Abstract

We present a method that is capable of extracting particle-size distribution (PSD) and concentration in heterogeneous turbid media by use of multispectral diffuse optical tomography (MSDOT). After the spectroscopic scattering images of the heterogeneous turbid media are obtained with MSDOT, the morphologic information of particles in the heterogeneities is recovered with an iterative regularized reconstruction algorithm based on Mie scattering theory when a particular form of PSD is assumed (Gaussian distribution is used in this study). The method described is tested and evaluated with both simulated and experimental data. The simulations are intended to test the sensitivity of the overall approach to noise effect. A series of phantom experiments are conducted with our newly developed ten-wavelength MSDOT system. Polystyrene microsphere suspensions contain particles of varying size from 2 to 6 μm as targets are embedded in a scattering background medium in these experiments. To achieve optimized results from experimental data, we developed a data preprocessing method for MSDOT as well as a scheme for calibrating scattering spectra. The results from both simulations and experiments show that the particle mean size and concentration can be reconstructed with acceptable accuracy, whereas the recovery of the standard deviation is sensitive to noise effect and can be as large as 86% from the experimental data.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. B. Colak, M. van der Mark, G. t’Hooft, J. Hoogenraad, E. van der Linden, F. Kuijpers, “Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1143–1158 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2772 (2000).
  3. B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, S. K. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, H. Jiang, “Differentiation of cysts from solid tumors in the breast with diffuse optical tomography,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 53–60 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. Fajardo, K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186–194 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Zhu, E. Cronin, S. Hurtzman, N. Chen, M. Huang, C. Xu, “Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US localization,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WA6.
  8. T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Sterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Xu, X. Gu, T. Khan, H. Jiang, “Absorption and scattering images of heterogeneous scattering media can be simultaneously reconstructed by use of dc data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5427–5437 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer Cytopathol. 84, 366–374 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties of various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1993).
    [PubMed]
  12. L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. S. Cotran, S. Robbins, V. Kumar, Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1994).
  15. A. Corlu, T. Durduran, R. Choe, M. Schweiger, E. M. C. Hillman, S. R. Arridge, A. G. Yodh, “Uniqueness and wavelength optimization in continuous-wave multispectral diffuse optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2339–2341 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, M. H. Koelink, “Reduced light-scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1370–1376 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, I. J. Bigio, “Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 36, 949–957 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. M. K. Nilsson, C. Sturesson, D. L. Liu, S. Andersson-Engels, “Changes in spectral shape of tissue optical properties in conjunction with laser-induced thermotherapy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1256–1267 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Johns, H. Liu, “Limited possibility for quantifying mean particle size by logarithmic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2968–2671 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. D. Paulsen, H. Jiang, “Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation,” Med. Phys. 22, 691–701 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Iftimia, H. Jiang, “Quantitative optical image reconstruction of turbid media by use of direct-current measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5256–5261 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Jiang, J. Pierce, J. Kao, E. Sevick-Muraca, “Measurement of particle-size distribution and volume fraction in concentrated suspensions with photon migration techniques,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3310–3318 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Jiang, “Enhanced photon migration methods for particle sizing in concentrated suspensions,” AIChE J. 44, 1740–1744 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Jiang, G. Marquez, L. Wang, “Particle sizing in concentrated suspensions using steady-state, continuous-wave photon migration techniques,” Opt. Lett. 23, 394–396 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Bartlett, H. Jiang, “Measurement of particle size distribution in concentrated, rapidly flowing potassium chloride (KCl) suspensions using continuous-wave photon migration techniques,” AIChE J. 47, 60–65 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. X. Gu, Y. Xu, H. Jiang, “Mesh-based enhancement schemes in diffuse optical tomography,” Med. Phys. 30, 861–869 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. F. Bohren, D. R. Hoffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  28. C. Li, H. Jiang, “A calibration method in diffuse optical tomography,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 844–852 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Li, H. Zhao, H. Jiang, “A multispectral three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography system,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WF19.

2004

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, H. Jiang, “Differentiation of cysts from solid tumors in the breast with diffuse optical tomography,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 53–60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, H. Jiang, “A calibration method in diffuse optical tomography,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 844–852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

Y. Xu, X. Gu, T. Khan, H. Jiang, “Absorption and scattering images of heterogeneous scattering media can be simultaneously reconstructed by use of dc data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5427–5437 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. Fajardo, K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186–194 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, S. K. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bartlett, H. Jiang, “Measurement of particle size distribution in concentrated, rapidly flowing potassium chloride (KCl) suspensions using continuous-wave photon migration techniques,” AIChE J. 47, 60–65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Sterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. Iftimia, H. Jiang, “Quantitative optical image reconstruction of turbid media by use of direct-current measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5256–5261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2772 (2000).

1999

S. B. Colak, M. van der Mark, G. t’Hooft, J. Hoogenraad, E. van der Linden, F. Kuijpers, “Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1143–1158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer Cytopathol. 84, 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, “Enhanced photon migration methods for particle sizing in concentrated suspensions,” AIChE J. 44, 1740–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, G. Marquez, L. Wang, “Particle sizing in concentrated suspensions using steady-state, continuous-wave photon migration techniques,” Opt. Lett. 23, 394–396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. K. Nilsson, C. Sturesson, D. L. Liu, S. Andersson-Engels, “Changes in spectral shape of tissue optical properties in conjunction with laser-induced thermotherapy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1256–1267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

K. D. Paulsen, H. Jiang, “Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation,” Med. Phys. 22, 691–701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties of various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arridge, S. R.

Backman, V.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, M.

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, H. Jiang, “Differentiation of cysts from solid tumors in the breast with diffuse optical tomography,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 53–60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bartlett, H. Jiang, “Measurement of particle size distribution in concentrated, rapidly flowing potassium chloride (KCl) suspensions using continuous-wave photon migration techniques,” AIChE J. 47, 60–65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beauvoit, B.

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties of various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1993).
[PubMed]

Berger, A. J.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

Bohren, G. F.

G. F. Bohren, D. R. Hoffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Boyer, J.

Butler, J.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A. E.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2772 (2000).

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties of various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1993).
[PubMed]

Chen, N.

Q. Zhu, E. Cronin, S. Hurtzman, N. Chen, M. Huang, C. Xu, “Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US localization,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WA6.

Choe, R.

Colak, S. B.

S. B. Colak, M. van der Mark, G. t’Hooft, J. Hoogenraad, E. van der Linden, F. Kuijpers, “Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1143–1158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corlu, A.

Cotran, R. S.

R. S. Cotran, S. Robbins, V. Kumar, Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1994).

Crawford, J. M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cronin, E.

Q. Zhu, E. Cronin, S. Hurtzman, N. Chen, M. Huang, C. Xu, “Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US localization,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WA6.

de Mul, F. F. M.

Dehghani, H.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

Eggert, J.

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. Fajardo, K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186–194 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eick, A. A.

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer Cytopathol. 84, 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fajardo, L.

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, H. Jiang, “Differentiation of cysts from solid tumors in the breast with diffuse optical tomography,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 53–60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. Fajardo, K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186–194 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Freyer, J. P.

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer Cytopathol. 84, 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuselier, T.

Graaff, R.

Greve, J.

Gu, X.

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, H. Jiang, “Differentiation of cysts from solid tumors in the breast with diffuse optical tomography,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 53–60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, Y. Xu, H. Jiang, “Mesh-based enhancement schemes in diffuse optical tomography,” Med. Phys. 30, 861–869 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, X. Gu, T. Khan, H. Jiang, “Absorption and scattering images of heterogeneous scattering media can be simultaneously reconstructed by use of dc data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5427–5437 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamano, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer Cytopathol. 84, 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, E. M. C.

Hoffman, D. R.

G. F. Bohren, D. R. Hoffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Holcombe, R. F.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogenraad, J.

S. B. Colak, M. van der Mark, G. t’Hooft, J. Hoogenraad, E. van der Linden, F. Kuijpers, “Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1143–1158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsiang, D.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M.

Q. Zhu, E. Cronin, S. Hurtzman, N. Chen, M. Huang, C. Xu, “Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US localization,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WA6.

Hurtzman, S.

Q. Zhu, E. Cronin, S. Hurtzman, N. Chen, M. Huang, C. Xu, “Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US localization,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WA6.

Iftimia, N.

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. Fajardo, K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186–194 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, H. Jiang, “Quantitative optical image reconstruction of turbid media by use of direct-current measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5256–5261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jakubowski, D.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

C. Li, H. Jiang, “A calibration method in diffuse optical tomography,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 844–852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, H. Jiang, “Differentiation of cysts from solid tumors in the breast with diffuse optical tomography,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 53–60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, Y. Xu, H. Jiang, “Mesh-based enhancement schemes in diffuse optical tomography,” Med. Phys. 30, 861–869 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. Fajardo, K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186–194 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, X. Gu, T. Khan, H. Jiang, “Absorption and scattering images of heterogeneous scattering media can be simultaneously reconstructed by use of dc data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5427–5437 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bartlett, H. Jiang, “Measurement of particle size distribution in concentrated, rapidly flowing potassium chloride (KCl) suspensions using continuous-wave photon migration techniques,” AIChE J. 47, 60–65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Iftimia, H. Jiang, “Quantitative optical image reconstruction of turbid media by use of direct-current measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5256–5261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, G. Marquez, L. Wang, “Particle sizing in concentrated suspensions using steady-state, continuous-wave photon migration techniques,” Opt. Lett. 23, 394–396 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, “Enhanced photon migration methods for particle sizing in concentrated suspensions,” AIChE J. 44, 1740–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, J. Pierce, J. Kao, E. Sevick-Muraca, “Measurement of particle-size distribution and volume fraction in concentrated suspensions with photon migration techniques,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3310–3318 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Paulsen, H. Jiang, “Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation,” Med. Phys. 22, 691–701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, H. Zhao, H. Jiang, “A multispectral three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography system,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WF19.

Jiang, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Sterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johns, M.

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer Cytopathol. 84, 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, I. J. Bigio, “Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 36, 949–957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, K.

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties of various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1993).
[PubMed]

Kao, J.

Kaplan, P. D.

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties of various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1993).
[PubMed]

Khan, T.

Klove, K.

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. Fajardo, K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186–194 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koelink, M. H.

Kogel, C.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuijpers, F.

S. B. Colak, M. van der Mark, G. t’Hooft, J. Hoogenraad, E. van der Linden, F. Kuijpers, “Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1143–1158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, V.

R. S. Cotran, S. Robbins, V. Kumar, Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1994).

Lanning, R.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

C. Li, H. Jiang, “A calibration method in diffuse optical tomography,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 844–852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, H. Zhao, H. Jiang, “A multispectral three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography system,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WF19.

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D. L.

Liu, H.

M. Johns, H. Liu, “Limited possibility for quantifying mean particle size by logarithmic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2968–2671 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties of various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1993).
[PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, G.

McBride, T. O.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, S. K. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Sterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties of various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1993).
[PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer Cytopathol. 84, 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, I. J. Bigio, “Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 36, 949–957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, A. M. K.

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2772 (2000).

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osterberg, U. L.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, S. K. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterman, S. K.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, S. K. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Sterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, S. K. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Paulsen, H. Jiang, “Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation,” Med. Phys. 22, 691–701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, J.

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Sterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, S. K. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poplack, S. P.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, U. L. Sterberg, K. D. Paulsen, S. P. Poplack, “Initial studies of in vivo absorbing and scattering heterogeneity in near-infrared tomographic breast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 26, 822–824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, S. K. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, S.

R. S. Cotran, S. Robbins, V. Kumar, Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1994).

Schnall, M.

V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2772 (2000).

Schutz, L.

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, H. Jiang, “Differentiation of cysts from solid tumors in the breast with diffuse optical tomography,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 53–60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

Seiler, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sevick-Muraca, E.

Shah, N.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sloot, P. M. A.

Soho, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, X.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterberg, U. L.

Sturesson, C.

t’Hooft, G.

S. B. Colak, M. van der Mark, G. t’Hooft, J. Hoogenraad, E. van der Linden, F. Kuijpers, “Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1143–1158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tosteson, T. D.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van der Linden, E.

S. B. Colak, M. van der Mark, G. t’Hooft, J. Hoogenraad, E. van der Linden, F. Kuijpers, “Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1143–1158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van der Mark, M.

S. B. Colak, M. van der Mark, G. t’Hooft, J. Hoogenraad, E. van der Linden, F. Kuijpers, “Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1143–1158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wells, W. A.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, S. K. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

Q. Zhu, E. Cronin, S. Hurtzman, N. Chen, M. Huang, C. Xu, “Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US localization,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WA6.

Xu, Y.

X. Gu, Y. Xu, H. Jiang, “Mesh-based enhancement schemes in diffuse optical tomography,” Med. Phys. 30, 861–869 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. Fajardo, K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186–194 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, X. Gu, T. Khan, H. Jiang, “Absorption and scattering images of heterogeneous scattering media can be simultaneously reconstructed by use of dc data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5427–5437 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A.

V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2772 (2000).

Yodh, A. G.

Zhang, Q.

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, H. Jiang, “Differentiation of cysts from solid tumors in the breast with diffuse optical tomography,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 53–60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

C. Li, H. Zhao, H. Jiang, “A multispectral three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography system,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WF19.

Zhu, Q.

Q. Zhu, E. Cronin, S. Hurtzman, N. Chen, M. Huang, C. Xu, “Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US localization,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WA6.

Zijp, J. R.

Zonios, G.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Acad. Radiol.

X. Gu, Q. Zhang, M. Bartlett, L. Schutz, L. Fajardo, H. Jiang, “Differentiation of cysts from solid tumors in the breast with diffuse optical tomography,” Acad. Radiol. 11, 53–60 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, N. Iftimia, Y. Xu, J. Eggert, L. Fajardo, K. Klove, “Near-infrared optical imaging of the breast with model-based reconstruction,” Acad. Radiol. 9, 186–194 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIChE J.

H. Jiang, “Enhanced photon migration methods for particle sizing in concentrated suspensions,” AIChE J. 44, 1740–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bartlett, H. Jiang, “Measurement of particle size distribution in concentrated, rapidly flowing potassium chloride (KCl) suspensions using continuous-wave photon migration techniques,” AIChE J. 47, 60–65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

R. Graaff, J. G. Aarnoudse, J. R. Zijp, P. M. A. Sloot, F. F. M. de Mul, J. Greve, M. H. Koelink, “Reduced light-scattering properties for mixtures of spherical particles: a simple approximation derived from Mie calculations,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1370–1376 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, J. Pierce, J. Kao, E. Sevick-Muraca, “Measurement of particle-size distribution and volume fraction in concentrated suspensions with photon migration techniques,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3310–3318 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. K. Nilsson, C. Sturesson, D. L. Liu, S. Andersson-Engels, “Changes in spectral shape of tissue optical properties in conjunction with laser-induced thermotherapy,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1256–1267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Iftimia, H. Jiang, “Quantitative optical image reconstruction of turbid media by use of direct-current measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5256–5261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, I. J. Bigio, “Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 36, 949–957 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, X. Gu, T. Khan, H. Jiang, “Absorption and scattering images of heterogeneous scattering media can be simultaneously reconstructed by use of dc data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5427–5437 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Johns, H. Liu, “Limited possibility for quantifying mean particle size by logarithmic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2968–2671 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Cytopathol.

J. R. Mourant, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, T. M. Johnson, J. P. Freyer, “Evidence of intrinsic differences in the light scattering properties of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells,” Cancer Cytopathol. 84, 366–374 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cell Biophys.

B. Beauvoit, H. Liu, K. Kang, P. D. Kaplan, M. Miwa, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties of various yeast strains by time-resolved spectroscopy,” Cell Biophys. 23, 91–109 (1993).
[PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. B. Colak, M. van der Mark, G. t’Hooft, J. Hoogenraad, E. van der Linden, F. Kuijpers, “Clinical optical tomography and NIR spectroscopy for breast cancer detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1143–1158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 541–552 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Cerussi, D. Jakubowski, N. Shah, F. Bevilacqua, R. Lanning, A. J. Berger, D. Hsiang, J. Butler, R. F. Holcombe, B. J. Tromberg, “Spectroscopy enhances the information content of optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 60–71 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

C. Li, H. Jiang, “A calibration method in diffuse optical tomography,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 844–852 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

X. Gu, Y. Xu, H. Jiang, “Mesh-based enhancement schemes in diffuse optical tomography,” Med. Phys. 30, 861–869 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Paulsen, H. Jiang, “Spatially varying optical property reconstruction using a finite element diffusion equation approximation,” Med. Phys. 22, 691–701 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh, M. Schnall, B. Chance, “Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767–2772 (2000).

Radiology

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, S. K. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, “Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast,” Radiology 218, 261–266 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Q. Zhu, E. Cronin, S. Hurtzman, N. Chen, M. Huang, C. Xu, “Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US localization,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WA6.

G. F. Bohren, D. R. Hoffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

C. Li, H. Zhao, H. Jiang, “A multispectral three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography system,” in Biomedical Topical Meeting on CD-ROM (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2004), paper WF19.

R. S. Cotran, S. Robbins, V. Kumar, Robbins Pathological Basis of Disease (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated scattering spectra obtained from Mie calculation and the fittings based on the recovered PSD and concentration at different noise levels. Ten wavelengths were used in the simulations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reconstructed scattering images for Case 2 at ten different wavelengths: (a) 638 nm, (b) 673 nm, (c) 690 nm, (d) 733 nm, (e) 775 nm, (f) 808 nm, (g) 840 nm, (h) 915 nm, (i) 922 nm, (j) 965 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized exact (solid curves) and reconstructed (dashed curves) PSD from phantom measurements for Cases 1, 2, and 3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental scattering spectra obtained with different methods for Case 1 (left) and Case 3 (right). Circles: spectra from the DOT reconstruction. Diamonds: spectra after calibration. Squares: Mie fitting by use of the recovered particle parameters. Crosses: calibration factors or spectra.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Reconstructed Parameters from Simulated Data at Different Noise Levels for Simulation 1

Tables Icon

Table 2 Reconstructed Parameters from Simulated Data at Different Noise Levels for Simulation 2

Tables Icon

Table 3 Reconstructed Parameters from Experimental Data with the Peak and Average Scattering Spectra of the Target Area

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( J T J + β I ) Δ χ = J T ( Φ o - Φ c ) ,
J = { Φ 1 D Φ 1 μ a Φ 2 D Φ 2 μ a Φ N D Φ N μ a } , Δ χ = ( Δ D ,     Δ μ a ) ,     Φ o = { Φ 1 o Φ 2 o Φ N o } ,     Φ c = { Φ 1 c Φ 2 c Φ N c }
( 1 - g ) μ s ( λ ) 1 3 D ( λ ) ,
( 1 - g ) μ s ( λ ) = μ s ( λ ) = 0 3 Q scat ( x ,     n ,     λ ) [ 1 - g ( x ,     n ,     λ ) ] 2 x × ϕ f ( x ) d x ,
χ 2 = j = λ 1 λ 10 [ ( μ s ) j o - ( μ s ) j c ] 2 ,
f ( x ) = 1 2 π b 2 exp - ( x - a ) 2 2 b 2 ,
( 1 - g ) μ s ( λ ) = μ s ( λ ) = 0 3 Q scat ( x ,     n ,     λ ) [ 1 - g ( x ,     n ,     λ ) ] 2 x × ϕ 1 ( 2 π b 2 ) 1 / 2 exp - ( x - a ) 2 2 b 2 d x .

Metrics