Abstract

Fiber-optic-based analog or digital community antenna television systems experience composite second-order (CSO) distortion caused by the interaction between the gain tilt of the doped fiber amplifier and the laser chirp due to modulation. The gain tilt for an analog–digital transmission system with a high-power erbium/ytterbium-codoped fiber amplifier has been experimentally measured and its contribution to the CSO distortion of the system is evaluated. The results are in good agreement when compared with the direct measurement of the CSO distortion of the transmission system with and without the amplifier. The dependence of the gain tilt on the modulation frequency and wavelength of the input light is also investigated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Y. Kuo, “Fundamental nonlinear distortions in analog links with fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 7–15 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Y. Kuo, “Fundamental second order non-linear distortions in analog AM CATV transport systems based on single frequency semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 235–243 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Takemoto, H. Watanabe, Y. Nakajima, Y. Sakakibara, S. Kakimoto, J. Yamashita, T. Hatta, Y. Miyake, “Distributed feedback laser diode and module for CATV systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1359–1364 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Y. Kuo, E. E. Bergmann, “Erbium-doped fiber amplifier second order distortion in analog links and electronic compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 829–831 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. E. Bergmann, C. Y. Kuo, S. Y. Huang, “Dispersion-induced composite second order distortion at 1.55 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 59–61 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. R. Philips, T. E. Darcie, D. Marcuse, G. E. Bodeep, N. J. Frigo, “Non-linear distortion generated by dispersive transmission of chirped intensity-modulated signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 481–483 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. L. Hansen, P. Thorsen, K. Dybdal, S. B. Andreasen, “Gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers due to signal-induced inversion locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 409–411 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Clesca, P. Bousselet, L. Hamon, “Second order distortion improvements or degradations brought by erbium doped fiber amplifiers in analog links using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1029–1031 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Kikushima, “AC and DC gain tilt of erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 463–470 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Nilsson, Y. W. Lee, S. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, W. H. Choe, “Analysis of AC gain tilt in erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 515–517 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Lai, C. Liu, J. Jou, “Analyses of distortions and cross modulations in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 545–547 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, “Transient gain and cross talk in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 880–882 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Kikushima, H. Yoshinaga, “Distortion due to gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 945–947 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 7.
  15. E. Desurvire, “Analysis of transient gain saturation and recovery in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 196–199 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Dua, K. Lu, N. K. Dutta, J. Jaques, “Analog and digital transmission using high-power fiber amplifiers,” in WDM and Photonic Switching Devices for Network Application III, R. T. Chen, J. C. Chon, eds., Proc. SPIE4653, 111–118 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

F. Lai, C. Liu, J. Jou, “Analyses of distortions and cross modulations in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 545–547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Nilsson, Y. W. Lee, S. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, W. H. Choe, “Analysis of AC gain tilt in erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 515–517 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. Kikushima, “AC and DC gain tilt of erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 463–470 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

S. L. Hansen, P. Thorsen, K. Dybdal, S. B. Andreasen, “Gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers due to signal-induced inversion locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 409–411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Clesca, P. Bousselet, L. Hamon, “Second order distortion improvements or degradations brought by erbium doped fiber amplifiers in analog links using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1029–1031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Kuo, “Fundamental nonlinear distortions in analog links with fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 7–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. Y. Kuo, “Fundamental second order non-linear distortions in analog AM CATV transport systems based on single frequency semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 235–243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

C. Y. Kuo, E. E. Bergmann, “Erbium-doped fiber amplifier second order distortion in analog links and electronic compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 829–831 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bergmann, C. Y. Kuo, S. Y. Huang, “Dispersion-induced composite second order distortion at 1.55 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 59–61 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Philips, T. E. Darcie, D. Marcuse, G. E. Bodeep, N. J. Frigo, “Non-linear distortion generated by dispersive transmission of chirped intensity-modulated signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 481–483 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikushima, H. Yoshinaga, “Distortion due to gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 945–947 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Takemoto, H. Watanabe, Y. Nakajima, Y. Sakakibara, S. Kakimoto, J. Yamashita, T. Hatta, Y. Miyake, “Distributed feedback laser diode and module for CATV systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1359–1364 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

E. Desurvire, “Analysis of transient gain saturation and recovery in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 196–199 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, “Transient gain and cross talk in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 880–882 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreasen, S. B.

S. L. Hansen, P. Thorsen, K. Dybdal, S. B. Andreasen, “Gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers due to signal-induced inversion locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 409–411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 7.

Bergmann, E. E.

C. Y. Kuo, E. E. Bergmann, “Erbium-doped fiber amplifier second order distortion in analog links and electronic compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 829–831 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bergmann, C. Y. Kuo, S. Y. Huang, “Dispersion-induced composite second order distortion at 1.55 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 59–61 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bodeep, G. E.

M. R. Philips, T. E. Darcie, D. Marcuse, G. E. Bodeep, N. J. Frigo, “Non-linear distortion generated by dispersive transmission of chirped intensity-modulated signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 481–483 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bousselet, P.

B. Clesca, P. Bousselet, L. Hamon, “Second order distortion improvements or degradations brought by erbium doped fiber amplifiers in analog links using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1029–1031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Choe, W. H.

J. Nilsson, Y. W. Lee, S. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, W. H. Choe, “Analysis of AC gain tilt in erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 515–517 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clesca, B.

B. Clesca, P. Bousselet, L. Hamon, “Second order distortion improvements or degradations brought by erbium doped fiber amplifiers in analog links using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1029–1031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Darcie, T. E.

M. R. Philips, T. E. Darcie, D. Marcuse, G. E. Bodeep, N. J. Frigo, “Non-linear distortion generated by dispersive transmission of chirped intensity-modulated signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 481–483 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, “Transient gain and cross talk in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 880–882 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Desurvire, “Analysis of transient gain saturation and recovery in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 196–199 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dua, P.

P. Dua, K. Lu, N. K. Dutta, J. Jaques, “Analog and digital transmission using high-power fiber amplifiers,” in WDM and Photonic Switching Devices for Network Application III, R. T. Chen, J. C. Chon, eds., Proc. SPIE4653, 111–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, N. K.

P. Dua, K. Lu, N. K. Dutta, J. Jaques, “Analog and digital transmission using high-power fiber amplifiers,” in WDM and Photonic Switching Devices for Network Application III, R. T. Chen, J. C. Chon, eds., Proc. SPIE4653, 111–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dybdal, K.

S. L. Hansen, P. Thorsen, K. Dybdal, S. B. Andreasen, “Gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers due to signal-induced inversion locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 409–411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frigo, N. J.

M. R. Philips, T. E. Darcie, D. Marcuse, G. E. Bodeep, N. J. Frigo, “Non-linear distortion generated by dispersive transmission of chirped intensity-modulated signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 481–483 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. R.

Hamon, L.

B. Clesca, P. Bousselet, L. Hamon, “Second order distortion improvements or degradations brought by erbium doped fiber amplifiers in analog links using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1029–1031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, S. L.

S. L. Hansen, P. Thorsen, K. Dybdal, S. B. Andreasen, “Gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers due to signal-induced inversion locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 409–411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hatta, T.

A. Takemoto, H. Watanabe, Y. Nakajima, Y. Sakakibara, S. Kakimoto, J. Yamashita, T. Hatta, Y. Miyake, “Distributed feedback laser diode and module for CATV systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1359–1364 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

E. E. Bergmann, C. Y. Kuo, S. Y. Huang, “Dispersion-induced composite second order distortion at 1.55 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 59–61 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jaques, J.

P. Dua, K. Lu, N. K. Dutta, J. Jaques, “Analog and digital transmission using high-power fiber amplifiers,” in WDM and Photonic Switching Devices for Network Application III, R. T. Chen, J. C. Chon, eds., Proc. SPIE4653, 111–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jou, J.

F. Lai, C. Liu, J. Jou, “Analyses of distortions and cross modulations in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 545–547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kakimoto, S.

A. Takemoto, H. Watanabe, Y. Nakajima, Y. Sakakibara, S. Kakimoto, J. Yamashita, T. Hatta, Y. Miyake, “Distributed feedback laser diode and module for CATV systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1359–1364 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kikushima, K.

K. Kikushima, “AC and DC gain tilt of erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 463–470 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikushima, H. Yoshinaga, “Distortion due to gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 945–947 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. J.

J. Nilsson, Y. W. Lee, S. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, W. H. Choe, “Analysis of AC gain tilt in erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 515–517 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. Y.

C. Y. Kuo, “Fundamental nonlinear distortions in analog links with fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 7–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Kuo, “Fundamental second order non-linear distortions in analog AM CATV transport systems based on single frequency semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 235–243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bergmann, C. Y. Kuo, S. Y. Huang, “Dispersion-induced composite second order distortion at 1.55 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 59–61 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Kuo, E. E. Bergmann, “Erbium-doped fiber amplifier second order distortion in analog links and electronic compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 829–831 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lai, F.

F. Lai, C. Liu, J. Jou, “Analyses of distortions and cross modulations in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 545–547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

J. Nilsson, Y. W. Lee, S. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, W. H. Choe, “Analysis of AC gain tilt in erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 515–517 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. W.

J. Nilsson, Y. W. Lee, S. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, W. H. Choe, “Analysis of AC gain tilt in erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 515–517 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

F. Lai, C. Liu, J. Jou, “Analyses of distortions and cross modulations in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 545–547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K.

P. Dua, K. Lu, N. K. Dutta, J. Jaques, “Analog and digital transmission using high-power fiber amplifiers,” in WDM and Photonic Switching Devices for Network Application III, R. T. Chen, J. C. Chon, eds., Proc. SPIE4653, 111–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

M. R. Philips, T. E. Darcie, D. Marcuse, G. E. Bodeep, N. J. Frigo, “Non-linear distortion generated by dispersive transmission of chirped intensity-modulated signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 481–483 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, Y.

A. Takemoto, H. Watanabe, Y. Nakajima, Y. Sakakibara, S. Kakimoto, J. Yamashita, T. Hatta, Y. Miyake, “Distributed feedback laser diode and module for CATV systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1359–1364 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, Y.

A. Takemoto, H. Watanabe, Y. Nakajima, Y. Sakakibara, S. Kakimoto, J. Yamashita, T. Hatta, Y. Miyake, “Distributed feedback laser diode and module for CATV systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1359–1364 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

J. Nilsson, Y. W. Lee, S. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, W. H. Choe, “Analysis of AC gain tilt in erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 515–517 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 7.

Philips, M. R.

M. R. Philips, T. E. Darcie, D. Marcuse, G. E. Bodeep, N. J. Frigo, “Non-linear distortion generated by dispersive transmission of chirped intensity-modulated signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 481–483 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

A. Takemoto, H. Watanabe, Y. Nakajima, Y. Sakakibara, S. Kakimoto, J. Yamashita, T. Hatta, Y. Miyake, “Distributed feedback laser diode and module for CATV systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1359–1364 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, “Transient gain and cross talk in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 880–882 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 7.

Takemoto, A.

A. Takemoto, H. Watanabe, Y. Nakajima, Y. Sakakibara, S. Kakimoto, J. Yamashita, T. Hatta, Y. Miyake, “Distributed feedback laser diode and module for CATV systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1359–1364 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thorsen, P.

S. L. Hansen, P. Thorsen, K. Dybdal, S. B. Andreasen, “Gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers due to signal-induced inversion locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 409–411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, H.

A. Takemoto, H. Watanabe, Y. Nakajima, Y. Sakakibara, S. Kakimoto, J. Yamashita, T. Hatta, Y. Miyake, “Distributed feedback laser diode and module for CATV systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1359–1364 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, J.

A. Takemoto, H. Watanabe, Y. Nakajima, Y. Sakakibara, S. Kakimoto, J. Yamashita, T. Hatta, Y. Miyake, “Distributed feedback laser diode and module for CATV systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1359–1364 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yoshinaga, H.

K. Kikushima, H. Yoshinaga, “Distortion due to gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 945–947 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

A. Takemoto, H. Watanabe, Y. Nakajima, Y. Sakakibara, S. Kakimoto, J. Yamashita, T. Hatta, Y. Miyake, “Distributed feedback laser diode and module for CATV systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1359–1364 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

C. Y. Kuo, E. E. Bergmann, “Erbium-doped fiber amplifier second order distortion in analog links and electronic compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 829–831 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bergmann, C. Y. Kuo, S. Y. Huang, “Dispersion-induced composite second order distortion at 1.55 μm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 59–61 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Philips, T. E. Darcie, D. Marcuse, G. E. Bodeep, N. J. Frigo, “Non-linear distortion generated by dispersive transmission of chirped intensity-modulated signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 481–483 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Hansen, P. Thorsen, K. Dybdal, S. B. Andreasen, “Gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers due to signal-induced inversion locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 409–411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Clesca, P. Bousselet, L. Hamon, “Second order distortion improvements or degradations brought by erbium doped fiber amplifiers in analog links using directly modulated lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1029–1031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsson, Y. W. Lee, S. J. Kim, S. H. Lee, W. H. Choe, “Analysis of AC gain tilt in erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 515–517 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Lai, C. Liu, J. Jou, “Analyses of distortions and cross modulations in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 545–547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikushima, H. Yoshinaga, “Distortion due to gain tilt of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 945–947 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, “Analysis of transient gain saturation and recovery in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 196–199 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

C. Y. Kuo, “Fundamental nonlinear distortions in analog links with fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 7–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Kuo, “Fundamental second order non-linear distortions in analog AM CATV transport systems based on single frequency semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 235–243 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikushima, “AC and DC gain tilt of erbium doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 463–470 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

P. Dua, K. Lu, N. K. Dutta, J. Jaques, “Analog and digital transmission using high-power fiber amplifiers,” in WDM and Photonic Switching Devices for Network Application III, R. T. Chen, J. C. Chon, eds., Proc. SPIE4653, 111–118 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 7.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the gain tilt measurement of the Er/Yb codoped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output light power dependence on the input light wavelength under dc conditions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gain dependence on the input light wavelength under 10-MHz modulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of ac gain difference on the wavelength variation Δλ. The center wavelength is 1545 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured wavelength dependence of ac gain tilt on the input wavelength with under 10-MHz modulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of ac gain tilt with the modulation frequency.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated values of CSO distortion for a 60-channel system with the DCFA and variation of the values with the input wavelength.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for the measurement of CSO distortion, CNR, and CTB values for the analog–digital system. BPSK, binary phase-shift keying; BER, bit error rate; NRZ, non-return-to-zero.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured values of CSO distortion for an AM-SCM analog–digital system with 60 channels with and without the DCFA.16 The center wavelength is 1545 nm.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P i t = P 0 + mP 0   sin   ω t ,
λ t = λ 0 - Δ λ m   sin   ω t ,
G = G 0 + G λ λ 0 λ t - λ 0 .
P out ( t ) = GP i ( t ) .
P out t = G 0 + G λ λ 0 λ t - λ 0 P 0 + mP 0   sin   ω t = G 0 P 0 + mP 0 G 0 - Δ λ G λ λ 0 sin   ω t + Δ λ 2 G λ λ 0 P 0 m 2 cos   2 ω t ,
G t = G λ 2 - G λ 1 Δ λ .
CSO distortion = 10   log n G t λ G λ λ chirp N ,

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