Abstract

An efficient, 10.4-GHz bulk phase modulator is demonstrated that produces frequency-modulated optical bandwidths in excess of 300 GHz in a double-pass configuration with modest microwave drive power. The waveguide resonator design employs velocity matching to maximize phase-modulation efficiency and a modified form of cutoff waveguide coupling to achieve a high microwave cavity Q factor that reduces power requirements. The measured microwave performance of the modulator agrees well with performance predicted from fully anisotropic, three-dimensional numerical simulations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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