satellite. I. Radiometer design and test,” Astron. Astrophys. 402, L27–L34 (2003).
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U. Frisk, M. Hagström, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Andersson, J.-C. Berges, J.-P. Chabaud, M. Dahlgren, A. Emrich, H.-G. Florén, G. Florin, M. Fredrixon, T. Gaier, R. Haas, T. Hirvonen, A. Hjalmarsson, B. Jakobsson, P. Jukkala, P. Kildal, E. Kollberg, J. Lassing, A. Lecacheux, P. Lehikoinen, A. Lehto, J. Mallat, C. Marty, D. Michet, J. Narbonne, M. Nexon, M. Olberg, O. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, A. Origné, M. Petersson, P. Piironen, R. Pons, D. Pouliquen, I. Ristocelli, C. Rosolen, G. Rouaix, A. Räisänen, G. Serra, F. Sjöberg, L. Stenmark, S. Torchinsky, J. Tuovinen, C. Ullberg, E. Vinterhav, N. Wadefalk, H. Zirath, P. Zimmermann, R. Zimmermann, “The Odin satellite. I. Radiometer design and test,” Astron. Astrophys. 402, L27–L34 (2003).
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F. Forget, F. Hourdin, R. Fournier, C. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, M. Collins, S. Louis, P. Read, J.-P. Huot, “An improved general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere from the surface to above 80 km,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24, 155–24, 176 (1999).

Hourdin, F.

J.-L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303–1320 (2000).
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F. Forget, F. Hourdin, R. Fournier, C. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, M. Collins, S. Louis, P. Read, J.-P. Huot, “An improved general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere from the surface to above 80 km,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24, 155–24, 176 (1999).

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G. Melnick, J. Stauffer, M. Ashby, E. Bergin, G. Chin, N. Erickson, P. Goldsmith, M. Harwit, J. Howe, S. Kleiner, D. Koch, D. Neufeld, B. Patten, R. Plume, R. Schieder, R. Snell, V. Tolls, Z. Wang, G. Winnewisser, Y. Zhang, “The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite: science objectives and instrument description,” Astrophys. J. 539, L77–L85 (2000).
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F. Forget, F. Hourdin, R. Fournier, C. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, M. Collins, S. Louis, P. Read, J.-P. Huot, “An improved general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere from the surface to above 80 km,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 24, 155–24, 176 (1999).

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C. Melsheimer, C. Verdes, S. Buehler, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, D. Feist, S. Ichizawa, V. John, Y. Kasai, G. Kopp, N. Koulev, T. Kuhn, O. Lemke, S. Ochiai, F. Schreier, T. Sreerekha, M. Suzuki, C. Takahashi, S. Tsujimaru, J. Urban, “Intercomparison of general purpose clear-sky atmospheric radiative transfer models for the millimeter/sub-millimeter spectral range,” Radio Sci. 40, R51007, doi: (2005).
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U. Frisk, M. Hagström, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Andersson, J.-C. Berges, J.-P. Chabaud, M. Dahlgren, A. Emrich, H.-G. Florén, G. Florin, M. Fredrixon, T. Gaier, R. Haas, T. Hirvonen, A. Hjalmarsson, B. Jakobsson, P. Jukkala, P. Kildal, E. Kollberg, J. Lassing, A. Lecacheux, P. Lehikoinen, A. Lehto, J. Mallat, C. Marty, D. Michet, J. Narbonne, M. Nexon, M. Olberg, O. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, A. Origné, M. Petersson, P. Piironen, R. Pons, D. Pouliquen, I. Ristocelli, C. Rosolen, G. Rouaix, A. Räisänen, G. Serra, F. Sjöberg, L. Stenmark, S. Torchinsky, J. Tuovinen, C. Ullberg, E. Vinterhav, N. Wadefalk, H. Zirath, P. Zimmermann, R. Zimmermann, “The Odin satellite. I. Radiometer design and test,” Astron. Astrophys. 402, L27–L34 (2003).
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L. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Benner, L. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. Devi, A. Fayr, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jaquemart, K. Jucks, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. Smith, M. Smith, K. Tang, R. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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C. Melsheimer, C. Verdes, S. Buehler, C. Emde, P. Eriksson, D. Feist, S. Ichizawa, V. John, Y. Kasai, G. Kopp, N. Koulev, T. Kuhn, O. Lemke, S. Ochiai, F. Schreier, T. Sreerekha, M. Suzuki, C. Takahashi, S. Tsujimaru, J. Urban, “Intercomparison of general purpose clear-sky atmospheric radiative transfer models for the millimeter/sub-millimeter spectral range,” Radio Sci. 40, R51007, doi: (2005).
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L. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Benner, L. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. Devi, A. Fayr, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jaquemart, K. Jucks, W. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. Smith, M. Smith, K. Tang, R. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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U. Frisk, M. Hagström, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Andersson, J.-C. Berges, J.-P. Chabaud, M. Dahlgren, A. Emrich, H.-G. Florén, G. Florin, M. Fredrixon, T. Gaier, R. Haas, T. Hirvonen, A. Hjalmarsson, B. Jakobsson, P. Jukkala, P. Kildal, E. Kollberg, J. Lassing, A. Lecacheux, P. Lehikoinen, A. Lehto, J. Mallat, C. Marty, D. Michet, J. Narbonne, M. Nexon, M. Olberg, O. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, A. Origné, M. Petersson, P. Piironen, R. Pons, D. Pouliquen, I. Ristocelli, C. Rosolen, G. Rouaix, A. Räisänen, G. Serra, F. Sjöberg, L. Stenmark, S. Torchinsky, J. Tuovinen, C. Ullberg, E. Vinterhav, N. Wadefalk, H. Zirath, P. Zimmermann, R. Zimmermann, “The Odin satellite. I. Radiometer design and test,” Astron. Astrophys. 402, L27–L34 (2003).
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J.-L. Bertaux, D. Fonteyn, O. Korablev, E. Chassefière, E. Dimarellis, J. Dubois, A. Hauchecorne, M. Cabane, P. Rannou, A. Levasseur-Regourd, G. Cernogora, E. Quemerais, C. Hermans, G. Kockarts, C. Lippens, M. Maziere, D. Moreau, C. Muller, B. Neefs, P. Simon, F. Forget, F. Hourdin, O. Talagrand, V. Moroz, A. Rodin, B. Sandel, A. Stern, “The study of the Martian atmosphere from top to bottom with SPICAM light on Mars Express,” Planet. Space Sci. 48, 1303–1320 (2000).
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U. Frisk, M. Hagström, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Andersson, J.-C. Berges, J.-P. Chabaud, M. Dahlgren, A. Emrich, H.-G. Florén, G. Florin, M. Fredrixon, T. Gaier, R. Haas, T. Hirvonen, A. Hjalmarsson, B. Jakobsson, P. Jukkala, P. Kildal, E. Kollberg, J. Lassing, A. Lecacheux, P. Lehikoinen, A. Lehto, J. Mallat, C. Marty, D. Michet, J. Narbonne, M. Nexon, M. Olberg, O. Olofsson, G. Olofsson, A. Origné, M. Petersson, P. Piironen, R. Pons, D. Pouliquen, I. Ristocelli, C. Rosolen, G. Rouaix, A. Räisänen, G. Serra, F. Sjöberg, L. Stenmark, S. Torchinsky, J. Tuovinen, C. Ullberg, E. Vinterhav, N. Wadefalk, H. Zirath, P. Zimmermann, R. Zimmermann, “The Odin satellite. I. Radiometer design and test,” Astron. Astrophys. 402, L27–L34 (2003).
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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MOLIERE-5 model calculations in the 320–350-GHz range for standard atmospheric conditions. In the nadir observation geometry the transitions appear as absorption lines viewed against the blackbody radiation of the warmer surface (top). By pointing at the limb, an observation system would measure the atmospheric line emission against the weak cosmic background radiation (middle). The tangent altitude of the limb view shown in this example is 6 km. Bottom: model calculations for the individual double-sideband receiver bands of H2O (325.153 GHz), O3 and H2O2 (326.901 and 326.982 GHz), 13CO (330.588 GHz), HDO (335.396 GHz), and12CO (345.796 GHz) at selected tangent altitudes (4, 12, 20, and 40 km).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of the nonlinear retrieval simulations for H2O at 325.153 GHz. Left, retrieved, a priori, and true profiles (see legend). Thick error bars indicate the retrieval error that is due to intrinsic receiver noise. The total retrieval error, also including the smoothing error that is due to the limited altitude resolution, is given by the thin error bars. Shaded area: assumed a priori error. Middle: averaging kernel functions for each retrieval level. The altitude resolution (FWHM) of the measurement is indicated for each retrieval level. The envelope is the measurement response. Values close to 1 indicate the altitude range where the information from the measurement dominates the a priori information. Right: retrieval errors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the nonlinear retrieval simulations for HDO at 335.396 GHz. See the caption of Fig. 2 for an explanation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of the nonlinear retrieval simulations for the species H2O2 at 326.982 GHz (top) and O3 at 326.901 GHz (bottom), retrieved simultaneously on an inversion altitude grid of 10–km resolution. See the caption of Fig. 2 for an explanation. The a priori error for H2O2 and O3 is 3 × 10−7.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of estimated measurement precision (left) and altitude resolution (right) achievable from single-scan (1-s), zonal-mean (25-s), and nadir (5-s) retrievals of H2O at 325.153 GHz. Also shown are retrieval errors obtained with the assumption of a reduced inversion altitude grid of 10-km resolution. Typical and extreme water vapor profiles (extremely wet, 120 pr-µm; standard, 17 pr-µm; moderately dry, 3 pr-µm; extremely dry, 0.15 pr-µm), are indicated for comparison.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of estimated measurement precision (left) and altitude resolution (right) achievable from single-scan (1-s) and zonal-mean (25-s) retrievals of HDO at 335.396 GHz. Also shown are retrieval errors obtained with the assumption of a reduced inversion altitude grid of 10-km resolution. Profiles for standard and wet (upper limit) atmospheric conditions are also shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of measurement precision for the D/H ratio derived from single-scan (1-s) and zonal-mean (25-s) retrievals of HDO at 335.1 GHz and H2O at 325.1 GHz. Also shown are retrieval errors obtained with the assumption of a reduced inversion altitude grid of 10-km resolution. Profiles with depletion of 80% and 20%, derived from the standard and wet scenario for H2O and HDO, are indicated for comparison.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of estimated measurement precision (left) and altitude resolution (right) achievable from single-scan (1-s), zonal-mean (25-s), and nadir (5-s) retrievals of H2O2 at 326.982 GHz (top) and O3 at 326.901 GHz (bottom). Retrieval errors obtained from inversion simulations with the assumption of a reduced inversion altitude grid of 10-km resolution are also presented. Typical profiles are indicated for comparison.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

MOLIERE-5 model calculations for selected channels of the 13CO (left) and 12CO (middle) bands, assuming standard atmospheric conditions. The curves represent brightness temperatures for individual channels as a function of tangent altitude (SSB: single-sideband spectrum). The resultant double-sideband spectrum (DSB) is shown at the right. The temperature profile, converted to brightness temperatures, is indicated as well (dashed curves).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Results of the nonlinear retrieval simulations for 12CO at 345.796 GHz (top), 13CO at 330.588 GHz (middle), and the simultaneously retrieved temperature. See the caption of Fig. 2 for an explanation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of estimated measurement precision (left) and altitude resolution (right) achievable from single-scan (1-s), zonal-mean (25-s), and nadir (5-s) temperature retrievals from spectral lines of 12CO at 345.796 GHz and 13CO at 330.588 GHz. Also shown are retrieval errors obtained with the assumption of a reduced inversion altitude grid of 10-km resolution.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of measurement precision (left) and altitude resolution (right) for single-scan profile retrievals of temperature from different CO isotope line pairs in the 150–650 GHz range.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Top, comparison of measurement precision (left) and altitude resolution (right) for single-scan profile retrievals from H2O target lines in the 150–650-GHz range (standard conditions). Bottom, retrieval precision for extremely dry (left) and extremely wet (right) conditions. Typical profiles are given for comparison.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison of measurement precision (left) and altitude resolution (right) for single-scan profile retrievals from potential HDO target lines in the 150–650-GHz range. A typical profile is shown as well.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Comparison of the measurement precision of the D/H ratio derived from single-scan profile retrievals from different H2O and HDO line pairs in the 150–650-GHz range. The profile of the standard scenario (with 80% depletion above 45 km) is shown for comparison.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Target Lines and Back-End Spectrometer Configuration for the 320–350-GHz Range

Tables Icon

Table 2 Theoretical Capabilities of a Submillimeter-Wave Limb Sounder in the 320–350-GHz Range for Observation of Key Parameters in the Martian Atmospherea

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