Abstract

Ultrafast laser micromachining provides many advantages for precision micromachining. One challenging problem, however, particularly for multilayer and heterogeneous materials, is how to prevent a given material from being ablated, as ultrafast laser micromachining is generally material insensitive. We present a real-time feedback control system for an ultrafast laser micromachining system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The characteristics of ultrafast LIBS are reviewed and discussed so as to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Comparison methods to identify the material emission patterns are developed, and several of the resulting algorithms were implemented into a real-time computer control system. LIBS-controlled micromachining is demonstrated for the fabrication of microheater structures on thermal sprayed materials. Compared with a strictly passive machining process without any such feedback control, the LIBS-based system provides several advantages including less damage to the substrate layer, reduced machining time, and more-uniform machining features.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  8. S. Klein, T. Stratoudaki, V. Zafiropulos, J. Hildenhagen, K. Dickmann, T. Lehmkuhl, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of laser cleaning of sandstone and stained glass,” Appl. Phys. A 69, 441–444 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. R. A. Multari, L. E. Foster, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1483–1499 (1996).
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2003 (1)

P. Stanley, K. Venkatakrishnan, L. E. N. Lim, B. K. A. Ngoi, “Influence of femtosecond laser parameters on fabrication of photomask by direct ablation,” Lasers Eng. 13, 13–23 (2003).

2002 (3)

E. H. Evans, J. B. Dawson, A. Fisher, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, J. F. Tyson, “Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 17, 622–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M. R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti, N. Senesi, “Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Geoderma 106, 45–62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, “Quantitative micro-analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a review of the experimental approaches,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1115–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (8)

V. Margetic, K. Niemax, R. Hergenroder, “A study of non-linear calibration graphs for brass with femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 1003–1010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Monch, L. Peter, V. Sturm, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 637–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers, M. H. Ebinger, D. D. Breshears, P. J. Unkefer, S. A. Kammerdiener, M. J. Ferris, K. M. Catlett, J. R. Brown, “Measuring total soil carbon with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” J. Environ. Qual. 30, 2202–2206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Carranza, B. T. Fisher, G. D. Yoder, D. W. Hahn, “On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 851–864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, T. S. Lai, M. A. Berg, S. R. Goode, S. M. Angel, “Some comparisons of LIBS measurements using nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 279–285 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Eland, D. N. Stratis, D. M. Gold, S. R. Goode, S. M. Angel, “Energy dependence of emission intensity and temperature in a LIBS plasma using femtosecond excitation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 286–291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Li, Q. H. Lou, Y. R. Wei, F. Huang, J. X. Dong, J. R. Liu, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of selective removal of cobalt binder from tungsten carbide hardmetal by pulsed UV laser surface ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 181, 225–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (6)

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, “Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 309–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, R. Hergenroder, “A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 1771–1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Anzano, I. B. Gornushkin, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for plastic identification,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40, 2423–2429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Capitelli, F. Capitelli, A. Eletskii, “Non-equilibrium and equilibrium problems in laser-induced plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 559–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Hou, B. T. Jones, “Field instrumentation in atomic spectroscopy,” Microchem. J. 66, 115–145 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sampath, R. Mccune, “Thermal-spray processing of materials,” MRS Bull. 25, 12–14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, V. Zafiropulos, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser cleaning of encrustation on pentelic marble: procedure and evaluation of the effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 148, 92–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Klein, T. Stratoudaki, V. Zafiropulos, J. Hildenhagen, K. Dickmann, T. Lehmkuhl, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of laser cleaning of sandstone and stained glass,” Appl. Phys. A 69, 441–444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser-pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulatov, R. Krasniker, I. Schechter, “Study of matrix effects in laser plasma spectroscopy by combined multifiber spatial and temporal resolutions,” Anal. Chem. 70, 5302–5311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Castle, K. Talabardon, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Variables influencing the precision of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 649–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Mao, A. C. Ciocan, O. V. Borisov, R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation processes investigated using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES),” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 262–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

C. Chaleard, P. Mauchien, N. Andre, J. Uebbing, J. L. Lacour, C. Geertsen, “Correction of matrix effects in quantitative elemental analysis with laser ablation optical emission spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12, 183–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Gobernadomitre, A. C. Prieto, V. Zafiropulos, Y. Spetsidou, C. Fotakis, “On-line monitoring of laser cleaning of limestone by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1125–1129 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Du, G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Vonalvensleben, A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Multari, L. E. Foster, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1483–1499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

B. Irving, R. Knight, R. W. Smith, “The HVOF process: the hottest topic in the thermal spray industry,” Weld. J. (Miami, Fla.) 72, 25–30 (1993).

M. Autin, A. Briand, P. Mauchien, J. M. Mermet, “Characterization by emission-spectrometry of a laser-produced plasma from a copper target in air at atmospheric-pressure,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 48, 851–862 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Andre, N.

C. Chaleard, P. Mauchien, N. Andre, J. Uebbing, J. L. Lacour, C. Geertsen, “Correction of matrix effects in quantitative elemental analysis with laser ablation optical emission spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12, 183–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Angel, S. M.

Anzano, J. M.

J. M. Anzano, I. B. Gornushkin, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for plastic identification,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40, 2423–2429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Autin, M.

M. Autin, A. Briand, P. Mauchien, J. M. Mermet, “Characterization by emission-spectrometry of a laser-produced plasma from a copper target in air at atmospheric-pressure,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 48, 851–862 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, O.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berg, M. A.

Bette, H.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Monch, L. Peter, V. Sturm, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 637–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bolshov, M.

V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, R. Hergenroder, “A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 1771–1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bonarou, A.

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, “Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 309–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, O. V.

X. L. Mao, A. C. Ciocan, O. V. Borisov, R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation processes investigated using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES),” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 262–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Breshears, D. D.

D. A. Cremers, M. H. Ebinger, D. D. Breshears, P. J. Unkefer, S. A. Kammerdiener, M. J. Ferris, K. M. Catlett, J. R. Brown, “Measuring total soil carbon with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” J. Environ. Qual. 30, 2202–2206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Briand, A.

M. Autin, A. Briand, P. Mauchien, J. M. Mermet, “Characterization by emission-spectrometry of a laser-produced plasma from a copper target in air at atmospheric-pressure,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 48, 851–862 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. R.

D. A. Cremers, M. H. Ebinger, D. D. Breshears, P. J. Unkefer, S. A. Kammerdiener, M. J. Ferris, K. M. Catlett, J. R. Brown, “Measuring total soil carbon with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” J. Environ. Qual. 30, 2202–2206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brunetti, G.

F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M. R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti, N. Senesi, “Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Geoderma 106, 45–62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brysch, A.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Monch, L. Peter, V. Sturm, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 637–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bulatov, V.

V. Bulatov, R. Krasniker, I. Schechter, “Study of matrix effects in laser plasma spectroscopy by combined multifiber spatial and temporal resolutions,” Anal. Chem. 70, 5302–5311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capitelli, F.

F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M. R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti, N. Senesi, “Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Geoderma 106, 45–62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Capitelli, F. Capitelli, A. Eletskii, “Non-equilibrium and equilibrium problems in laser-induced plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 559–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Capitelli, M.

M. Capitelli, F. Capitelli, A. Eletskii, “Non-equilibrium and equilibrium problems in laser-induced plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 559–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carranza, J. E.

J. E. Carranza, B. T. Fisher, G. D. Yoder, D. W. Hahn, “On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 851–864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Castle, B. C.

B. C. Castle, K. Talabardon, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Variables influencing the precision of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 649–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Catlett, K. M.

D. A. Cremers, M. H. Ebinger, D. D. Breshears, P. J. Unkefer, S. A. Kammerdiener, M. J. Ferris, K. M. Catlett, J. R. Brown, “Measuring total soil carbon with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” J. Environ. Qual. 30, 2202–2206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chaker, M.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chaleard, C.

C. Chaleard, P. Mauchien, N. Andre, J. Uebbing, J. L. Lacour, C. Geertsen, “Correction of matrix effects in quantitative elemental analysis with laser ablation optical emission spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12, 183–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, J. P. Longtin, S. Sampath, R. J. Gambino, “Ultrafast laser micromachining and patterning of thermal spray multilayers for novel sensor fabrication,” in Proceedings of 2003 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 2003).

Chichkov, B. N.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Vonalvensleben, A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ciocan, A. C.

X. L. Mao, A. C. Ciocan, O. V. Borisov, R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation processes investigated using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES),” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 262–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colao, F.

F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M. R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti, N. Senesi, “Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Geoderma 106, 45–62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corsi, M.

E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, “Quantitative micro-analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a review of the experimental approaches,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1115–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cremers, D. A.

D. A. Cremers, M. H. Ebinger, D. D. Breshears, P. J. Unkefer, S. A. Kammerdiener, M. J. Ferris, K. M. Catlett, J. R. Brown, “Measuring total soil carbon with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” J. Environ. Qual. 30, 2202–2206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Multari, L. E. Foster, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1483–1499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cristoforetti, G.

E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, “Quantitative micro-analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a review of the experimental approaches,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1115–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser-pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, J. B.

E. H. Evans, J. B. Dawson, A. Fisher, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, J. F. Tyson, “Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 17, 622–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dickmann, K.

S. Klein, T. Stratoudaki, V. Zafiropulos, J. Hildenhagen, K. Dickmann, T. Lehmkuhl, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of laser cleaning of sandstone and stained glass,” Appl. Phys. A 69, 441–444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J. X.

T. J. Li, Q. H. Lou, Y. R. Wei, F. Huang, J. X. Dong, J. R. Liu, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of selective removal of cobalt binder from tungsten carbide hardmetal by pulsed UV laser surface ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 181, 225–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

X. Liu, D. Du, G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ebinger, M. H.

D. A. Cremers, M. H. Ebinger, D. D. Breshears, P. J. Unkefer, S. A. Kammerdiener, M. J. Ferris, K. M. Catlett, J. R. Brown, “Measuring total soil carbon with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” J. Environ. Qual. 30, 2202–2206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eland, K. L.

Eletskii, A.

M. Capitelli, F. Capitelli, A. Eletskii, “Non-equilibrium and equilibrium problems in laser-induced plasmas,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 559–574 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Evans, E. H.

E. H. Evans, J. B. Dawson, A. Fisher, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, J. F. Tyson, “Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 17, 622–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fantoni, R.

F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M. R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti, N. Senesi, “Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Geoderma 106, 45–62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser-pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferris, M. J.

D. A. Cremers, M. H. Ebinger, D. D. Breshears, P. J. Unkefer, S. A. Kammerdiener, M. J. Ferris, K. M. Catlett, J. R. Brown, “Measuring total soil carbon with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” J. Environ. Qual. 30, 2202–2206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Multari, L. E. Foster, D. A. Cremers, M. J. Ferris, “Effect of sampling geometry on elemental emissions in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1483–1499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, A.

E. H. Evans, J. B. Dawson, A. Fisher, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, J. F. Tyson, “Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 17, 622–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, B. T.

J. E. Carranza, B. T. Fisher, G. D. Yoder, D. W. Hahn, “On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 851–864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1993).

Foster, L. E.

Fotakis, C.

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, “Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 309–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, V. Zafiropulos, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser cleaning of encrustation on pentelic marble: procedure and evaluation of the effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 148, 92–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Gobernadomitre, A. C. Prieto, V. Zafiropulos, Y. Spetsidou, C. Fotakis, “On-line monitoring of laser cleaning of limestone by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1125–1129 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gambino, R. J.

Q. Chen, J. P. Longtin, S. Sampath, R. J. Gambino, “Ultrafast laser micromachining and patterning of thermal spray multilayers for novel sensor fabrication,” in Proceedings of 2003 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 2003).

Geertsen, C.

C. Chaleard, P. Mauchien, N. Andre, J. Uebbing, J. L. Lacour, C. Geertsen, “Correction of matrix effects in quantitative elemental analysis with laser ablation optical emission spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12, 183–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gobernadomitre, I.

Gold, D. M.

Goode, S. R.

Gornushkin, I. B.

J. M. Anzano, I. B. Gornushkin, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for plastic identification,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40, 2423–2429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, D. W.

J. E. Carranza, B. T. Fisher, G. D. Yoder, D. W. Hahn, “On-line analysis of ambient air aerosols using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 851–864 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hergenroder, R.

V. Margetic, K. Niemax, R. Hergenroder, “A study of non-linear calibration graphs for brass with femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 1003–1010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, R. Hergenroder, “A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 1771–1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hildenhagen, J.

S. Klein, T. Stratoudaki, V. Zafiropulos, J. Hildenhagen, K. Dickmann, T. Lehmkuhl, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of laser cleaning of sandstone and stained glass,” Appl. Phys. A 69, 441–444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X. D.

X. D. Hou, B. T. Jones, “Field instrumentation in atomic spectroscopy,” Microchem. J. 66, 115–145 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

T. J. Li, Q. H. Lou, Y. R. Wei, F. Huang, J. X. Dong, J. R. Liu, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of selective removal of cobalt binder from tungsten carbide hardmetal by pulsed UV laser surface ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 181, 225–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Irving, B.

B. Irving, R. Knight, R. W. Smith, “The HVOF process: the hottest topic in the thermal spray industry,” Weld. J. (Miami, Fla.) 72, 25–30 (1993).

Johnston, T. W.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, B. T.

X. D. Hou, B. T. Jones, “Field instrumentation in atomic spectroscopy,” Microchem. J. 66, 115–145 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kammerdiener, S. A.

D. A. Cremers, M. H. Ebinger, D. D. Breshears, P. J. Unkefer, S. A. Kammerdiener, M. J. Ferris, K. M. Catlett, J. R. Brown, “Measuring total soil carbon with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” J. Environ. Qual. 30, 2202–2206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. M.

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser-pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klein, S.

S. Klein, T. Stratoudaki, V. Zafiropulos, J. Hildenhagen, K. Dickmann, T. Lehmkuhl, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of laser cleaning of sandstone and stained glass,” Appl. Phys. A 69, 441–444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knight, R.

B. Irving, R. Knight, R. W. Smith, “The HVOF process: the hottest topic in the thermal spray industry,” Weld. J. (Miami, Fla.) 72, 25–30 (1993).

Krasniker, R.

V. Bulatov, R. Krasniker, I. Schechter, “Study of matrix effects in laser plasma spectroscopy by combined multifiber spatial and temporal resolutions,” Anal. Chem. 70, 5302–5311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kraushaar, M.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Monch, L. Peter, V. Sturm, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 637–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lacour, J. L.

C. Chaleard, P. Mauchien, N. Andre, J. Uebbing, J. L. Lacour, C. Geertsen, “Correction of matrix effects in quantitative elemental analysis with laser ablation optical emission spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12, 183–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lai, T. S.

Laville, S.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Le Drogoff, B.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lehmkuhl, T.

S. Klein, T. Stratoudaki, V. Zafiropulos, J. Hildenhagen, K. Dickmann, T. Lehmkuhl, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of laser cleaning of sandstone and stained glass,” Appl. Phys. A 69, 441–444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, T. J.

T. J. Li, Q. H. Lou, Y. R. Wei, F. Huang, J. X. Dong, J. R. Liu, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of selective removal of cobalt binder from tungsten carbide hardmetal by pulsed UV laser surface ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 181, 225–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lim, L. E. N.

P. Stanley, K. Venkatakrishnan, L. E. N. Lim, B. K. A. Ngoi, “Influence of femtosecond laser parameters on fabrication of photomask by direct ablation,” Lasers Eng. 13, 13–23 (2003).

Liu, J. R.

T. J. Li, Q. H. Lou, Y. R. Wei, F. Huang, J. X. Dong, J. R. Liu, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of selective removal of cobalt binder from tungsten carbide hardmetal by pulsed UV laser surface ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 181, 225–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Du, G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Longtin, J. P.

Q. Chen, J. P. Longtin, S. Sampath, R. J. Gambino, “Ultrafast laser micromachining and patterning of thermal spray multilayers for novel sensor fabrication,” in Proceedings of 2003 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 2003).

Lou, Q. H.

T. J. Li, Q. H. Lou, Y. R. Wei, F. Huang, J. X. Dong, J. R. Liu, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of selective removal of cobalt binder from tungsten carbide hardmetal by pulsed UV laser surface ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 181, 225–233 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mammini, B. M.

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser-pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X. L.

X. L. Mao, A. C. Ciocan, O. V. Borisov, R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation processes investigated using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES),” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 262–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.

P. Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, V. Zafiropulos, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser cleaning of encrustation on pentelic marble: procedure and evaluation of the effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 148, 92–104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Margetic, V.

V. Margetic, K. Niemax, R. Hergenroder, “A study of non-linear calibration graphs for brass with femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 1003–1010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, R. Hergenroder, “A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 1771–1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Margot, J.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mauchien, P.

C. Chaleard, P. Mauchien, N. Andre, J. Uebbing, J. L. Lacour, C. Geertsen, “Correction of matrix effects in quantitative elemental analysis with laser ablation optical emission spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12, 183–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Autin, A. Briand, P. Mauchien, J. M. Mermet, “Characterization by emission-spectrometry of a laser-produced plasma from a copper target in air at atmospheric-pressure,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 48, 851–862 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mccune, R.

S. Sampath, R. Mccune, “Thermal-spray processing of materials,” MRS Bull. 25, 12–14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mermet, J. M.

M. Autin, A. Briand, P. Mauchien, J. M. Mermet, “Characterization by emission-spectrometry of a laser-produced plasma from a copper target in air at atmospheric-pressure,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 48, 851–862 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Momma, C.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Vonalvensleben, A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Monch, I.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Monch, L. Peter, V. Sturm, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 637–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

X. Liu, D. Du, G. Mourou, “Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706–1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Multari, R. A.

Ngoi, B. K. A.

P. Stanley, K. Venkatakrishnan, L. E. N. Lim, B. K. A. Ngoi, “Influence of femtosecond laser parameters on fabrication of photomask by direct ablation,” Lasers Eng. 13, 13–23 (2003).

Niemax, K.

V. Margetic, K. Niemax, R. Hergenroder, “A study of non-linear calibration graphs for brass with femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 1003–1010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, R. Hergenroder, “A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 1771–1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Monch, L. Peter, V. Sturm, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 637–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Vonalvensleben, A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pakulev, A.

V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, R. Hergenroder, “A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 1771–1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palleschi, V.

E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, “Quantitative micro-analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a review of the experimental approaches,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1115–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peter, L.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Monch, L. Peter, V. Sturm, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 637–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1993).

Price, W. J.

E. H. Evans, J. B. Dawson, A. Fisher, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, J. F. Tyson, “Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 17, 622–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, A. C.

Prokof’ev, V. K.

A. N. Zaidel, V. K. Prokof’ev, S. M. Raiskii, V. A. Slavnyi, E. Ya. ShreiderTables of Spectral Lines (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970).
[CrossRef]

Provenzano, M. R.

F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M. R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti, N. Senesi, “Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Geoderma 106, 45–62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raiskii, S. M.

A. N. Zaidel, V. K. Prokof’ev, S. M. Raiskii, V. A. Slavnyi, E. Ya. ShreiderTables of Spectral Lines (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser-pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rusak, D. A.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R. E.

X. L. Mao, A. C. Ciocan, O. V. Borisov, R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation processes investigated using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES),” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 262–268 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sabsabi, M.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sampath, S.

S. Sampath, R. Mccune, “Thermal-spray processing of materials,” MRS Bull. 25, 12–14 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, J. P. Longtin, S. Sampath, R. J. Gambino, “Ultrafast laser micromachining and patterning of thermal spray multilayers for novel sensor fabrication,” in Proceedings of 2003 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 2003).

Schechter, I.

V. Bulatov, R. Krasniker, I. Schechter, “Study of matrix effects in laser plasma spectroscopy by combined multifiber spatial and temporal resolutions,” Anal. Chem. 70, 5302–5311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Senesi, N.

F. Capitelli, F. Colao, M. R. Provenzano, R. Fantoni, G. Brunetti, N. Senesi, “Determination of heavy metals in soils by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Geoderma 106, 45–62 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slavnyi, V. A.

A. N. Zaidel, V. K. Prokof’ev, S. M. Raiskii, V. A. Slavnyi, E. Ya. ShreiderTables of Spectral Lines (IFI/Plenum, New York, 1970).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

J. M. Anzano, I. B. Gornushkin, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for plastic identification,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 40, 2423–2429 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Castle, K. Talabardon, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Variables influencing the precision of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 649–657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. M. M.

E. H. Evans, J. B. Dawson, A. Fisher, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, J. F. Tyson, “Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 17, 622–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. W.

B. Irving, R. Knight, R. W. Smith, “The HVOF process: the hottest topic in the thermal spray industry,” Weld. J. (Miami, Fla.) 72, 25–30 (1993).

Spetsidou, Y.

Stanley, P.

P. Stanley, K. Venkatakrishnan, L. E. N. Lim, B. K. A. Ngoi, “Influence of femtosecond laser parameters on fabrication of photomask by direct ablation,” Lasers Eng. 13, 13–23 (2003).

Stockhaus, A.

V. Margetic, A. Pakulev, A. Stockhaus, M. Bolshov, K. Niemax, R. Hergenroder, “A comparison of nanosecond and femtosecond laser-induced plasma spectroscopy of brass samples,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 55, 1771–1785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stratis, D. N.

Stratoudaki, T.

S. Klein, T. Stratoudaki, V. Zafiropulos, J. Hildenhagen, K. Dickmann, T. Lehmkuhl, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of laser cleaning of sandstone and stained glass,” Appl. Phys. A 69, 441–444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, V.

R. Noll, H. Bette, A. Brysch, M. Kraushaar, I. Monch, L. Peter, V. Sturm, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry: applications for production control and quality assurance in the steel industry,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 637–649 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Talabardon, K.

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1993).

Tognoni, E.

E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, M. Corsi, G. Cristoforetti, “Quantitative micro-analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: a review of the experimental approaches,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 57, 1115–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tornari, V.

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, “Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 309–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Vonalvensleben, A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tyson, J. F.

E. H. Evans, J. B. Dawson, A. Fisher, W. J. Price, C. M. M. Smith, J. F. Tyson, “Advances in atomic emission, absorption and fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 17, 622–651 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Uebbing, J.

C. Chaleard, P. Mauchien, N. Andre, J. Uebbing, J. L. Lacour, C. Geertsen, “Correction of matrix effects in quantitative elemental analysis with laser ablation optical emission spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12, 183–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Unkefer, P. J.

D. A. Cremers, M. H. Ebinger, D. D. Breshears, P. J. Unkefer, S. A. Kammerdiener, M. J. Ferris, K. M. Catlett, J. R. Brown, “Measuring total soil carbon with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS),” J. Environ. Qual. 30, 2202–2206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N. A.

V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, “Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 309–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Venkatakrishnan, K.

P. Stanley, K. Venkatakrishnan, L. E. N. Lim, B. K. A. Ngoi, “Influence of femtosecond laser parameters on fabrication of photomask by direct ablation,” Lasers Eng. 13, 13–23 (2003).

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1993).

Vidal, F.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Von Kaenel, Y.

B. Le Drogoff, J. Margot, M. Chaker, M. Sabsabi, O. Barthelemy, T. W. Johnston, S. Laville, F. Vidal, Y. Von Kaenel, “Temporal characterization of femtosecond laser pulses induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of aluminum alloys,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 56, 987–1002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vonalvensleben, F.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Vonalvensleben, A. Tunnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys. A 63, 109–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Y. R.

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V. Tornari, V. Zafiropulos, A. Bonarou, N. A. Vainos, C. Fotakis, “Modern technology in artwork conservation: a laser-based approach for process control and evaluation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 309–326 (2000).
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B. M. Kim, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. M. Mammini, L. B. Da Silva, “Optical feedback signal for ultrashort laser-pulse ablation of tissue,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 857–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, V. Zafiropulos, C. Fotakis, “Excimer laser cleaning of encrustation on pentelic marble: procedure and evaluation of the effects,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 148, 92–104 (1999).
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C. Chaleard, P. Mauchien, N. Andre, J. Uebbing, J. L. Lacour, C. Geertsen, “Correction of matrix effects in quantitative elemental analysis with laser ablation optical emission spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12, 183–188 (1997).
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Q. Chen, J. P. Longtin, S. Sampath, R. J. Gambino, “Ultrafast laser micromachining and patterning of thermal spray multilayers for novel sensor fabrication,” in Proceedings of 2003 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 2003).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope graph of an overcut groove by femtosecond laser ablation showing electrical isolation of the coating layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LIBS-controlled ultrafast laser processing system schematics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured LIBS spectra of five materials used in this study. Spectral line data are from Ref. 27.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Alumina spectra with different spectrometer detector angles measured from the laser incident axis: (a) with a collection lens, (b) without a collection lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Nichrome spectra with different laser fluences: (a) higher fluences, normalized spectra stay close; (b) lower fluences, noticeable difference in the normalized spectra, higher background level for lower fluence spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured LIBS spectrum at nichrome-alumina transitional interface.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Real-time comparison results by the modified correlation method during a horizontal scan of a multilayer sample (nichrome coating, ∼25 μm in thickness, on alumina substrate) with four deep vertical grooves. Stage velocity is 4000 μm/s, integration time is 15 ms.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Microheater structure on thermal sprayed material micromachined by the LIBS-controlled ultrafast laser system; (b) scanning electron microscope graph of the heater spiral pattern.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of a Set of Sample Spectra with Five Reference Materials by Use of the Five Largest Peaks Method with a Threshold of 2.0

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Table 2 Comparison of a Set of Sample Spectra with Five Reference Materials by Use of the Modified Linear Correlation Method with a Threshold of 2.0

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of a Set of Sample Spectra with Five Reference Materials by Use of the Characteristics Lines Correlation Method with a Threshold of 1.5

Tables Icon

Table 4 LIBS Spectrum Comparison Methods

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r=jxj-x¯yj-y¯jxj-x¯21/2jyj-y¯21/2,
rmod=j xjyjj xj21/2j yj21/2.
tdelay=tint+tproc.
dint=tintν,
dres=tprocν.

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