Abstract

Using numerical simulations, we analyze the properties of two-stage discrete fiber Raman amplifiers without and with all-optical gain clamping. In both cases a two-stage amplifier can be designed to have the same gain characteristics as a single-stage amplifier with improved noise performance by use of either the same total length of gain fiber (but with increased pump power) or total pump power (but with increased total length of gain fiber).

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  5. A. B. Puc, M. W. Chbat, J. D. Henrie, N. A. Weaver, H. Kim, A. Kaminski, A. Rahman, H. Fevrier, “Long-haul WDM NRZ transmission at 10.7 Gb/sin S-band using cascade of lumped Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America; Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. PD39-1–PD39-3.
  6. P. C. Reeves-Hall, D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. De Matos, J. R. Taylor, “Dual wavelength pumped L-and U-band Raman amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37, 883–884 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. H. Eiselt, “Raman gain saturation and the need for dynamic gain control,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on All-Optical Networking (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. WE1-43–WE1-44.
  8. C.-J. Chen, W. S. Wong, “Transient effects in saturated Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 371–373 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Karásek, M. Menif, “Channel addition/removal response in Raman fiber amplifiers: modeling and experimentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1680–1687 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Karásek, M. Menif, “Protection of surviving channels in pump-controlled gain-locked Raman fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 210, 57–65 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Emori, S. Kado, S. Namiki, “Simple gain control method for broadband Raman amplifiers gain-flattened by multi-wavelength pumping,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 158–159.
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, L. Chao, P. Shum, T. Cheng, “Theoretical investigation of fiber Raman amplifier with dynamic gain control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 57 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. WDD17-1–WDD17-3.
  14. J. Ning, X. Lu, Z. Chen, “Automatic gain control for Raman fiber amplifiers,” in Semiconductor Lasers and Applications, Y. Luo, Y. Nakano, eds., Proc. SPIE4913, 41–44 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, “Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 385–387.
  16. Y. Gong, W. Qi, X. Zhou, P. Shum, C. Lu, T. X. Cheng, “Investigation of Raman fiber amplifier with all-optical gain clamping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 480.
  17. M. Karásek, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, J. Radil, “Protection of surviving channels in all-optical gain-clamped lumped Raman fiber amplifier: modeling and experimentation,” Opt. Commun. 231, 309–317 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Hamoir, J.-Y. Boniort, L. Gasca, D. Bayart, “Optimized, two-stage architecture for Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizo, J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 61–63.
  19. K. Inoue, “Gain-clamped fiber amplifier with a short length of preamplification fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1108–1110 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Xia, L. R. Chen, “Two-stage L-band EDFA with gain-clamped characteristics using partial gain-clamping,” Opt. Commun. 206, 301–308 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Zambelis, N. Gryspolakis, L. R. Chen, “Design of all-optical gain-clamped discrete fiber Raman amplifiers,” in Proceedings of the IEEE–LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 1050–1051.

2004

M. Karásek, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, J. Radil, “Protection of surviving channels in all-optical gain-clamped lumped Raman fiber amplifier: modeling and experimentation,” Opt. Commun. 231, 309–317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Karásek, M. Menif, “Protection of surviving channels in pump-controlled gain-locked Raman fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 210, 57–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Karásek, M. Menif, “Channel addition/removal response in Raman fiber amplifiers: modeling and experimentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1680–1687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Xia, L. R. Chen, “Two-stage L-band EDFA with gain-clamped characteristics using partial gain-clamping,” Opt. Commun. 206, 301–308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Reeves-Hall, D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. De Matos, J. R. Taylor, “Dual wavelength pumped L-and U-band Raman amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37, 883–884 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Chen, W. S. Wong, “Transient effects in saturated Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Namiki, Y. Emori, “Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Inoue, “Gain-clamped fiber amplifier with a short length of preamplification fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1108–1110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

An, F.-T.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, “Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 385–387.

Bayart, D.

D. Hamoir, J.-Y. Boniort, L. Gasca, D. Bayart, “Optimized, two-stage architecture for Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizo, J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 61–63.

Boniort, J.-Y.

D. Hamoir, J.-Y. Boniort, L. Gasca, D. Bayart, “Optimized, two-stage architecture for Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizo, J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 61–63.

Cabot, S.

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chao, L.

X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, L. Chao, P. Shum, T. Cheng, “Theoretical investigation of fiber Raman amplifier with dynamic gain control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 57 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. WDD17-1–WDD17-3.

Chbat, M. W.

A. B. Puc, M. W. Chbat, J. D. Henrie, N. A. Weaver, H. Kim, A. Kaminski, A. Rahman, H. Fevrier, “Long-haul WDM NRZ transmission at 10.7 Gb/sin S-band using cascade of lumped Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America; Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. PD39-1–PD39-3.

Chen, C.-J.

C.-J. Chen, W. S. Wong, “Transient effects in saturated Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. R.

B. Xia, L. R. Chen, “Two-stage L-band EDFA with gain-clamped characteristics using partial gain-clamping,” Opt. Commun. 206, 301–308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Zambelis, N. Gryspolakis, L. R. Chen, “Design of all-optical gain-clamped discrete fiber Raman amplifiers,” in Proceedings of the IEEE–LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 1050–1051.

Chen, Z.

J. Ning, X. Lu, Z. Chen, “Automatic gain control for Raman fiber amplifiers,” in Semiconductor Lasers and Applications, Y. Luo, Y. Nakano, eds., Proc. SPIE4913, 41–44 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T.

X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, L. Chao, P. Shum, T. Cheng, “Theoretical investigation of fiber Raman amplifier with dynamic gain control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 57 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. WDD17-1–WDD17-3.

Cheng, T. X.

Y. Gong, W. Qi, X. Zhou, P. Shum, C. Lu, T. X. Cheng, “Investigation of Raman fiber amplifier with all-optical gain clamping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 480.

Chestnut, D. A.

P. C. Reeves-Hall, D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. De Matos, J. R. Taylor, “Dual wavelength pumped L-and U-band Raman amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37, 883–884 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Matos, C. J. S.

P. C. Reeves-Hall, D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. De Matos, J. R. Taylor, “Dual wavelength pumped L-and U-band Raman amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37, 883–884 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eiselt, M. H.

M. H. Eiselt, “Raman gain saturation and the need for dynamic gain control,” in Proceedings of the IEEE-LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on All-Optical Networking (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. WE1-43–WE1-44.

Emori, Y.

S. Namiki, Y. Emori, “Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Emori, S. Kado, S. Namiki, “Simple gain control method for broadband Raman amplifiers gain-flattened by multi-wavelength pumping,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 158–159.
[CrossRef]

Fevrier, H.

A. B. Puc, M. W. Chbat, J. D. Henrie, N. A. Weaver, H. Kim, A. Kaminski, A. Rahman, H. Fevrier, “Long-haul WDM NRZ transmission at 10.7 Gb/sin S-band using cascade of lumped Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America; Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. PD39-1–PD39-3.

Gasca, L.

D. Hamoir, J.-Y. Boniort, L. Gasca, D. Bayart, “Optimized, two-stage architecture for Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizo, J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 61–63.

Gassner, M. J.

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gavrilovic, P.

P. Gavrilovic, “S-band discrete Raman amplifiers: technology and system performance,” in Proceedings of the IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 471–472.

Gong, Y.

Y. Gong, W. Qi, X. Zhou, P. Shum, C. Lu, T. X. Cheng, “Investigation of Raman fiber amplifier with all-optical gain clamping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 480.

Gryspolakis, N.

T. Zambelis, N. Gryspolakis, L. R. Chen, “Design of all-optical gain-clamped discrete fiber Raman amplifiers,” in Proceedings of the IEEE–LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 1050–1051.

Hamoir, D.

D. Hamoir, J.-Y. Boniort, L. Gasca, D. Bayart, “Optimized, two-stage architecture for Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizo, J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 61–63.

Henrie, J. D.

A. B. Puc, M. W. Chbat, J. D. Henrie, N. A. Weaver, H. Kim, A. Kaminski, A. Rahman, H. Fevrier, “Long-haul WDM NRZ transmission at 10.7 Gb/sin S-band using cascade of lumped Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America; Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. PD39-1–PD39-3.

Ho, M.-C.

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Honzátko, P.

M. Karásek, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, J. Radil, “Protection of surviving channels in all-optical gain-clamped lumped Raman fiber amplifier: modeling and experimentation,” Opt. Commun. 231, 309–317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. S.-T.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, “Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 385–387.

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, “Gain-clamped fiber amplifier with a short length of preamplification fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1108–1110 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 548–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kado, S.

Y. Emori, S. Kado, S. Namiki, “Simple gain control method for broadband Raman amplifiers gain-flattened by multi-wavelength pumping,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 158–159.
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, A.

A. B. Puc, M. W. Chbat, J. D. Henrie, N. A. Weaver, H. Kim, A. Kaminski, A. Rahman, H. Fevrier, “Long-haul WDM NRZ transmission at 10.7 Gb/sin S-band using cascade of lumped Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America; Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. PD39-1–PD39-3.

Kanka, J.

M. Karásek, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, J. Radil, “Protection of surviving channels in all-optical gain-clamped lumped Raman fiber amplifier: modeling and experimentation,” Opt. Commun. 231, 309–317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karásek, M.

M. Karásek, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, J. Radil, “Protection of surviving channels in all-optical gain-clamped lumped Raman fiber amplifier: modeling and experimentation,” Opt. Commun. 231, 309–317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Karásek, M. Menif, “Channel addition/removal response in Raman fiber amplifiers: modeling and experimentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1680–1687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Karásek, M. Menif, “Protection of surviving channels in pump-controlled gain-locked Raman fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 210, 57–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, “Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 385–387.

Kim, H.

A. B. Puc, M. W. Chbat, J. D. Henrie, N. A. Weaver, H. Kim, A. Kaminski, A. Rahman, H. Fevrier, “Long-haul WDM NRZ transmission at 10.7 Gb/sin S-band using cascade of lumped Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America; Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. PD39-1–PD39-3.

Lee, H. K.

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Y. Gong, W. Qi, X. Zhou, P. Shum, C. Lu, T. X. Cheng, “Investigation of Raman fiber amplifier with all-optical gain clamping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 480.

Lu, X.

J. Ning, X. Lu, Z. Chen, “Automatic gain control for Raman fiber amplifiers,” in Semiconductor Lasers and Applications, Y. Luo, Y. Nakano, eds., Proc. SPIE4913, 41–44 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-W.

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marhic, M. E.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, “Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 385–387.

Menif, M.

M. Karásek, M. Menif, “Channel addition/removal response in Raman fiber amplifiers: modeling and experimentation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1680–1687 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Karásek, M. Menif, “Protection of surviving channels in pump-controlled gain-locked Raman fiber amplifier,” Opt. Commun. 210, 57–65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, S.

S. Namiki, Y. Emori, “Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3–16 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Emori, S. Kado, S. Namiki, “Simple gain control method for broadband Raman amplifiers gain-flattened by multi-wavelength pumping,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 158–159.
[CrossRef]

Ning, J.

J. Ning, X. Lu, Z. Chen, “Automatic gain control for Raman fiber amplifiers,” in Semiconductor Lasers and Applications, Y. Luo, Y. Nakano, eds., Proc. SPIE4913, 41–44 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pease, J. S.

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Puc, A. B.

A. B. Puc, M. W. Chbat, J. D. Henrie, N. A. Weaver, H. Kim, A. Kaminski, A. Rahman, H. Fevrier, “Long-haul WDM NRZ transmission at 10.7 Gb/sin S-band using cascade of lumped Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America; Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. PD39-1–PD39-3.

Qi, W.

Y. Gong, W. Qi, X. Zhou, P. Shum, C. Lu, T. X. Cheng, “Investigation of Raman fiber amplifier with all-optical gain clamping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 480.

Radil, J.

M. Karásek, J. Kaňka, P. Honzátko, J. Radil, “Protection of surviving channels in all-optical gain-clamped lumped Raman fiber amplifier: modeling and experimentation,” Opt. Commun. 231, 309–317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, A.

A. B. Puc, M. W. Chbat, J. D. Henrie, N. A. Weaver, H. Kim, A. Kaminski, A. Rahman, H. Fevrier, “Long-haul WDM NRZ transmission at 10.7 Gb/sin S-band using cascade of lumped Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America; Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. PD39-1–PD39-3.

Reeves-Hall, P. C.

P. C. Reeves-Hall, D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. De Matos, J. R. Taylor, “Dual wavelength pumped L-and U-band Raman amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37, 883–884 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, “Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 385–387.

Shalaby, H. H. M.

X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, L. Chao, P. Shum, T. Cheng, “Theoretical investigation of fiber Raman amplifier with dynamic gain control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 57 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. WDD17-1–WDD17-3.

Shum, P.

X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, L. Chao, P. Shum, T. Cheng, “Theoretical investigation of fiber Raman amplifier with dynamic gain control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 57 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. WDD17-1–WDD17-3.

Y. Gong, W. Qi, X. Zhou, P. Shum, C. Lu, T. X. Cheng, “Investigation of Raman fiber amplifier with all-optical gain clamping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 480.

Sun, Y.

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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A. B. Puc, M. W. Chbat, J. D. Henrie, N. A. Weaver, H. Kim, A. Kaminski, A. Rahman, H. Fevrier, “Long-haul WDM NRZ transmission at 10.7 Gb/sin S-band using cascade of lumped Raman amplifiers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America; Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. PD39-1–PD39-3.

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[CrossRef]

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S. S.-H. Yam, F.-T. An, E. S.-T. Hu, M. E. Marhic, T. Sakamoto, L. G. Kazovsky, “Gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 385–387.

Ye, J.

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, L. Chao, P. Shum, T. Cheng, “Theoretical investigation of fiber Raman amplifier with dynamic gain control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 57 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. WDD17-1–WDD17-3.

Y. Gong, W. Qi, X. Zhou, P. Shum, C. Lu, T. X. Cheng, “Investigation of Raman fiber amplifier with all-optical gain clamping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 480.

Electron. Lett.

P. C. Reeves-Hall, D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. De Matos, J. R. Taylor, “Dual wavelength pumped L-and U-band Raman amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 37, 883–884 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Chen, W. S. Wong, “Transient effects in saturated Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 371–373 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Chen, J. Ye, W. S. Wong, Y.-W. Lu, M.-C. Ho, Y. Cao, M. J. Gassner, J. S. Pease, H.-S. Tsai, H. K. Lee, S. Cabot, Y. Sun, “Control of transient effects in distributed and lumped Raman amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1304–1305 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Y. Gong, W. Qi, X. Zhou, P. Shum, C. Lu, T. X. Cheng, “Investigation of Raman fiber amplifier with all-optical gain clamping,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), p. 480.

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T. Zambelis, N. Gryspolakis, L. R. Chen, “Design of all-optical gain-clamped discrete fiber Raman amplifiers,” in Proceedings of the IEEE–LEOS Annual Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), pp. 1050–1051.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Single-stage and (b) Two-stage DFRA configurations. The top figures correspond to unclamped amplifiers, whereas the bottom figures correspond to GC amplifiers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective Raman gain coefficient spectrum and attenuation spectrum of fiber used in the simulations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gain and NF at a signal wavelength of 1568.77 nm for an unclamped two-stage DFRA plotted as (a) a function of the length ratio with power distribution as a free variable: 50–300 mW, 100–250 mW (open diamonds), 150–200 mW (filled stars), 200–150 mW (open right-pointing triangles), 250–100 mW (filled squares), 300–50 mW; and (b) the power ratio with length distribution as a free variable: 1.5–4 km (solid circle), 1.5–3.5 km (hollow diamond), 2–3 km (solid star), 2.5–2.5 km (hollow right triangle), 3–2 km (solid double star), 3.5–1.5 km (hollow left triangle), 4–1 km (solid square). The total input signal power to the amplifier is ≈ − 11 dBm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gain and NF spectra of two single-stage DFRAs (Config 1A, circles; Config 1B, squares) and two-stage DFRAs (Config 2, triangles) with similar gain spectra (input power per channel, −20 dBm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of noise performance of an unclamped DFRA (squares) and a GC DFRA (circles) with approximately the same gain spectra (input power per channel, −20 dBm). The clamped DFRA exhibits an increased NF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gain and NF spectra for a partially clamped two-stage DFRA (see text for parameters) for several total input signal powers: −20 dBm (solid curve), −15 dBm (dashed curve), −10 dBm (dashed-dotted curve), and −5 dBm (dotted curve). Inset, comparison of the gains of the partially clamped (dashed curve) and corresponding unclamped (solid curve) two-stage DFRAs as a function of total input signal power for the channel at 1578.69 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Gain at a signal wavelength of 1573.71 nm of a partially clamped two-stage DFRA with (R1, R2) = (99%, 60%) (squares) and the equivalent single-stage GC DFRA (diamonds) as a function of total input signal power. (b) Comparison of gain and NF spectra (for an input power per channel of −20 dBm) for the partially clamped two-stage DFRAs with different FBG arrangements (triangles and circles) (the curves are practically identical) and the single-stage GC DFRA (solid curve with no symbols). See Table 1 for amplifier parameters.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Amplifier Design Parameters for the Two Equivalent GC DFRAs

Equations (2)

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G i = exp ( α P i L i )
G = exp [ α ( P 1 L 1 + P 2 L 2 ) ] = exp [ α L total 2 ( P 1 + P 2 ) ] = exp [ α L total P total 2 ] ,

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