Abstract

Generating underwater acoustic signals from a remote, aerial location by use of a high-energy pulsed infrared laser has been demonstrated. The laser beam is directed from the air and focused onto the water surface, where the optical energy was converted into a propagating acoustic wave. Sound pressure levels of 185 dB re μPa (decibel re μPa) were consistently recorded under freshwater laboratory conditions at laser-pulse repetition rates of up to 1000 pulses/s. The nonlinear optoacoustic transmission concept is outlined, and the experimental results from investigation of the time-domain and frequency-domain characteristics of the generated underwater sound are provided. A high repetition rate, high-energy per pulse laser was used in this test under freshwater laboratory conditions. A means of deterministically controlling the spectrum of the underwater acoustic signal was investigated and demonstrated by varying the laser-pulse repetition rate.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Vogel, S. Busch, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. P. Chotiros, “Nonlinear optoacoustic underwater sound source,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925255–264 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. E. Nebolsine, “Radiation-induced sound final report,” (Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, Mass., 1977).
  4. F. Blackmon, “Linear opto-acoustic communications,” (Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, R.I., 1998).
  5. F. Blackmon, “Linear and non-linear opto-acoustic communications,” (Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division, Newport, R.I., 1999).
  6. F. Blackmon, L. Antonelli, L. Estes, G. Fain, “Experimental investigation of underwater to in-air communications,” presented at UDT Europe 2002 Conference, LaSpezia, Italy, 17–20 June 2002.
  7. L. Antonelli, F. Blackmon, “Experimental investigation of optical, remote, aerial sonar,” presented at the Oceans 2002 Conference, Biloxi, Mississippi, 26–30 October 2002.
  8. F. Blackmon, “Linear and non-linear opto-acoustic underwater communication,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, Mass., 2003).
  9. L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics (Wiley, New York, 1982).
  10. L. M. Lyamshev, L. V. Sedov, “Optical generation of sound in a liquid: thermal mechanism (review),” Akust. Zh. 27, 5–29 (1981) [Sov. Phys. Acoust. 27(1), 4–18, (1981)].
  11. Y. H. Berthelot, “Thermoacoustic generation of narrow-band signals with high repetition rate pulsed lasers,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 1174–1181 (1989).
  12. T. G. Jones, J. Grun, C. Manka, H. R. Hurris, “Feasibility experiments for underwater shock and bubble generation with a high powered laser,” (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 1999).
  13. J. Noack, A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156–1167 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. H. Bertholet, I. J. Busch-Vishniac, “Laser-induced thermoacoustic radiation,” J. Soc. Acoust. Am. 78, 2074–2082 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Noack, A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Vogel, S. Busch, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Y. H. Berthelot, “Thermoacoustic generation of narrow-band signals with high repetition rate pulsed lasers,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 1174–1181 (1989).

1985 (1)

Y. H. Bertholet, I. J. Busch-Vishniac, “Laser-induced thermoacoustic radiation,” J. Soc. Acoust. Am. 78, 2074–2082 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

L. M. Lyamshev, L. V. Sedov, “Optical generation of sound in a liquid: thermal mechanism (review),” Akust. Zh. 27, 5–29 (1981) [Sov. Phys. Acoust. 27(1), 4–18, (1981)].

Antonelli, L.

L. Antonelli, F. Blackmon, “Experimental investigation of optical, remote, aerial sonar,” presented at the Oceans 2002 Conference, Biloxi, Mississippi, 26–30 October 2002.

F. Blackmon, L. Antonelli, L. Estes, G. Fain, “Experimental investigation of underwater to in-air communications,” presented at UDT Europe 2002 Conference, LaSpezia, Italy, 17–20 June 2002.

Berthelot, Y. H.

Y. H. Berthelot, “Thermoacoustic generation of narrow-band signals with high repetition rate pulsed lasers,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 1174–1181 (1989).

Bertholet, Y. H.

Y. H. Bertholet, I. J. Busch-Vishniac, “Laser-induced thermoacoustic radiation,” J. Soc. Acoust. Am. 78, 2074–2082 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Blackmon, F.

L. Antonelli, F. Blackmon, “Experimental investigation of optical, remote, aerial sonar,” presented at the Oceans 2002 Conference, Biloxi, Mississippi, 26–30 October 2002.

F. Blackmon, “Linear and non-linear opto-acoustic underwater communication,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, Mass., 2003).

F. Blackmon, “Linear opto-acoustic communications,” (Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, R.I., 1998).

F. Blackmon, “Linear and non-linear opto-acoustic communications,” (Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division, Newport, R.I., 1999).

F. Blackmon, L. Antonelli, L. Estes, G. Fain, “Experimental investigation of underwater to in-air communications,” presented at UDT Europe 2002 Conference, LaSpezia, Italy, 17–20 June 2002.

Busch, S.

A. Vogel, S. Busch, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Busch-Vishniac, I. J.

Y. H. Bertholet, I. J. Busch-Vishniac, “Laser-induced thermoacoustic radiation,” J. Soc. Acoust. Am. 78, 2074–2082 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chotiros, N. P.

N. P. Chotiros, “Nonlinear optoacoustic underwater sound source,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925255–264 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Coppens, A. B.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Estes, L.

F. Blackmon, L. Antonelli, L. Estes, G. Fain, “Experimental investigation of underwater to in-air communications,” presented at UDT Europe 2002 Conference, LaSpezia, Italy, 17–20 June 2002.

Fain, G.

F. Blackmon, L. Antonelli, L. Estes, G. Fain, “Experimental investigation of underwater to in-air communications,” presented at UDT Europe 2002 Conference, LaSpezia, Italy, 17–20 June 2002.

Frey, A. R.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Grun, J.

T. G. Jones, J. Grun, C. Manka, H. R. Hurris, “Feasibility experiments for underwater shock and bubble generation with a high powered laser,” (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 1999).

Hurris, H. R.

T. G. Jones, J. Grun, C. Manka, H. R. Hurris, “Feasibility experiments for underwater shock and bubble generation with a high powered laser,” (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 1999).

Jones, T. G.

T. G. Jones, J. Grun, C. Manka, H. R. Hurris, “Feasibility experiments for underwater shock and bubble generation with a high powered laser,” (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 1999).

Kinsler, L. E.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Lyamshev, L. M.

L. M. Lyamshev, L. V. Sedov, “Optical generation of sound in a liquid: thermal mechanism (review),” Akust. Zh. 27, 5–29 (1981) [Sov. Phys. Acoust. 27(1), 4–18, (1981)].

Manka, C.

T. G. Jones, J. Grun, C. Manka, H. R. Hurris, “Feasibility experiments for underwater shock and bubble generation with a high powered laser,” (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 1999).

Nebolsine, P. E.

P. E. Nebolsine, “Radiation-induced sound final report,” (Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, Mass., 1977).

Noack, J.

J. Noack, A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, J. V.

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Sedov, L. V.

L. M. Lyamshev, L. V. Sedov, “Optical generation of sound in a liquid: thermal mechanism (review),” Akust. Zh. 27, 5–29 (1981) [Sov. Phys. Acoust. 27(1), 4–18, (1981)].

Vogel, A.

J. Noack, A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, S. Busch, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Akust. Zh. (1)

L. M. Lyamshev, L. V. Sedov, “Optical generation of sound in a liquid: thermal mechanism (review),” Akust. Zh. 27, 5–29 (1981) [Sov. Phys. Acoust. 27(1), 4–18, (1981)].

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Noack, A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

Y. H. Berthelot, “Thermoacoustic generation of narrow-band signals with high repetition rate pulsed lasers,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 1174–1181 (1989).

A. Vogel, S. Busch, “Shock wave emission and cavitation bubble generation by picosecond and nanosecond optical breakdown in water,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 148–165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Acoust. Am. (1)

Y. H. Bertholet, I. J. Busch-Vishniac, “Laser-induced thermoacoustic radiation,” J. Soc. Acoust. Am. 78, 2074–2082 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

T. G. Jones, J. Grun, C. Manka, H. R. Hurris, “Feasibility experiments for underwater shock and bubble generation with a high powered laser,” (Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., 1999).

N. P. Chotiros, “Nonlinear optoacoustic underwater sound source,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925255–264 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Nebolsine, “Radiation-induced sound final report,” (Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, Mass., 1977).

F. Blackmon, “Linear opto-acoustic communications,” (Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, R.I., 1998).

F. Blackmon, “Linear and non-linear opto-acoustic communications,” (Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division, Newport, R.I., 1999).

F. Blackmon, L. Antonelli, L. Estes, G. Fain, “Experimental investigation of underwater to in-air communications,” presented at UDT Europe 2002 Conference, LaSpezia, Italy, 17–20 June 2002.

L. Antonelli, F. Blackmon, “Experimental investigation of optical, remote, aerial sonar,” presented at the Oceans 2002 Conference, Biloxi, Mississippi, 26–30 October 2002.

F. Blackmon, “Linear and non-linear opto-acoustic underwater communication,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, Mass., 2003).

L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics (Wiley, New York, 1982).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup used to test the active optoacoustic transmission concept for remote, in-air generation of underwater sound.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of an underwater acoustic signal transient generated by focusing a single laser pulse from an infrared laser beam onto the water surface and captured by an underwater hydrophone showing detailed (a) time structure of the optoacoustic transient, (b) Fourier transform, (c) spectrogram of the underwater acoustic signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of an underwater acoustic signal generated by focusing an infrared laser beam having a pulse repetition rate of 200 Hz onto the water surface and captured by an underwater hydrophone showing detailed (a) time structure of the optoacoustic transient, (b) Fourier transform, (c) simulated Fourier transform.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of an underwater acoustic signal generated by focusing an infrared laser beam having a pulse repetition rate of 500 Hz onto the water surface and captured by an underwater hydrophone showing detailed (a) time structure of the optoacoustic transient, (b) Fourier transform, and (c) simulated Fourier transform.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of an underwater acoustic signal generated by focusing an infrared laser beam having a pulse repetition rate of 1000 Hz onto the water surface and captured by an underwater hydrophone showing detailed (a) time structure of the optoacoustic transient, (b) Fourier transform, and (c) simulated Fourier transform.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Properties of the Pulsed High-Energy Laser

Equations (2)

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p ( r , θ , t ) = P m ( r , θ ) n = 0 N - 1 exp [ - ( t - n T R ) τ ( r ) ] u ( t - n T R ) + j P B j ( r , θ ) n = 0 N - 1 exp [ - ( t - T B j - n T R τ B j ( r ) ] × u ( t - T B j - n T R ) ,
P ( r , θ , ω ) = | sin ( N ω T R 2 ) sin ( ω T R 2 ) | | [ P m ( r , θ ) τ ( r ) 1 + j ω τ ( r ) + j P B j ( r , θ ) τ B j ( r ) 1 + j ω τ B j ( r ) exp ( - j ω T B j ) ] | .

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