Abstract

We present in vivo images of near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of human lower legs and forearm to validate the dual functions of a time-resolved (TR) NIR DOT in clinical diagnosis, i.e., to provide anatomical and functional information simultaneously. The NIR DOT system is composed of time-correlated single-photon-counting channels, and the image reconstruction algorithm is based on the modified generalized pulsed spectral technique, which effectively incorporates the TR data with reasonable computation time. The reconstructed scattering images of both the lower legs and the forearm revealed their anatomies, in which the bones were clearly distinguished from the muscles. In the absorption images, some of the blood vessels were observable. In the functional imaging, a subject was requested to do handgripping exercise to stimulate physiological changes in the forearm tissue. The images of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin concentration changes in the forearm were obtained from the differential images of the absorption at three wavelengths between the exercise and the rest states, which were reconstructed with a differential imaging scheme. These images showed increases in both blood volume and oxyhemoglobin concentration in the arteries and simultaneously showed hypoxia in the corresponding muscles. All the results have demonstrated the capability of TR NIR DOT by reconstruction of the absolute images of the scattering and the absorption with a high spatial resolution that finally provided both the anatomical and functional information inside bulky biological tissues.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (6)

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, J. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuro-imaging using near infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg by use of time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979–1993 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography using a modified generalized pulse spectrum technique,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E85-D, 133–142 (2002).

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, K. Homma, Y. Onodera, Y. Yamada, “Anatomical and functional images of in vitro and in vivo tissues by NIR time-domain diffuse optical tomography,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 45, 1979–1993 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Yamada, “Improvement of image quality in diffuse optical tomography by use of full time-resolved data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 778–791 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 11, 57–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Gao, P. Poulet, Y. Yamada, “Simultaneous mapping of absorption and scattering coefficients from a three-dimensional model of time-resolved optical tomography,” App. Opt. 39, 5898–5910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

I. Konish, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oikawa, Y. Wada, N. Sakauchi, Y. Ito, I. Oda, Y. Tsunazawa, “Development of OMM-2000 Optical Multi-channel Monitor,” Shimadzu Rev. 57, 141–146 (2000, in Japanese).

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, H. Luo, R. L. Barbour, Y. Pei, S. Zhong, “Instrumentation and calibration protocol for imaging dynamic features in dense-scattering media by optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6466–6486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

1998 (2)

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, S. A. Walker, M. A. Franceschini, M. Kaschke, P. M. Schlag, K. T. Moesta, “Assessment of the size, position, and optical properties of breast tumors in vivo by noninvasive optical methods,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1982–1989 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

S. Homma, H. Eda, S. Ogasawara, A. Kagaya, “Near infrared estimation of O2 supply and consumption in forearm muscles working at varying intensity,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 1279–1284 (1996).

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

K. Furutsu, Y. Yamada, “Diffusion approximation for a dissipative random medium and the application,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634–3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Photon measurement density functions. Part 1: Analytic forms,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7395–7409 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, “Photon measurement density functions. Part 2: Finite element calculations,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8026–8037 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, T.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbour, R. L.

Barilli, M.

G. Zaccanti, A. Taddeucci, M. Barilli, P. Bruscaglioni, F. Martilli, “Optical properties of biological tissues,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, A. Katzir eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 513–521 (1995).

Bevilacqua, F.

Biscoti, G.

R. Cubeddu, G. Biscoti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, M. Ferrari, V. Quaresima, “Functional muscle studies by dual-wavelength, 8 channel time-resolved oximetry,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 29–34 (2003).

Boas, D. A.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, J. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuro-imaging using near infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 11, 57–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, D. H.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 11, 57–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bruscaglioni, P.

G. Zaccanti, A. Taddeucci, M. Barilli, P. Bruscaglioni, F. Martilli, “Optical properties of biological tissues,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, A. Katzir eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 513–521 (1995).

Chance, B.

A. Villringer, B. Chance, “Noninvasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function,” Trends Neurosci. 20, 435–442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colier, W. N. J. M.

M. C. P. van Beekvelt, K. Orbon, B. G. M. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers, W. N. J. M. Colier, “NIR spectroscopic measurement of local muscle metabolism during rhythmic, sustained and intermittent handgrip exercise,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 35–45 (2003).

Cope, M.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 386–396 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, G. Biscoti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, M. Ferrari, V. Quaresima, “Functional muscle studies by dual-wavelength, 8 channel time-resolved oximetry,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 29–34 (2003).

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, “Breast lesion characterization by a novel nonlinear perturbation approach,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging,D. A. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 23–29 (2003).

Dehghani, H.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 386–396 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Dimarzio, C. A.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 11, 57–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eda, H.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Homma, H. Eda, S. Ogasawara, A. Kagaya, “Near infrared estimation of O2 supply and consumption in forearm muscles working at varying intensity,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 1279–1284 (1996).

Essenpreis, M.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everdell, N.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

Ferrari, M.

R. Cubeddu, G. Biscoti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, M. Ferrari, V. Quaresima, “Functional muscle studies by dual-wavelength, 8 channel time-resolved oximetry,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 29–34 (2003).

Firbank, M.

M. Firbank, M. Hiraoka, M. Essenpreis, D. T. Delpy, “Measurement of the optical properties of the skull in the wavelength range 650–950 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 38, 503–510 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

Furutsu, K.

K. Furutsu, Y. Yamada, “Diffusion approximation for a dissipative random medium and the application,” Phys. Rev. E 50, 3634–3640 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gao, F.

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg by use of time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979–1993 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, K. Homma, Y. Onodera, Y. Yamada, “Anatomical and functional images of in vitro and in vivo tissues by NIR time-domain diffuse optical tomography,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 45, 1979–1993 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography using a modified generalized pulse spectrum technique,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E85-D, 133–142 (2002).

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Yamada, “Improvement of image quality in diffuse optical tomography by use of full time-resolved data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 778–791 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gao, P. Poulet, Y. Yamada, “Simultaneous mapping of absorption and scattering coefficients from a three-dimensional model of time-resolved optical tomography,” App. Opt. 39, 5898–5910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Onodera, A. Sassaroli, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Image reconstruction from experimental measurements of an multichannel time resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV,B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Servick-Muraca eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 351–361 (2001).

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J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
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J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
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J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
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E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
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H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
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D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 11, 57–75 (2001).
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A. Matsukawa, T. Ito, K. Kimura, Transverse Anatomy of Human Body for Diagnosis with Imaging (Igaku Tosho Shuppan Co., LTD., Tokyo, Japan, 1987; in Japanese).

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J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
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J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
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H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
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S. Homma, H. Eda, S. Ogasawara, A. Kagaya, “Near infrared estimation of O2 supply and consumption in forearm muscles working at varying intensity,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 1279–1284 (1996).

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H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg by use of time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979–1993 (2002).
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I. Konish, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oikawa, Y. Wada, N. Sakauchi, Y. Ito, I. Oda, Y. Tsunazawa, “Development of OMM-2000 Optical Multi-channel Monitor,” Shimadzu Rev. 57, 141–146 (2000, in Japanese).

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
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H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg by use of time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979–1993 (2002).
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H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, K. Homma, Y. Onodera, Y. Yamada, “Anatomical and functional images of in vitro and in vivo tissues by NIR time-domain diffuse optical tomography,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 45, 1979–1993 (2002).
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F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Onodera, A. Sassaroli, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Image reconstruction from experimental measurements of an multichannel time resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV,B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Servick-Muraca eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 351–361 (2001).

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R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, “Breast lesion characterization by a novel nonlinear perturbation approach,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging,D. A. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 23–29 (2003).

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F. Gao, P. Poulet, Y. Yamada, “Simultaneous mapping of absorption and scattering coefficients from a three-dimensional model of time-resolved optical tomography,” App. Opt. 39, 5898–5910 (2001).
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I. Konish, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oikawa, Y. Wada, N. Sakauchi, Y. Ito, I. Oda, Y. Tsunazawa, “Development of OMM-2000 Optical Multi-channel Monitor,” Shimadzu Rev. 57, 141–146 (2000, in Japanese).

Sassaroli, A.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
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F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Onodera, A. Sassaroli, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Image reconstruction from experimental measurements of an multichannel time resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV,B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Servick-Muraca eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 351–361 (2001).

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E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
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E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, F. E. W. Schmidt, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Time resolved optical tomography of the human forearm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1117–1130 (2001).
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Simpson, C. R.

C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998).
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R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, “Breast lesion characterization by a novel nonlinear perturbation approach,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging,D. A. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 23–29 (2003).

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G. Zaccanti, A. Taddeucci, M. Barilli, P. Bruscaglioni, F. Martilli, “Optical properties of biological tissues,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, A. Katzir eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 513–521 (1995).

Takada, M.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
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I. Konish, S. Takeuchi, Y. Oikawa, Y. Wada, N. Sakauchi, Y. Ito, I. Oda, Y. Tsunazawa, “Development of OMM-2000 Optical Multi-channel Monitor,” Shimadzu Rev. 57, 141–146 (2000, in Japanese).

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H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
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H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg by use of time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979–1993 (2002).
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H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, K. Homma, Y. Onodera, Y. Yamada, “Anatomical and functional images of in vitro and in vivo tissues by NIR time-domain diffuse optical tomography,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 45, 1979–1993 (2002).
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F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography using a modified generalized pulse spectrum technique,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E85-D, 133–142 (2002).

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Onodera, A. Sassaroli, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Image reconstruction from experimental measurements of an multichannel time resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV,B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Servick-Muraca eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 351–361 (2001).

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R. Cubeddu, G. Biscoti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, M. Ferrari, V. Quaresima, “Functional muscle studies by dual-wavelength, 8 channel time-resolved oximetry,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 29–34 (2003).

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, “Breast lesion characterization by a novel nonlinear perturbation approach,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging,D. A. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 23–29 (2003).

Thromberg, B. J.

Torricelli, A.

R. Cubeddu, G. Biscoti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, M. Ferrari, V. Quaresima, “Functional muscle studies by dual-wavelength, 8 channel time-resolved oximetry,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 29–34 (2003).

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, “Breast lesion characterization by a novel nonlinear perturbation approach,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging,D. A. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 23–29 (2003).

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H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
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H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
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M. C. P. van Beekvelt, K. Orbon, B. G. M. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers, W. N. J. M. Colier, “NIR spectroscopic measurement of local muscle metabolism during rhythmic, sustained and intermittent handgrip exercise,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 35–45 (2003).

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H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
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Wevers, R. A.

M. C. P. van Beekvelt, K. Orbon, B. G. M. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers, W. N. J. M. Colier, “NIR spectroscopic measurement of local muscle metabolism during rhythmic, sustained and intermittent handgrip exercise,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 35–45 (2003).

Wyatt, J. S.

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
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F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography using a modified generalized pulse spectrum technique,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E85-D, 133–142 (2002).

H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, K. Homma, Y. Onodera, Y. Yamada, “Anatomical and functional images of in vitro and in vivo tissues by NIR time-domain diffuse optical tomography,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 45, 1979–1993 (2002).
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H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg by use of time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979–1993 (2002).
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F. Gao, P. Poulet, Y. Yamada, “Simultaneous mapping of absorption and scattering coefficients from a three-dimensional model of time-resolved optical tomography,” App. Opt. 39, 5898–5910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
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Yamashita, Y.

H. Eda, I. Oda, Y. Ito, Y. Wada, Y. Oikawa, Y. Tsunazawa, M. Takada, Y. Tsuchiya, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, A. Sassaroli, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, “Multichannel time-resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3595–3601 (1999).
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J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. C. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, T. Austin, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
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Zange, J.

M. Klasing, J. Zange, “In vivo quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy in skeletal muscle and bone during rest and isometric exercise,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 318–322 (2003).

Zhang, Q.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 11, 57–75 (2001).
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F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Yamada, “Improvement of image quality in diffuse optical tomography by use of full time-resolved data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 778–791 (2002).
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H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Onodera, M. Ohmi, M. Haruna, Y. Yamada, “Imaging of in vitro chicken leg by use of time-resolved near infrared optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 1979–1993 (2002).
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H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, K. Homma, Y. Onodera, Y. Yamada, “Anatomical and functional images of in vitro and in vivo tissues by NIR time-domain diffuse optical tomography,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 45, 1979–1993 (2002).
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F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography using a modified generalized pulse spectrum technique,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E85-D, 133–142 (2002).

H. Zhao, “Theoretical and experimental studies on near infrared time-resolved diffuse optical imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (The University of Electro-Communications, Japan, 2004).

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Onodera, A. Sassaroli, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Image reconstruction from experimental measurements of an multichannel time resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV,B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Servick-Muraca eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 351–361 (2001).

Zhong, S.

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F. Gao, P. Poulet, Y. Yamada, “Simultaneous mapping of absorption and scattering coefficients from a three-dimensional model of time-resolved optical tomography,” App. Opt. 39, 5898–5910 (2001).
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G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, J. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuro-imaging using near infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).
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D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, C. A. Dimarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 11, 57–75 (2001).
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F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography using a modified generalized pulse spectrum technique,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst. E85-D, 133–142 (2002).

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H. Zhao, F. Gao, Y. Tanikawa, K. Homma, Y. Onodera, Y. Yamada, “Anatomical and functional images of in vitro and in vivo tissues by NIR time-domain diffuse optical tomography,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C 45, 1979–1993 (2002).
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R. Cubeddu, G. Biscoti, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, M. Ferrari, V. Quaresima, “Functional muscle studies by dual-wavelength, 8 channel time-resolved oximetry,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 29–34 (2003).

M. Klasing, J. Zange, “In vivo quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy in skeletal muscle and bone during rest and isometric exercise,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 318–322 (2003).

M. C. P. van Beekvelt, K. Orbon, B. G. M. van Engelen, R. A. Wevers, W. N. J. M. Colier, “NIR spectroscopic measurement of local muscle metabolism during rhythmic, sustained and intermittent handgrip exercise,” in Photon Migration and Diffuse-Light Imaging, D. Boas ed., Proc. SPIE5138, 35–45 (2003).

F. Gao, H. Zhao, Y. Onodera, A. Sassaroli, Y. Tanikawa, Y. Yamada, “Image reconstruction from experimental measurements of an multichannel time resolved optical tomographic imaging system,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV,B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Servick-Muraca eds., Proc. SPIE4250, 351–361 (2001).

G. Zaccanti, A. Taddeucci, M. Barilli, P. Bruscaglioni, F. Martilli, “Optical properties of biological tissues,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, A. Katzir eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 513–521 (1995).

H. Zhao, “Theoretical and experimental studies on near infrared time-resolved diffuse optical imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (The University of Electro-Communications, Japan, 2004).

L. A. Paunescu, “Tissue blood flow and oxygen consumption measured with near-infrared frequency-domain spectroscopy,” Ph.D. thesis (University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Ill., 2001).

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