Abstract

Dynamic near-infrared optical tomographic measurement instrumentation capable of simultaneous bilateral breast imaging, having a capability of four source wavelengths and 32 source–detector fibers for each breast, is described. The system records dynamic optical data simultaneously from both breasts, while verifying proper optical fiber contact with the tissue through implementation of automatic schemes for evaluating data integrity. Factors influencing system complexity and performance are discussed, and experimental measurements are provided to demonstrate the repeatability of the instrumentation. Considerations in experimental design are presented, as well as techniques for avoiding undesirable measurement artifacts, given the high sensitivity and dynamic range (1:109) of the system. We present exemplary clinical results comparing the measured physiologic response of a healthy individual and of a subject with breast cancer to a Valsalva maneuver.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation ThF28.
  2. C. H. Schmitz, M. Löcker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429–439 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.
  4. C. H. Schmitz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for real-time dynamic optical tomography,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 282–291 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. P. Klemer, R. L. Barbour, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, A. G. Smeraldi, “Multi-site near-infrared tomographic imaging of the brain,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.
  6. A. G. Smeraldi, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, C. H. Schmitz, T. F. Panetta, R. L. Barbour, “Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using non-invasive dynamic optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF36.
  7. R. E. Hardin, D. P. Klemer, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Application of dynamic optical tomography for the detection of a multi-phase physiologic response to Valsalva maneuver in healthy breast tissue,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF37.
  8. M. S. Katz, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, A. D. Smeraldi, D. P. Klemer, C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Physiological variation in vascular reactivity of breast tissue over the menstrual cycle demonstrated by optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WA5.
  9. Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Influence of systematic errors in reference states on image quality and on stability of derived information for DC optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5755–5769 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, S. Zhong, C. H. Schmitz, “Optical tomographic imaging of dynamic features of dense-scattering media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 3018–3036 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, R. L. Barbour, “dynaLYZE—an analysis package for time-series NIRS imaging data,” in Bio-medical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation FH42.
  12. R. A. Nishimura, A. J. Tajik, “The Valsalva maneuver and response revisited,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 61, 211–217 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. K. Jain, “Normalizing tumor vasculature with anti-angiogenetic therapy: a new paradigm for combination therapy,” Nat. Med. 7, 987–989 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. L. Barbour, D. K. Johnston, Y. Zheng, J. E. Mayhew, “Signal source separation and localization in the analysis of dynamic near infrared optical tomographic time series,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds. Proc. SPIE4955, 31–51 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).
  17. M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infra-red transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, H. B. Luo, I. Arif, J. Hira, Y. L. Pei, A. Bluestone, S. Zhong, R. Andronica, I. Soller, N. Ramirez, S. L. S. Barbour, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation and calibration protocol for imaging dynamic features in dense-scattering media by optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6466–6486 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Sassaroli, S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer–Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N255–N257 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. An interesting implication of the main result of Ref. 20 is that even if pulsed time-resolved or frequency-domain measurements were made, the value of d still could not be experimentally determined.

2004 (1)

A. Sassaroli, S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer–Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N255–N257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. H. Schmitz, M. Löcker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429–439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1988 (2)

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infra-red transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

R. A. Nishimura, A. J. Tajik, “The Valsalva maneuver and response revisited,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 61, 211–217 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andronica, R.

Arif, I.

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbour, R. L.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Löcker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429–439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Influence of systematic errors in reference states on image quality and on stability of derived information for DC optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5755–5769 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, S. Zhong, C. H. Schmitz, “Optical tomographic imaging of dynamic features of dense-scattering media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 3018–3036 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, H. B. Luo, I. Arif, J. Hira, Y. L. Pei, A. Bluestone, S. Zhong, R. Andronica, I. Soller, N. Ramirez, S. L. S. Barbour, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation and calibration protocol for imaging dynamic features in dense-scattering media by optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6466–6486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. L. Barbour, D. K. Johnston, Y. Zheng, J. E. Mayhew, “Signal source separation and localization in the analysis of dynamic near infrared optical tomographic time series,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds. Proc. SPIE4955, 31–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

M. S. Katz, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, A. D. Smeraldi, D. P. Klemer, C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Physiological variation in vascular reactivity of breast tissue over the menstrual cycle demonstrated by optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WA5.

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, R. L. Barbour, “dynaLYZE—an analysis package for time-series NIRS imaging data,” in Bio-medical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation FH42.

A. G. Smeraldi, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, C. H. Schmitz, T. F. Panetta, R. L. Barbour, “Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using non-invasive dynamic optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF36.

R. E. Hardin, D. P. Klemer, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Application of dynamic optical tomography for the detection of a multi-phase physiologic response to Valsalva maneuver in healthy breast tissue,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF37.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation ThF28.

C. H. Schmitz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for real-time dynamic optical tomography,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 282–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Klemer, R. L. Barbour, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, A. G. Smeraldi, “Multi-site near-infrared tomographic imaging of the brain,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

Barbour, S. L. S.

Bluestone, A.

Castellanos, F. X.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

Chance, B.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infra-red transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infra-red transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Martino, A.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

Fantini, S.

A. Sassaroli, S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer–Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N255–N257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, N. A.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

D. P. Klemer, R. L. Barbour, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, A. G. Smeraldi, “Multi-site near-infrared tomographic imaging of the brain,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

A. G. Smeraldi, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, C. H. Schmitz, T. F. Panetta, R. L. Barbour, “Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using non-invasive dynamic optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF36.

M. S. Katz, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, A. D. Smeraldi, D. P. Klemer, C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Physiological variation in vascular reactivity of breast tissue over the menstrual cycle demonstrated by optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WA5.

R. E. Hardin, D. P. Klemer, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Application of dynamic optical tomography for the detection of a multi-phase physiologic response to Valsalva maneuver in healthy breast tissue,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF37.

Graber, H. L.

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Influence of systematic errors in reference states on image quality and on stability of derived information for DC optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5755–5769 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, S. Zhong, C. H. Schmitz, “Optical tomographic imaging of dynamic features of dense-scattering media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 3018–3036 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, H. B. Luo, I. Arif, J. Hira, Y. L. Pei, A. Bluestone, S. Zhong, R. Andronica, I. Soller, N. Ramirez, S. L. S. Barbour, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation and calibration protocol for imaging dynamic features in dense-scattering media by optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6466–6486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. L. Barbour, D. K. Johnston, Y. Zheng, J. E. Mayhew, “Signal source separation and localization in the analysis of dynamic near infrared optical tomographic time series,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds. Proc. SPIE4955, 31–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Katz, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, A. D. Smeraldi, D. P. Klemer, C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Physiological variation in vascular reactivity of breast tissue over the menstrual cycle demonstrated by optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WA5.

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, R. L. Barbour, “dynaLYZE—an analysis package for time-series NIRS imaging data,” in Bio-medical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation FH42.

R. E. Hardin, D. P. Klemer, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Application of dynamic optical tomography for the detection of a multi-phase physiologic response to Valsalva maneuver in healthy breast tissue,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF37.

A. G. Smeraldi, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, C. H. Schmitz, T. F. Panetta, R. L. Barbour, “Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using non-invasive dynamic optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF36.

C. H. Schmitz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for real-time dynamic optical tomography,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 282–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation ThF28.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

Graber, R. L.

D. P. Klemer, R. L. Barbour, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, A. G. Smeraldi, “Multi-site near-infrared tomographic imaging of the brain,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

Hardin, R. E.

D. P. Klemer, R. L. Barbour, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, A. G. Smeraldi, “Multi-site near-infrared tomographic imaging of the brain,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

R. E. Hardin, D. P. Klemer, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Application of dynamic optical tomography for the detection of a multi-phase physiologic response to Valsalva maneuver in healthy breast tissue,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF37.

A. G. Smeraldi, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, C. H. Schmitz, T. F. Panetta, R. L. Barbour, “Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using non-invasive dynamic optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF36.

M. S. Katz, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, A. D. Smeraldi, D. P. Klemer, C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Physiological variation in vascular reactivity of breast tissue over the menstrual cycle demonstrated by optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WA5.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

Hielscher, A. H.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Löcker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429–439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for real-time dynamic optical tomography,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 282–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hira, J.

Jain, R. K.

R. K. Jain, “Normalizing tumor vasculature with anti-angiogenetic therapy: a new paradigm for combination therapy,” Nat. Med. 7, 987–989 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, D. K.

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. L. Barbour, D. K. Johnston, Y. Zheng, J. E. Mayhew, “Signal source separation and localization in the analysis of dynamic near infrared optical tomographic time series,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds. Proc. SPIE4955, 31–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M. S.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

A. G. Smeraldi, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, C. H. Schmitz, T. F. Panetta, R. L. Barbour, “Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using non-invasive dynamic optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF36.

R. E. Hardin, D. P. Klemer, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Application of dynamic optical tomography for the detection of a multi-phase physiologic response to Valsalva maneuver in healthy breast tissue,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF37.

M. S. Katz, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, A. D. Smeraldi, D. P. Klemer, C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Physiological variation in vascular reactivity of breast tissue over the menstrual cycle demonstrated by optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WA5.

D. P. Klemer, R. L. Barbour, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, A. G. Smeraldi, “Multi-site near-infrared tomographic imaging of the brain,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

Khoury, G.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klemer, D. P.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

A. G. Smeraldi, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, C. H. Schmitz, T. F. Panetta, R. L. Barbour, “Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using non-invasive dynamic optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF36.

D. P. Klemer, R. L. Barbour, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, A. G. Smeraldi, “Multi-site near-infrared tomographic imaging of the brain,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

M. S. Katz, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, A. D. Smeraldi, D. P. Klemer, C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Physiological variation in vascular reactivity of breast tissue over the menstrual cycle demonstrated by optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WA5.

R. E. Hardin, D. P. Klemer, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Application of dynamic optical tomography for the detection of a multi-phase physiologic response to Valsalva maneuver in healthy breast tissue,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF37.

Lasker, J. M.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Löcker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429–439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for real-time dynamic optical tomography,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 282–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Levin, M. B.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation ThF28.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

Levina, R. D.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation ThF28.

Levina, R. L.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

Lewis, T.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Löcker, M.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Löcker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429–439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H. B.

Mayhew, J. E.

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. L. Barbour, D. K. Johnston, Y. Zheng, J. E. Mayhew, “Signal source separation and localization in the analysis of dynamic near infrared optical tomographic time series,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds. Proc. SPIE4955, 31–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naar, D. J.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, R. A.

R. A. Nishimura, A. J. Tajik, “The Valsalva maneuver and response revisited,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 61, 211–217 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panetta, T. F.

A. G. Smeraldi, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, C. H. Schmitz, T. F. Panetta, R. L. Barbour, “Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using non-invasive dynamic optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF36.

R. E. Hardin, D. P. Klemer, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Application of dynamic optical tomography for the detection of a multi-phase physiologic response to Valsalva maneuver in healthy breast tissue,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF37.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

Pei, Y.

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Influence of systematic errors in reference states on image quality and on stability of derived information for DC optical imaging,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5755–5769 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, S. Zhong, C. H. Schmitz, “Optical tomographic imaging of dynamic features of dense-scattering media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 3018–3036 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, R. L. Barbour, “dynaLYZE—an analysis package for time-series NIRS imaging data,” in Bio-medical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation FH42.

C. H. Schmitz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for real-time dynamic optical tomography,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 282–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Klemer, R. L. Barbour, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, A. G. Smeraldi, “Multi-site near-infrared tomographic imaging of the brain,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. L. Barbour, D. K. Johnston, Y. Zheng, J. E. Mayhew, “Signal source separation and localization in the analysis of dynamic near infrared optical tomographic time series,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds. Proc. SPIE4955, 31–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pei, Y. L.

Ramirez, N.

Sassaroli, A.

A. Sassaroli, S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer–Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N255–N257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz, C. H.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Löcker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429–439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, S. Zhong, C. H. Schmitz, “Optical tomographic imaging of dynamic features of dense-scattering media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 3018–3036 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, H. B. Luo, I. Arif, J. Hira, Y. L. Pei, A. Bluestone, S. Zhong, R. Andronica, I. Soller, N. Ramirez, S. L. S. Barbour, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation and calibration protocol for imaging dynamic features in dense-scattering media by optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6466–6486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

M. S. Katz, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, A. D. Smeraldi, D. P. Klemer, C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Physiological variation in vascular reactivity of breast tissue over the menstrual cycle demonstrated by optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WA5.

R. E. Hardin, D. P. Klemer, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Application of dynamic optical tomography for the detection of a multi-phase physiologic response to Valsalva maneuver in healthy breast tissue,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF37.

A. G. Smeraldi, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, C. H. Schmitz, T. F. Panetta, R. L. Barbour, “Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using non-invasive dynamic optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF36.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation ThF28.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

C. H. Schmitz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for real-time dynamic optical tomography,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 282–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Klemer, R. L. Barbour, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, A. G. Smeraldi, “Multi-site near-infrared tomographic imaging of the brain,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smeraldi, A. D.

M. S. Katz, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, A. D. Smeraldi, D. P. Klemer, C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Physiological variation in vascular reactivity of breast tissue over the menstrual cycle demonstrated by optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WA5.

Smeraldi, A. G.

R. E. Hardin, D. P. Klemer, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Application of dynamic optical tomography for the detection of a multi-phase physiologic response to Valsalva maneuver in healthy breast tissue,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF37.

D. P. Klemer, R. L. Barbour, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, A. G. Smeraldi, “Multi-site near-infrared tomographic imaging of the brain,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

A. G. Smeraldi, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, C. H. Schmitz, T. F. Panetta, R. L. Barbour, “Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using non-invasive dynamic optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF36.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

Soller, I.

Tajik, A. J.

R. A. Nishimura, A. J. Tajik, “The Valsalva maneuver and response revisited,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 61, 211–217 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, M.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tarantini, F.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van der Zee, P.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, R. L. Barbour, “dynaLYZE—an analysis package for time-series NIRS imaging data,” in Bio-medical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation FH42.

Zenilman, M. E.

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

Zheng, Y.

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. L. Barbour, D. K. Johnston, Y. Zheng, J. E. Mayhew, “Signal source separation and localization in the analysis of dynamic near infrared optical tomographic time series,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds. Proc. SPIE4955, 31–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, S.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mayo Clin. Proc. (1)

R. A. Nishimura, A. J. Tajik, “The Valsalva maneuver and response revisited,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 61, 211–217 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infra-red transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

R. K. Jain, “Normalizing tumor vasculature with anti-angiogenetic therapy: a new paradigm for combination therapy,” Nat. Med. 7, 987–989 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sassaroli, S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer–Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N255–N257 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. H. Schmitz, M. Löcker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429–439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

C. H. Schmitz, Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for real-time dynamic optical tomography,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 282–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Klemer, R. L. Barbour, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, A. G. Smeraldi, “Multi-site near-infrared tomographic imaging of the brain,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF35.

A. G. Smeraldi, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, M. S. Katz, C. H. Schmitz, T. F. Panetta, R. L. Barbour, “Evaluation of peripheral vascular disease using non-invasive dynamic optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF36.

R. E. Hardin, D. P. Klemer, M. S. Katz, N. A. Franco, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Application of dynamic optical tomography for the detection of a multi-phase physiologic response to Valsalva maneuver in healthy breast tissue,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WF37.

M. S. Katz, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, A. D. Smeraldi, D. P. Klemer, C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Physiological variation in vascular reactivity of breast tissue over the menstrual cycle demonstrated by optical tomography,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation WA5.

H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, R. L. Barbour, D. K. Johnston, Y. Zheng, J. E. Mayhew, “Signal source separation and localization in the analysis of dynamic near infrared optical tomographic time series,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, eds. Proc. SPIE4955, 31–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, C. H. Schmitz, F. Tarantini, G. Khoury, D. J. Naar, T. F. Panetta, T. Lewis, Y. Pei, “Time-frequency analysis of functional optical mammographic images,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue V, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE4955, 84–95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Barbour, H. L. Graber, Y. Pei, C. H. Schmitz, Y. Xu, A. Di Martino, F. X. Castellanos, D. P. Klemer, R. E. Hardin, N. A. Franco, M. S. Katz, M. E. Zenilman, A. G. Smeraldi, T. F. Panetta, “Functional imaging of the vascular bed by dynamic optical tomography,” in Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, A. A. Amini, A. Manduca, eds., Proc. SPIE5369, 132–149 (2004).

An interesting implication of the main result of Ref. 20 is that even if pulsed time-resolved or frequency-domain measurements were made, the value of d still could not be experimentally determined.

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, R. D. Levina, M. B. Levin, R. L. Barbour, “Data integrity assessment and instrument calibration for the DYNOT imaging system,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation ThF28.

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, Y. Xu, R. L. Barbour, “dynaLYZE—an analysis package for time-series NIRS imaging data,” in Bio-medical Topical Meetings on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), presentation FH42.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of DYNOT system hardware and software components, depicting seven levels of system integration: 1, hardware; 2, data acquisition and timing; 3, instrument control and diagnosis software; 4, real-time data display; 5, image-reconstruction software; 6, data–image time-series analysis; 7, interactive volume rendering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of measuring head used for simultaneous dual-breast measurements. Thirty-one source–detector fibers are distributed over the surface of each breast.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the dual-breast measuring head: 1, measuring cups; 2, fiber collets (pneumatic actuators) with optical fibers; 3, pressure manifolds; 4, 5, translation stages; 6, individual pitch and yaw adjustments; 7, pressure lines; 8, bank of voltage-controlled pressure regulators; 9, PC programmable analog voltage output card.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dual-breast setup screen. 1a, 1b, Displays for various data integrity measurements [shown here, color-encoded gain setting tables for left breast (a) and right breast (b)]. 2, Source–detector channel selector for manual gain adjustment. 3a, 3b, Gain selectors and signal displays for manual gain adjustment. 4, Selection of checkout algorithm results to be displayed in 1a and 1b.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Screen shot of the gain symmetry check offered by the system setup screen. Differences in reciprocal gain settings of ± 1 are permissible. In this example, the gain for S24/D9 requires readjustment.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of reciprocal channel cross correlations, calculated for a 25-source measurement head. Left panel, raw, unfiltered data; right panel, filtered data. Color scales range from r = 0.8 to 1.0.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Low-pass filtered reciprocal channel cross correlations for the same measurement head as in Fig. 6, with poor target contact for detector fiber 12.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example of reciprocal channel cross correlations and normalized RMS differences, calculated for a 31-source measurement head, with an offset error in fiber 9. Left panel, reciprocal channel cross correlation; right panel, reciprocal channel RMS difference computation, both low-pass filtered.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Screen shot of the dual-breast measurement screen during data acquisition, showing raw data time series for left (bottom, cancerous) and right (top, healthy) breast at 760 nm. Displayed are the color-encoded transmitted light intensity values for all data channels (vertical axis) and their change over time (scrolling horizontal axis). 1, 2, Onset and release of Valsalva, respectively. The data from the shown epoch were used to obtain results shown in Figs. 10 and 12.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Change in spatially averaged Hbred concentration over time, simultaneously recorded from the left and right breasts of (a) a patient with a left-sided breast tumor and (b) a healthy individual. The subjects were asked to perform a Valsalva maneuver during the shown epoch of the experiment.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Rank-ordered GLM percentage-of-variance values for source–detector channel Hboxy time series, using the spatially averaged Hboxy time series as a model function. Four curves correspond to Valsalva maneuver epochs 1 and 2, for left and right breasts.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Panel (a), reconstructed volumetric image time series of the change in Hbred during a Valsalva maneuver. Top row, left breast with tumor; bottom row, healthy right breast. The approximate location and size of a ductal carcinoma, as known from radiologic findings, is indicated. Panel (b), spatial mean of reconstructed changes in Hbred for the healthy breast. Numbers indicate the approximate location of time points for the reconstruction results.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Temporal variation in the spatially averaged Hboxy signal as a function of time. (Healthy volunteer performing four Valsalva maneuvers, with a head turn at 900 s.)

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Histograms of the correlations between Hb concentration change time series derived from reconstructed two-wavelength absorption coefficient images and the corresponding time series estimated from normalized detector data by using a MBL. Gray bars, Hboxy; black bars, Hbred.

Equations (12)

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number of data channels = WL × S × D ,
nRMSD = [ 1 N i = 1 N ( X i Y i ) 2 ] 1 / 2 [ 1 N i = 1 N ( X i 2 2 + Y i 2 2 ) ] 1 / 2 ,
I = I 0 exp [ ( μ a ¯ d + A 0 ) ] ,
1 d ln ( I 0 I 0 I 0 0 I ) = μ a ¯ .
ln I ( t ) I 0 ( t ) = ln I 0 ( t ) I 0 0 ( t ) μ a ¯ ( t ) d ,
x ( t ) = k I ( t ) k 0 I 0 ( t ) / t 1 t 2 k I ( t ) k 0 I 0 ( t ) t 2 t 1 + 1 = ( t 2 t 1 + 1 ) k I ( t ) k 0 I 0 ( t ) t 1 t 2 k I ( t ) k 0 I 0 ( t )
ln x ( t ) = ln ( t 2 t 1 + 1 ) + ln k k 0 ln t 1 t 2 k I ( t ) k 0 I 0 ( t ) + ln I ( t ) I 0 ( t ) = [ ln ( t 2 t 1 + 1 ) + ln k k 0 + ln I 0 ( t ) I 0 0 ( t ) ln t 1 t 2 k I ( t ) k 0 I 0 ( t ) ] μ a ¯ ( t ) d = [ ln ( t 2 t 1 + 1 ) + ln I 0 ( t ) I 0 0 ( t ) ln t 1 t 2 I ( t ) I 0 ( t ) ] μ a ¯ ( t ) d K μ a ¯ ( t ) d ,
ln x 1 ( t ) = K 1 μ a 1 ¯ ( t ) d 1 , ln x 2 ( t ) = K 2 μ a 2 ¯ ( t ) d 2 .
c o = ɛ 2 r μ a 1 ¯ ɛ 1 r μ a 2 ¯ ɛ 2 r ɛ 1 o ɛ 1 r ɛ 2 o ,
c r = ɛ 1 o μ a 2 ¯ ɛ 2 o μ a 1 ¯ ɛ 1 o ɛ 2 r ɛ 2 o ɛ 1 r ,
ɛ 2 r [ μ a 1 ¯ ( t ) d 1 K 1 ] ɛ 1 r [ μ a 2 ¯ ( t ) d 2 K 2 ] ɛ 2 r ɛ 1 o ɛ 1 r ɛ 2 o = ɛ 1 r K 2 ɛ 2 r K 1 ɛ 2 r ɛ 1 o ɛ 1 r ɛ 2 o + ɛ 2 r μ a 1 ¯ ( t ) d 1 ɛ 1 r μ a 2 ¯ ( t ) d 2 ɛ 2 r ɛ 1 o ɛ 1 r ɛ 2 o = K 3 + ɛ 2 r ɛ 1 o d 1 ɛ 1 r ɛ 2 o d 2 ɛ 2 r ɛ 1 o ɛ 1 r ɛ 2 o c o + ɛ 1 r ɛ 2 r ( d 1 d 2 ) ɛ 2 r ɛ 1 o ɛ 1 r ɛ 2 o c r ,
ɛ 1 o [ μ a 2 ¯ ( t ) d 2 K 2 ] ɛ 2 o [ μ a 1 ¯ ( t ) d 1 K 1 ] ɛ 1 o ɛ 2 r ɛ 2 o ɛ 1 r = ɛ 2 o K 1 ɛ 1 o K 2 ɛ 1 o ɛ 2 r ɛ 2 o ɛ 1 r + ɛ 1 o μ a 2 ¯ ( t ) d 2 ɛ 2 o μ a 1 ¯ ( t ) d 1 ɛ 1 o ɛ 2 r ɛ 2 o ɛ 1 r = K 4 + ɛ 1 o ɛ 2 o ( d 2 d 1 ) ɛ 1 o ɛ 2 r ɛ 2 o ɛ 1 r c o + ɛ 1 o ɛ 2 r d 2 ɛ 2 o ɛ 1 r d 1 ɛ 1 o ɛ 2 r ɛ 2 o ɛ 1 r c r ,

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