Abstract

Understanding the propagation of polarized light in tissue is crucial for a number of biomedical optics applications. Here we report the development of a bioengineered connective tissue model fabricated by the combination of scaffolding and cross-linking techniques to study light transport in biological tissue. It demonstrates great similarity to real connective tissue in its optical properties as well as microarchitecture. Moreover, the optical properties of the model can be reproducibly controlled. As an example, we report the utilization of this model to study the effect of epithelium and the underlying connective tissue on the depth selectivity of polarization gating.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. R. Anderson, “Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000–1005 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Bartlett, G. Huang, L. Larcom, H. B. Jiang, “Measurement of particle size distribution in mammalian cells in vitro by use of polarized light spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1296–1307 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  8. K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy with polarized light: is it sensitive to cellular and nuclear morphology,” Opt. Express 5, 302–317 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1308–1319 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. M. Johnson, J. R. Mourant, “Polarized wavelength-dependent measurements of turbid media,” Opt. Express 4, 200–216 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Amelink, H. Sterenborg, M. P. L. Bard, S. A. Burgers, “In vivo measurement of the local optical properties of tissue by use of differential pathlength spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1087–1089 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. G. Demos, R. R. Alfano, “Optical polarization imaging,” Appl. Opt. 36, 150–155 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Jiao, G. Yao, L. Wang, “Depth-resolved two-dimensional Stokes vectors of backscattered light and Mueller matrices of biological tissue measured with optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6318–6324 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1906–1908 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Q. Liu, N. Ramanujam, “Experimental proof of the feasibility of using angled fiber-optic probe for depth-sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2034–2036 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. V. V. Tuchin, Handbook of Optical Biomedical Diagnostics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 2002), pp. 312–352.
  28. V. Sankaran, M. J. Everett, D. J. Maitland, J. T. Walsh, “Comparison of polarized-light propagation in biological tissue and phantoms,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1044–1046 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, D. J. Maitland, “Polarized light propagation through tissue phantoms containing densely packed scatterers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 239–241 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300–306 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 148–156 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014–11019 (2002).
  33. G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, C. J. Wang, Z. B. Hus, “Development of tissue-simulating optical phantoms: poly-N-isopropylacrylamide solution entrapped inside a hydrogel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 309–318 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. W. Bloom, D. W. Fawcett, A. A. Maximow, A Textbook of Histology, 10th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1975), pp. 133–167.
  35. E. Sachlos, J. T. Czernuszka, “Making tissue engineering scaffolds work. Review on the application of solid freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds,” Eur. Cells Mater. 5, 29–40 (2003).
  36. M. A. Hayat, Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy: Biological Applications, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1989).
  37. A. Boyde, E. Bailey, S. J. Jones, A. Tamarin, “Dimensional changes during specimen preparation for scanning electron microscopy,” Scanning Electron Microsc. 1, 507–518 (1977).
  38. A. Boyde, F. Franc, “Freeze-drying shrinkage of glutaraldehyde-fixed liver,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 122, 75–86 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. A. Prahl, “Optical property measurements using the inverse adding-doubling program,” (Oregon Medical Laser Center, St. Vincent Hospital, 9205 S. W. Barnes Road, Portland, Oreg. 97225), http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/iad/ , January1999.
  40. S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding–doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. W. Pickering, S. A. Prahl, N. Vanwieringen, J. F. Beek, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. Vangemert, “Double-integrating-sphere system for measuring the optical-properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 32, 399–410 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Vangemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  43. J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  45. L. P. Gartner, J. L. Hiatt, Color Atlas of Histology, 2nd ed. (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1994), pp. 260–261.
  46. W. Bloom, D. W. Fawcett, A. A. Maximow, A Textbook of Histology, 10th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).
  47. K. A. Warfel, M. T. Hull, “Scanning electron microscopic study of the epitheliual-mesenchymal junction of the esophagus,” Scanning Electron Microsc. Pt 2, 697–701 (1984).
  48. R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-mm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 29, 83–85 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-mm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 29, 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bartlett, G. Huang, L. Larcom, H. B. Jiang, “Measurement of particle size distribution in mammalian cells in vitro by use of polarized light spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1296–1307 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1308–1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, H. Sterenborg, M. P. L. Bard, S. A. Burgers, “In vivo measurement of the local optical properties of tissue by use of differential pathlength spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1087–1089 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1906–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, N. Ramanujam, “Experimental proof of the feasibility of using angled fiber-optic probe for depth-sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2034–2036 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Sachlos, J. T. Czernuszka, “Making tissue engineering scaffolds work. Review on the application of solid freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds,” Eur. Cells Mater. 5, 29–40 (2003).

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 148–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014–11019 (2002).

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, D. J. Maitland, “Polarized light propagation through tissue phantoms containing densely packed scatterers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 239–241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiao, G. Yao, L. Wang, “Depth-resolved two-dimensional Stokes vectors of backscattered light and Mueller matrices of biological tissue measured with optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6318–6324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. M. Johnson, J. R. Mourant, “Polarized wavelength-dependent measurements of turbid media,” Opt. Express 4, 200–216 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy with polarized light: is it sensitive to cellular and nuclear morphology,” Opt. Express 5, 302–317 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, M. J. Everett, D. J. Maitland, J. T. Walsh, “Comparison of polarized-light propagation in biological tissue and phantoms,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1044–1046 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, C. J. Wang, Z. B. Hus, “Development of tissue-simulating optical phantoms: poly-N-isopropylacrylamide solution entrapped inside a hydrogel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Demos, R. R. Alfano, “Optical polarization imaging,” Appl. Opt. 36, 150–155 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1991

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984

K. A. Warfel, M. T. Hull, “Scanning electron microscopic study of the epitheliual-mesenchymal junction of the esophagus,” Scanning Electron Microsc. Pt 2, 697–701 (1984).

1981

A. Boyde, F. Franc, “Freeze-drying shrinkage of glutaraldehyde-fixed liver,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 122, 75–86 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. Boyde, E. Bailey, S. J. Jones, A. Tamarin, “Dimensional changes during specimen preparation for scanning electron microscopy,” Scanning Electron Microsc. 1, 507–518 (1977).

Aalders, M.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aaron, J.

Aida, T.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Amelink, A.

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, J. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arifler, D.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1906–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, E.

A. Boyde, E. Bailey, S. J. Jones, A. Tamarin, “Dimensional changes during specimen preparation for scanning electron microscopy,” Scanning Electron Microsc. 1, 507–518 (1977).

Bard, M. P. L.

Bartlett, M.

Beek, J. F.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, S. A. Prahl, N. Vanwieringen, J. F. Beek, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. Vangemert, “Double-integrating-sphere system for measuring the optical-properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 32, 399–410 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, A. J.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blokland, P.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloom, W.

W. Bloom, D. W. Fawcett, A. A. Maximow, A Textbook of Histology, 10th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1975), pp. 133–167.

W. Bloom, D. W. Fawcett, A. A. Maximow, A Textbook of Histology, 10th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

Boone, C. W.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyde, A.

A. Boyde, F. Franc, “Freeze-drying shrinkage of glutaraldehyde-fixed liver,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 122, 75–86 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Boyde, E. Bailey, S. J. Jones, A. Tamarin, “Dimensional changes during specimen preparation for scanning electron microscopy,” Scanning Electron Microsc. 1, 507–518 (1977).

Boyer, J.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgers, S. A.

Butler, J.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, S.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A. E.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Collier, T.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conn, R. L.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Czernuszka, J. T.

E. Sachlos, J. T. Czernuszka, “Making tissue engineering scaffolds work. Review on the application of solid freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds,” Eur. Cells Mater. 5, 29–40 (2003).

Dasari, R. R.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

Drezek, R.

Everett, M. J.

Fawcett, D. W.

W. Bloom, D. W. Fawcett, A. A. Maximow, A Textbook of Histology, 10th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1975), pp. 133–167.

W. Bloom, D. W. Fawcett, A. A. Maximow, A Textbook of Histology, 10th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

Feld, M. S.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franc, F.

A. Boyde, F. Franc, “Freeze-drying shrinkage of glutaraldehyde-fixed liver,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 122, 75–86 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Freyer, J. P.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galvan, J.

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 148–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gartner, L. P.

L. P. Gartner, J. L. Hiatt, Color Atlas of Histology, 2nd ed. (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1994), pp. 260–261.

Georgakoudi, I.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, M. J.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, V.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gossage, K.

Guerra, A.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gurjar, R. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamano, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hayat, M. A.

M. A. Hayat, Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy: Biological Applications, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1989).

Hiatt, J. L.

L. P. Gartner, J. L. Hiatt, Color Atlas of Histology, 2nd ed. (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1994), pp. 260–261.

Holcombe, R. F.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiang, D.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

Huang, G.

Hull, M. T.

K. A. Warfel, M. T. Hull, “Scanning electron microscopic study of the epitheliual-mesenchymal junction of the esophagus,” Scanning Electron Microsc. Pt 2, 697–701 (1984).

Hus, Z. B.

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, C. J. Wang, Z. B. Hus, “Development of tissue-simulating optical phantoms: poly-N-isopropylacrylamide solution entrapped inside a hydrogel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, L.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-mm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 29, 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakubowski, D.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H. B.

Jiao, S.

Johnson, T.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Johnson, J. R. Mourant, “Polarized wavelength-dependent measurements of turbid media,” Opt. Express 4, 200–216 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, S. J.

A. Boyde, E. Bailey, S. J. Jones, A. Tamarin, “Dimensional changes during specimen preparation for scanning electron microscopy,” Scanning Electron Microsc. 1, 507–518 (1977).

Kabani, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalashnikov, M.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. L.

Kline, E.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kromine, A. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lacy, A.

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 148–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanning, R.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larcom, L.

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, H. S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R. C.

Liu, Q.

Liu, Y.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1906–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lotan, R.

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 148–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maitland, D. J.

Malpica, A.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, R.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, G.

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, C. J. Wang, Z. B. Hus, “Development of tissue-simulating optical phantoms: poly-N-isopropylacrylamide solution entrapped inside a hydrogel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maximow, A. A.

W. Bloom, D. W. Fawcett, A. A. Maximow, A Textbook of Histology, 10th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

W. Bloom, D. W. Fawcett, A. A. Maximow, A Textbook of Histology, 10th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1975), pp. 133–167.

McGillican, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Johnson, J. R. Mourant, “Polarized wavelength-dependent measurements of turbid media,” Opt. Express 4, 200–216 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, M.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M. G.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myakov, A.

L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1308–1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 148–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieman, L.

Nines, R.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pickering, J. W.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, S. A. Prahl, N. Vanwieringen, J. F. Beek, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. Vangemert, “Double-integrating-sphere system for measuring the optical-properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 32, 399–410 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Posthumus, P.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

J. W. Pickering, S. A. Prahl, N. Vanwieringen, J. F. Beek, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. Vangemert, “Double-integrating-sphere system for measuring the optical-properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 32, 399–410 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding–doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Prahl, “Optical property measurements using the inverse adding-doubling program,” (Oregon Medical Laser Center, St. Vincent Hospital, 9205 S. W. Barnes Road, Portland, Oreg. 97225), http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/iad/ , January1999.

Ramanujam, N.

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 148–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy with polarized light: is it sensitive to cellular and nuclear morphology,” Opt. Express 5, 302–317 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, H. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1906–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sachlos, E.

E. Sachlos, J. T. Czernuszka, “Making tissue engineering scaffolds work. Review on the application of solid freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds,” Eur. Cells Mater. 5, 29–40 (2003).

Sankaran, V.

Seiler, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapshay, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, T.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shure, M. A.

Sivak, M. V.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K.

Southern, J. F.

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, V. E.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sterenborg, H.

Stoner, G. D.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sun, D.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamarin, A.

A. Boyde, E. Bailey, S. J. Jones, A. Tamarin, “Dimensional changes during specimen preparation for scanning electron microscopy,” Scanning Electron Microsc. 1, 507–518 (1977).

Thomas, G. A.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014–11019 (2002).

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, Handbook of Optical Biomedical Diagnostics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 2002), pp. 312–352.

Turzhitsky, V. M.

Valdez, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

vanGemert, M. J. C.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pickering, S. A. Prahl, N. Vanwieringen, J. F. Beek, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. Vangemert, “Double-integrating-sphere system for measuring the optical-properties of tissue,” Appl. Opt. 32, 399–410 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Vangemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Vanwieringen, N.

Wali, R. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1906–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M. B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

Wang, C. J.

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, C. J. Wang, Z. B. Hus, “Development of tissue-simulating optical phantoms: poly-N-isopropylacrylamide solution entrapped inside a hydrogel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, C. J. Wang, Z. B. Hus, “Development of tissue-simulating optical phantoms: poly-N-isopropylacrylamide solution entrapped inside a hydrogel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warfel, K. A.

K. A. Warfel, M. T. Hull, “Scanning electron microscopic study of the epitheliual-mesenchymal junction of the esophagus,” Scanning Electron Microsc. Pt 2, 697–701 (1984).

Wax, A.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding–doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Vangemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. H.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Yao, G.

Yeh, A.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014–11019 (2002).

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zoumi, A.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014–11019 (2002).

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Dermatol.

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Eur. Cells Mater.

E. Sachlos, J. T. Czernuszka, “Making tissue engineering scaffolds work. Review on the application of solid freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds,” Eur. Cells Mater. 5, 29–40 (2003).

Gastroenterology

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 148–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (Oxford)

A. Boyde, F. Franc, “Freeze-drying shrinkage of glutaraldehyde-fixed liver,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 122, 75–86 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, C. J. Wang, Z. B. Hus, “Development of tissue-simulating optical phantoms: poly-N-isopropylacrylamide solution entrapped inside a hydrogel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014–11019 (2002).

Scanning Electron Microsc.

K. A. Warfel, M. T. Hull, “Scanning electron microscopic study of the epitheliual-mesenchymal junction of the esophagus,” Scanning Electron Microsc. Pt 2, 697–701 (1984).

A. Boyde, E. Bailey, S. J. Jones, A. Tamarin, “Dimensional changes during specimen preparation for scanning electron microscopy,” Scanning Electron Microsc. 1, 507–518 (1977).

Other

M. A. Hayat, Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy: Biological Applications, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1989).

W. Bloom, D. W. Fawcett, A. A. Maximow, A Textbook of Histology, 10th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, 1975), pp. 133–167.

L. P. Gartner, J. L. Hiatt, Color Atlas of Histology, 2nd ed. (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1994), pp. 260–261.

W. Bloom, D. W. Fawcett, A. A. Maximow, A Textbook of Histology, 10th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1994).

S. A. Prahl, “Optical property measurements using the inverse adding-doubling program,” (Oregon Medical Laser Center, St. Vincent Hospital, 9205 S. W. Barnes Road, Portland, Oreg. 97225), http://omlc.ogi.edu/software/iad/ , January1999.

V. V. Tuchin, Handbook of Optical Biomedical Diagnostics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 2002), pp. 312–352.

A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Vangemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

One can control optical properties of the tissue model by varying synthesis conditions. (a) The dependence of the scattering coefficient µs(λ = 632.8 nm) on the concentration of the glutaraldehyde solution. (b) The dependence of the anisotropy factor g(λ = 632.8 nm) on the freeze-drying pressure. (c) The dependence of the absorption coefficient µa(λ = 543.5 nm) on the concentration of the hemoglobin solution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of (a) the rat colonic connective tissue and (b) the bioengineered connective tissue model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Design of the integrating-sphere setup. BS, beam splitter; A1, A2, A3, apertures; M1, M2, mirrors; WS, reflectance white standard; IS, integrating sphere; S, sample; F, flipper; D1 and D2, photodiodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup for polarization measurements. C, condenser; L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, lenses; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; A1, A2, A3, A4, apertures; SS, sample stage; P1, P2, polarizers; SP, imaging spectrograph; CCD, charge-coupled device camera. (b) Unfolded view of the collection arm consisting of a 4f imaging system of L3, L4, and a Fourier lens L5. Lens L3 is positioned at one focal length from the sample plane PL1. The 4f system of L3, L4 projects an image of the sample onto plane PL3. The readable aperture A4 in PL3 is used to control the area of scattered light collection. Lens L5 projects the angular distribution of the scattered light from the area of interest onto the slit (S) of the imaging spectrograph SP.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of a two-layered tissue phantom. The base layer consists of 4.78-µm polystyrene microspheres embedded in an agarose gel. The top layer consists of either the bioengineered connective tissue model or the rat esophageal squamous stratified epithelium.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum of light scattered by 4.78-µm microspheres exhibits a characteristic feature: high-frequency oscillations of intensity as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectrum of differential polarization signal ΔI(λ) for various values of the optical thickness of the superficial layer in a two-layered tissue phantom. (a) For optical thickness τ = 0 (no superficial layer), ΔI(λ) shows the characteristic scattering feature of the base layer, i.e., the high-frequency oscillations in wavelength. (b) As τ increases (τ ∼ 1.2), the high-frequency oscillations decrease, thus indicating that more differential polarization photons are localized within the top layer. (c) When the optical thickness of the superficial layer τ is increased further (τ ∼ 3), the high-frequency oscillations in ΔI(λ) vanish. At this point, the majority of differential polarization photons are localized within the top layer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic illustrating the algorithm to quantify the contribution of a top phantom layer to the differential polarization signal at each optical depth. (a) A differential polarization spectrum is mean scaled. Then a second-order polynomial is used to fit the normalized differential polarization signal. (b) The fit shown in (a) is subtracted from the original signal to extract the high-frequency component. (c) The power spectrum density of the high-frequency component is evaluated at the respective size.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Contribution factor C as a function of the physical thickness of the bioengineered connective tissue model (diamonds) and epithelium (squares). (b) Contribution factor C as a function of the optical thickness τ of either the bioengineered connective tissue model (diamonds) or esophageal epithelium (squares). C(τ) quantifies the portion of the differential polarization signal contributed from tissue depths greater than τ.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Optical Properties of Polystyrene Microsphere Suspension between the Experimental Results and Mie Calculation

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R d = R s R 0 R ref R ref 0 T d = T s T 0 T ref T ref 0 , T c = T c s T c 0 T c ref T c ref 0 ,

Metrics