Abstract

Understanding the propagation of polarized light in tissue is crucial for a number of biomedical optics applications. Here we report the development of a bioengineered connective tissue model fabricated by the combination of scaffolding and cross-linking techniques to study light transport in biological tissue. It demonstrates great similarity to real connective tissue in its optical properties as well as microarchitecture. Moreover, the optical properties of the model can be reproducibly controlled. As an example, we report the utilization of this model to study the effect of epithelium and the underlying connective tissue on the depth selectivity of polarization gating.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (7)

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Lin, M. A. Shure, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, D. Huang, “Group index of the human cornea at 1.3-mm wavelength obtained in vitro by optical coherence domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 29, 83–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bartlett, G. Huang, L. Larcom, H. B. Jiang, “Measurement of particle size distribution in mammalian cells in vitro by use of polarized light spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1296–1307 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1308–1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, H. Sterenborg, M. P. L. Bard, S. A. Burgers, “In vivo measurement of the local optical properties of tissue by use of differential pathlength spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1087–1089 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1906–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, N. Ramanujam, “Experimental proof of the feasibility of using angled fiber-optic probe for depth-sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2034–2036 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Sachlos, J. T. Czernuszka, “Making tissue engineering scaffolds work. Review on the application of solid freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds,” Eur. Cells Mater. 5, 29–40 (2003).

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (6)

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 148–156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014–11019 (2002).

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, D. J. Maitland, “Polarized light propagation through tissue phantoms containing densely packed scatterers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 239–241 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiao, G. Yao, L. Wang, “Depth-resolved two-dimensional Stokes vectors of backscattered light and Mueller matrices of biological tissue measured with optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6318–6324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

T. M. Johnson, J. R. Mourant, “Polarized wavelength-dependent measurements of turbid media,” Opt. Express 4, 200–216 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, K. Gossage, R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy with polarized light: is it sensitive to cellular and nuclear morphology,” Opt. Express 5, 302–317 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, M. J. Everett, D. J. Maitland, J. T. Walsh, “Comparison of polarized-light propagation in biological tissue and phantoms,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1044–1046 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, C. J. Wang, Z. B. Hus, “Development of tissue-simulating optical phantoms: poly-N-isopropylacrylamide solution entrapped inside a hydrogel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, M. E. Brezinski, J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo cellular optical coherence tomography imaging,” Nat. Med. 4, 861–865 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Demos, R. R. Alfano, “Optical polarization imaging,” Appl. Opt. 36, 150–155 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1991 (1)

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

K. A. Warfel, M. T. Hull, “Scanning electron microscopic study of the epitheliual-mesenchymal junction of the esophagus,” Scanning Electron Microsc. Pt 2, 697–701 (1984).

1981 (1)

A. Boyde, F. Franc, “Freeze-drying shrinkage of glutaraldehyde-fixed liver,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 122, 75–86 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Boyde, E. Bailey, S. J. Jones, A. Tamarin, “Dimensional changes during specimen preparation for scanning electron microscopy,” Scanning Electron Microsc. 1, 507–518 (1977).

Aalders, M.

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aaron, J.

Aida, T.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Amelink, A.

Anderson, R. R.

R. R. Anderson, “Polarized-light examination and photography of the skin,” Arch. Dermatol. 127, 1000–1005 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, J. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arifler, D.

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1906–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
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V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
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J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
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A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Vangemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1995).

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H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M. B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

Wang, C. J.

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, C. J. Wang, Z. B. Hus, “Development of tissue-simulating optical phantoms: poly-N-isopropylacrylamide solution entrapped inside a hydrogel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
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Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, C. J. Wang, Z. B. Hus, “Development of tissue-simulating optical phantoms: poly-N-isopropylacrylamide solution entrapped inside a hydrogel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 309–318 (1999).
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K. A. Warfel, M. T. Hull, “Scanning electron microscopic study of the epitheliual-mesenchymal junction of the esophagus,” Scanning Electron Microsc. Pt 2, 697–701 (1984).

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A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
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S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid media by using the adding–doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).
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W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
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A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Vangemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1995).

Yang, C. H.

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
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Yeh, A.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014–11019 (2002).

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zoumi, A.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014–11019 (2002).

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A. Wax, C. H. Yang, M. G. Muller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63, 3556–3559 (2003).
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E. Sachlos, J. T. Czernuszka, “Making tissue engineering scaffolds work. Review on the application of solid freeform fabrication technology to the production of tissue engineering scaffolds,” Eur. Cells Mater. 5, 29–40 (2003).

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H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. Kim, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126, 1071–1081 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120, 1620–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
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V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887–893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromine, K. Chen, V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 243–257 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, L. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
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J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, M. V. Sivak, “Optical coherence tomography and microscopy in gastrointestinal tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017–1028 (1996).
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T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307–313 (2003).
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V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300–306 (2002).
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K. Sokolov, J. Galvan, A. Myakov, A. Lacy, R. Lotan, R. Richards-Kortum, “Realistic three-dimensional epithelial tissue phantoms for biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 148–156 (2002).
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S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329–340 (2002).
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J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 378–387 (2002).
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A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
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A. Boyde, F. Franc, “Freeze-drying shrinkage of glutaraldehyde-fixed liver,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 122, 75–86 (1981).
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S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
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R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7, 1245–1248 (2001).
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Nature (1)

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, T. McGillican, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406, 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, C. J. Wang, Z. B. Hus, “Development of tissue-simulating optical phantoms: poly-N-isopropylacrylamide solution entrapped inside a hydrogel,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 309–318 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Beek, P. Blokland, P. Posthumus, M. Aalders, J. W. Pickering, H. Sterenborg, M. J. C. vanGemert, “In vitro double-integrating-sphere optical properties of tissues between 630 and 1064 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2255–2261 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, B. J. Tromberg, “Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014–11019 (2002).

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A. J. Welch, M. J. C. Vangemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1995).

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