Abstract

We propose a new method of color-pattern recognition by optical correlation that uses a linear description of spectral reflectance functions and the spectral power distribution of illuminants that contains few parameters. We report on a method of preprocessing color input scenes in which the spectral functions are derived from linear models based on principal-component analysis. This multichannel algorithm transforms the red-green-blue (RGB) components into a new set of components that permit a generalization of the matched filter operations that are usually applied in optical pattern recognition with more-stable results under changes in illumination in the source images. The correlation is made in the subspace spanned by the coefficients that describe all reflectances according to a suitable basis for linear representation. First we illustrate the method in a control experiment in which the scenes are captured under known conditions of illumination. The discrimination capability of the algorithm improves upon the conventional RGB multichannel decomposition used in optical correlators when scenes are captured under different illuminant conditions and is slightly better than color recognition based on uniform color spaces (e.g., the CIELab system). Then we test the coefficient method in situations in which the target is captured under a reference illuminant and the scene that contains the target under an unknown spectrally different illuminant. We show that the method prevents false alarms caused by changes in the illuminant and that only two coefficients suffice to discriminate polychromatic objects.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Badiqué, Y. Koyima, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M.-L. Hsieh, K. Y. Hsu, H. Zhai, “Color image recognition by use of a joint transform correlator of three liquid-crystal televisions,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1500–1504 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 21, 499–500 (1992).
  7. M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical pattern recognition based on color vision models,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1722–1724 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Nicolas, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Colour pattern recognition by three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 184, 335–343 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Nicolas, I. Moreno, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Phase-only filtering on the three-dimensional Fourier spectrum of color images,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1426–1433 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Nicolas, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding of color three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color measurement in standard CIELAB coordinates using a 3CCD camera: correction for the influence of the light source,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1470–1476 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. Swain, D. H. Ballard, “Color indexing,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 7, 11–32 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. V. Funt, G. D. Finlayson, “Color constant color indexing,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17, 522–529 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. D. Finlayson, S. D. Hordley, P. M. Hubel, “Color by correlation: a simple, unifying framework for color constancy,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 1209–1221 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Wang, G. Healey, “Using multiband filtered energy matrices for recognition and illumination correction,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2668–2674 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. T. Maloney, B. Wandell, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 23–33 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. García-Beltrán, J. L. Nieves, J. Hernández-Andrés, J. Romero, “Linear bases for spectral reflectance functions of acrylic paints,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 39–45 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. P. S. Parkinnen, J. Hallikainen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Characteristic spectra of Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 318–322 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, L. S. Iwan, “Measurements and analysis of object reflectance spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 4–9 (1994).
  22. E. R. Dixon, “Spectral distribution of Australian daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 437–450 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Romero, A. García-Beltrán, J. Hernández-Andrés, “Linear bases for representation of natural and artificial illuminants,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1007–1014 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Hernández-Andrés, J. Romero, J. L. Nieves, R. L. Lee, “Color and spectral analysis of daylight in southern Europe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1325–1335 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Buchsbaum, “A spatial processor model for object colour perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. D’Zmura, G. Iverson, “Color constancy. I. Basic theory of two-stage linear recovery of spectral descriptions for lights and surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2148–2165 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. D’Zmura, G. Iverson, “Color constancy. II. Results from two-stage linear recovery of spectral descriptions for lights and surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2166–2180 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. V. Funt, M. S. Drew, J. Ho, “Color constancy from mutual reflection,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 6, 5–24 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  29. See Ref. 13, pp. 1472–1475, for full details about the derivation of the matrices that allow the computation of CIELab coordinates from RGB values.
  30. J. Y. Hardeberg, “Acquisition and reproduction of color images: colorimetric and multispectral approaches,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, Paris, 1999), pp. 157–174.
  31. K. Barnard, L. Martin, B. Funt, A. Coath, “A data set for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 148–152 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, R. S. Berns, “Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2002), pp. 492–496.

2003 (1)

2002 (5)

M.-L. Hsieh, K. Y. Hsu, H. Zhai, “Color image recognition by use of a joint transform correlator of three liquid-crystal televisions,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1500–1504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Barnard, L. Martin, B. Funt, A. Coath, “A data set for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 148–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolas, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding of color three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. D. Finlayson, S. D. Hordley, P. M. Hubel, “Color by correlation: a simple, unifying framework for color constancy,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 1209–1221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hernández-Andrés, J. Romero, J. L. Nieves, R. L. Lee, “Color and spectral analysis of daylight in southern Europe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1325–1335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color measurement in standard CIELAB coordinates using a 3CCD camera: correction for the influence of the light source,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1470–1476 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolas, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Colour pattern recognition by three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 184, 335–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

L. Wang, G. Healey, “Using multiband filtered energy matrices for recognition and illumination correction,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2668–2674 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Beltrán, J. L. Nieves, J. Hernández-Andrés, J. Romero, “Linear bases for spectral reflectance functions of acrylic paints,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 39–45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical pattern recognition based on color vision models,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1722–1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Funt, G. D. Finlayson, “Color constant color indexing,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17, 522–529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, L. S. Iwan, “Measurements and analysis of object reflectance spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 4–9 (1994).

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 21, 499–500 (1992).

1991 (2)

B. V. Funt, M. S. Drew, J. Ho, “Color constancy from mutual reflection,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 6, 5–24 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Swain, D. H. Ballard, “Color indexing,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 7, 11–32 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. S. Parkinnen, J. Hallikainen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Characteristic spectra of Munsell colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 318–322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Badiqué, Y. Koyima, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. T. Maloney, B. Wandell, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 23–33 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. T. S. Yu, “Color image recognition by spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 23, 690–695 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

G. Buchsbaum, “A spatial processor model for object colour perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Badiqué, E.

E. Badiqué, Y. Koyima, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, D. H.

M. J. Swain, D. H. Ballard, “Color indexing,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 7, 11–32 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, K.

K. Barnard, L. Martin, B. Funt, A. Coath, “A data set for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 148–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, R. S. Berns, “Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2002), pp. 492–496.

Bouzid, A.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buchsbaum, G.

G. Buchsbaum, “A spatial processor model for object colour perception,” J. Franklin Inst. 310, 1–26 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

J. Nicolas, I. Moreno, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Phase-only filtering on the three-dimensional Fourier spectrum of color images,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1426–1433 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nicolas, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding of color three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolas, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Colour pattern recognition by three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 184, 335–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 21, 499–500 (1992).

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Coath, A.

K. Barnard, L. Martin, B. Funt, A. Coath, “A data set for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 148–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corbalán, M.

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color measurement in standard CIELAB coordinates using a 3CCD camera: correction for the influence of the light source,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1470–1476 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical pattern recognition based on color vision models,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1722–1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Zmura, M.

Dixon, E. R.

Drew, M. S.

B. V. Funt, M. S. Drew, J. Ho, “Color constancy from mutual reflection,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 6, 5–24 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fares, A.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, C.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, G. D.

G. D. Finlayson, S. D. Hordley, P. M. Hubel, “Color by correlation: a simple, unifying framework for color constancy,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 1209–1221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Funt, G. D. Finlayson, “Color constant color indexing,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17, 522–529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Funt, B.

K. Barnard, L. Martin, B. Funt, A. Coath, “A data set for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 148–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Funt, B. V.

B. V. Funt, G. D. Finlayson, “Color constant color indexing,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 17, 522–529 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Funt, M. S. Drew, J. Ho, “Color constancy from mutual reflection,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 6, 5–24 (1991).
[CrossRef]

García-Beltrán, A.

A. García-Beltrán, J. L. Nieves, J. Hernández-Andrés, J. Romero, “Linear bases for spectral reflectance functions of acrylic paints,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 39–45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Romero, A. García-Beltrán, J. Hernández-Andrés, “Linear bases for representation of natural and artificial illuminants,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1007–1014 (1997).
[CrossRef]

García-Martínez, P.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gershon, R.

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, L. S. Iwan, “Measurements and analysis of object reflectance spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 4–9 (1994).

Hallikainen, J.

Hamdi, M.

A. Fares, P. García-Martínez, C. Ferreira, M. Hamdi, A. Bouzid, “Multi-channel chromatic transformations for nonlinear color pattern recognition,” Opt. Commun. 203, 255–261 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hardeberg, J. Y.

J. Y. Hardeberg, “Acquisition and reproduction of color images: colorimetric and multispectral approaches,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications, Paris, 1999), pp. 157–174.

Healey, G.

L. Wang, G. Healey, “Using multiband filtered energy matrices for recognition and illumination correction,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2668–2674 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hernández-Andrés, J.

Ho, J.

B. V. Funt, M. S. Drew, J. Ho, “Color constancy from mutual reflection,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 6, 5–24 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

E. Badiqué, Y. Koyima, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hordley, S. D.

G. D. Finlayson, S. D. Hordley, P. M. Hubel, “Color by correlation: a simple, unifying framework for color constancy,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 1209–1221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M.-L.

Hsu, K. Y.

Hubel, P. M.

G. D. Finlayson, S. D. Hordley, P. M. Hubel, “Color by correlation: a simple, unifying framework for color constancy,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 23, 1209–1221 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iemmi, C.

J. Nicolas, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding of color three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Imai, F. H.

F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, R. S. Berns, “Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2002), pp. 492–496.

Iverson, G.

Iwan, L. S.

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, L. S. Iwan, “Measurements and analysis of object reflectance spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 4–9 (1994).

Jaaskelainen, T.

Kober, V.

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 21, 499–500 (1992).

Koyima, Y.

E. Badiqué, Y. Koyima, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lashin, V.

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 21, 499–500 (1992).

Lee, R. L.

Maloney, L. T.

L. T. Maloney, B. Wandell, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 23–33 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Martin, L.

K. Barnard, L. Martin, B. Funt, A. Coath, “A data set for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27, 148–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Millán, M. S.

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color measurement in standard CIELAB coordinates using a 3CCD camera: correction for the influence of the light source,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1470–1476 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millán, M. Corbalán, J. Romero, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical pattern recognition based on color vision models,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1722–1724 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, “Different strategies in optical recognition of polychromatic images,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2560–2567 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Millán, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. J. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in colour image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

J. Nicolas, I. Moreno, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Phase-only filtering on the three-dimensional Fourier spectrum of color images,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1426–1433 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 21, 499–500 (1992).

Nicolas, J.

J. Nicolas, I. Moreno, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Phase-only filtering on the three-dimensional Fourier spectrum of color images,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1426–1433 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nicolas, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding of color three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolas, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Colour pattern recognition by three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 184, 335–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nieves, J. L.

J. Hernández-Andrés, J. Romero, J. L. Nieves, R. L. Lee, “Color and spectral analysis of daylight in southern Europe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1325–1335 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. García-Beltrán, J. L. Nieves, J. Hernández-Andrés, J. Romero, “Linear bases for spectral reflectance functions of acrylic paints,” Color Res. Appl. 23, 39–45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, N.

E. Badiqué, Y. Koyima, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Parkinnen, J. P. S.

Romero, J.

Rosen, M. R.

F. H. Imai, M. R. Rosen, R. S. Berns, “Comparative study of metrics for spectral match quality,” in Proceedings of the First European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, Springfield, Va., 2002), pp. 492–496.

Swain, M. J.

M. J. Swain, D. H. Ballard, “Color indexing,” Int. J. Comput. Vision 7, 11–32 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsujiuchi, J.

E. Badiqué, Y. Koyima, N. Ohyama, J. Tsujiuchi, T. Honda, “Color image correlation,” Opt. Commun. 61, 181–186 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vrhel, M. J.

M. J. Vrhel, R. Gershon, L. S. Iwan, “Measurements and analysis of object reflectance spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 19, 4–9 (1994).

Wandell, B.

L. T. Maloney, B. Wandell, “Color constancy: a method for recovering surface spectral reflectance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 23–33 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, G. Healey, “Using multiband filtered energy matrices for recognition and illumination correction,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2668–2674 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yaroslavsky, L. P.

I. Moreno, V. Kober, V. Lashin, J. Campos, L. P. Yaroslavsky, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with circular component whitening,” Opt. Lett. 21, 499–500 (1992).

Yu, F. T. S.

F. T. S. Yu, “Color image recognition by spectral-spatial matched filtering,” Opt. Eng. 23, 690–695 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yzuel, M. J.

J. Nicolas, I. Moreno, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Phase-only filtering on the three-dimensional Fourier spectrum of color images,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1426–1433 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolas, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, “Optical encoding of color three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 209, 35–43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Nicolas, M. J. Yzuel, J. Campos, “Colour pattern recognition by three-dimensional correlation,” Opt. Commun. 184, 335–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color measurement in standard CIELAB coordinates using a 3CCD camera: correction for the influence of the light source,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1470–1476 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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See Ref. 13, pp. 1472–1475, for full details about the derivation of the matrices that allow the computation of CIELab coordinates from RGB values.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Input color image captured under illuminant D65. Object O1 was the target when the scene was captured under this illuminant.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized spectral sensitivity of the three sensors, R, G, and B, of the JVC TK-1270E camera. (b) Spectral power distributions of test illuminants D65, A, 10,000 K, and orange.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlation peaks derived from coefficients σ1 xy , σ2 xy , and σ3 xy when the scene was captured under illuminant A. The x and y coordinates represent spatial positions in the image. Correlation axes have been normalized in this figure for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Input color image captured under test illuminant 4. The white surface placed at the lower left corner of the scene was used for the illuminant-estimation hypothesis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) First three basis functions derived from PCA for the set of 83 illuminants used. (b) Original and estimated SPDs of test illuminant 4 derived from the illuminant-estimation algorithm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Correlation peaks derived from the CIELab coordinates when the scene was captured under test illuminant 4. The x and y coordinates represent spatial positions in the image. (b) Correlation peaks derived from coefficients σ1 xy , σ2 xy , and σ3 xy when the scene was captured under test illuminant 4. The x and y coordinates represent spatial positions in the image.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Image of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker captured under daylight illumination. (b) Correlation peaks derived from coefficients σ1 xy , σ2 xy , and σ3 xy ; the values of 50% of the maximum are shown in parentheses.

Tables (9)

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Table 1 RGB Components of the Six Color Areas of Objects O1–O4 under the D65 Illuminanta

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Table 2 RGB Color Difference ΔRGB between Color Object O1 Captured under the D65 Illuminant and Objects O2–O4 Captured under Each of the Test Illuminants

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Table 3 Correlation and Discrimination Results Obtained from Conventional RGB Multichannel Decomposition under Known Illuminant Conditionsa

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Table 4 Correlation and Discrimination Results Obtained from Multichannel Decomposition Based on the CIELab Color Transformation under Known Illuminant Conditionsa

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Table 5 Correlation and Discrimination Results Obtained from Multichannel Decomposition Expressed as Three Coefficients under Known Illuminant Conditionsa

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Table 6 GFC and Root-Mean-Square Error Obtained for the Four Test Illuminants

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Table 7 Correlation and Discrimination Results Obtained from Conventional RGB Multichannel Decomposition under Several Unknown Illuminant Conditionsa

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Table 8 Correlation and Discrimination Results Obtained from Multichannel Decomposition Based on the CIELab Color Transformation under Several Unknown Illuminant Conditionsa

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Table 9 Correlation and Discrimination Results Obtained from Multichannel Decomposition Expressed as Three Coefficients under Several Unknown Illuminant Conditionsa

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

INx, y=λ qNλSx, y, λEx, y, λΔλ,
Sx, y, λ=j=1n σjx, ySjλ.
Eλ=i=1m εiEiλ,
INx, y=i=1mj=1n σjx, yεiγijN,
σxy=γ-1Ixy,
cσx, y, j=x=0dx-1y=0dy-1 σsx, y, jσt*x-x, y-y, j j=1n,
IN,Wx, y=λi=1m SWx, y, λεiEiλqNλΔλ =i=1m εiλ SWx, y, λEiλqNλΔλ,
σxy=Λε-1Ixy,
ΔRGB=R¯1-R¯i2+G¯1-G¯i2+B¯1-B¯i21/2i=2, 3, 4,
GFC=j fλjfrλjjfλj21/2jfrλj21/2,

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