Abstract

A study was undertaken to determine whether involuntary user movement provides a basis for relaxing the measurement conditions for evaluating the potential optical radiation hazards to the eye from slit lamps and indirect ophthalmoscopes. This was accomplished by assessment of the extent to which light from these devices can be maintained in focus on a 1-mm-diameter fiber-optic cable for 45 s. The results suggest that, although involuntary user movements can be significant, they do not provide a basis for relaxing the measurement conditions for evaluating the potential optical radiation hazards to the cornea and lens from slit lamps and indirect ophthalmoscopes.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. S. Rea, ed., The IESNA Lighting Handbook, 9th ed. (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, 2000), pp. P6–2F.
  2. S. A. Miller, R. H. James, D. H. Sliney, “Indirect ophthalmoscopes: evaluation for potential hazard,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1631–1637 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, F. C. Delori, “Potential retinal hazards. Instruments and Environmental Light Sources,” Ophthalmology 90, 927–932 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  4. D. K. Berler, R. Peyser, “Light intensity and visual acuity following cataract surgery,” Ophthalmology 90, 933–936 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  5. H. R. McDonald, A. R. Irvine, “Light induced maculopathy from the operating microscope in extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 90, 945–951 (1983).
    [PubMed]
  6. E. E. Boldrey, B. T. Ho, R. D. Griffith, “Retinal burns occurring at cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology 91, 1297–1302 (1984).
    [PubMed]
  7. J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. L. Hupp, “Delayed, incomplete recovery of macular function after photic retinal damage associated with extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior lens insertion (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1022–1023 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
    [PubMed]
  11. S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).
  12. T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. H. Ross, “Light-induced maculopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 488–493 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T. C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  15. R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–128 (1986).
    [PubMed]
  16. J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 751–754 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  18. H. R. McDonald, M. J. Harris, “Operating microscope-induced retinal phototoxicity during pars plana vitrectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 521–525 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  20. J. E. Gomolin, R. K. Koenekoop, “Presumed photic retinopathy after cataract surgery: an angiographic study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 221, 221–224 (1993).
  21. D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 349.

1995 (1)

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. E. Gomolin, R. K. Koenekoop, “Presumed photic retinopathy after cataract surgery: an angiographic study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 221, 221–224 (1993).

1992 (2)

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T. C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[PubMed]

S. A. Miller, R. H. James, D. H. Sliney, “Indirect ophthalmoscopes: evaluation for potential hazard,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1631–1637 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
[PubMed]

H. R. McDonald, M. J. Harris, “Operating microscope-induced retinal phototoxicity during pars plana vitrectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 521–525 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (4)

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).

S. L. Hupp, “Delayed, incomplete recovery of macular function after photic retinal damage associated with extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior lens insertion (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1022–1023 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 751–754 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–128 (1986).
[PubMed]

1984 (4)

W. H. Ross, “Light-induced maculopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 488–493 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
[PubMed]

E. E. Boldrey, B. T. Ho, R. D. Griffith, “Retinal burns occurring at cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology 91, 1297–1302 (1984).
[PubMed]

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (3)

M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, F. C. Delori, “Potential retinal hazards. Instruments and Environmental Light Sources,” Ophthalmology 90, 927–932 (1983).
[PubMed]

D. K. Berler, R. Peyser, “Light intensity and visual acuity following cataract surgery,” Ophthalmology 90, 933–936 (1983).
[PubMed]

H. R. McDonald, A. R. Irvine, “Light induced maculopathy from the operating microscope in extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 90, 945–951 (1983).
[PubMed]

Antosyzk, A. N.

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T. C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[PubMed]

Barron, B. A.

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–128 (1986).
[PubMed]

Benson, W. E.

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

Berler, D. K.

D. K. Berler, R. Peyser, “Light intensity and visual acuity following cataract surgery,” Ophthalmology 90, 933–936 (1983).
[PubMed]

Blodi, C. F.

J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
[PubMed]

Boldrey, E. E.

E. E. Boldrey, B. T. Ho, R. D. Griffith, “Retinal burns occurring at cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology 91, 1297–1302 (1984).
[PubMed]

Brod, R. D.

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–128 (1986).
[PubMed]

Byrnes, G. A.

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T. C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[PubMed]

Cech, J. M.

J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 751–754 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, B.

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

Choromokos, E. A.

J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 751–754 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniels, S. A.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).

de Wachter, A.

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Delaey, J. J.

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Delori, F. C.

M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, F. C. Delori, “Potential retinal hazards. Instruments and Environmental Light Sources,” Ophthalmology 90, 927–932 (1983).
[PubMed]

Franklin, R. M.

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–128 (1986).
[PubMed]

Geoghegan, M.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).

S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
[PubMed]

Gofman, J. D.

T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomolin, J. E.

J. E. Gomolin, R. K. Koenekoop, “Presumed photic retinopathy after cataract surgery: an angiographic study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 221, 221–224 (1993).

Griffith, R. D.

E. E. Boldrey, B. T. Ho, R. D. Griffith, “Retinal burns occurring at cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology 91, 1297–1302 (1984).
[PubMed]

Grutzmacher, R. D.

T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ham, W. T.

M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, F. C. Delori, “Potential retinal hazards. Instruments and Environmental Light Sources,” Ophthalmology 90, 927–932 (1983).
[PubMed]

Hanscom, T. A.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).

S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
[PubMed]

Harris, M. J.

H. R. McDonald, M. J. Harris, “Operating microscope-induced retinal phototoxicity during pars plana vitrectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 521–525 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, B. T.

E. E. Boldrey, B. T. Ho, R. D. Griffith, “Retinal burns occurring at cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology 91, 1297–1302 (1984).
[PubMed]

Hupp, S. L.

S. L. Hupp, “Delayed, incomplete recovery of macular function after photic retinal damage associated with extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior lens insertion (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1022–1023 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irvine, A. R.

H. R. McDonald, A. R. Irvine, “Light induced maculopathy from the operating microscope in extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 90, 945–951 (1983).
[PubMed]

Isenberg, S. J.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).

James, R. H.

Johnson, R. N.

R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kao, T. C.

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T. C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[PubMed]

Khwarg, S. G.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).

S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
[PubMed]

Koenekoop, R. K.

J. E. Gomolin, R. K. Koenekoop, “Presumed photic retinopathy after cataract surgery: an angiographic study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 221, 221–224 (1993).

Krachmer, J. H.

J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
[PubMed]

Lindquist, T. D.

T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linstone, F. A.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).

Loose, I.

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

Mainster, M. A.

M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, F. C. Delori, “Potential retinal hazards. Instruments and Environmental Light Sources,” Ophthalmology 90, 927–932 (1983).
[PubMed]

Mazur, D. O.

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T. C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[PubMed]

McDonald, H. R.

H. R. McDonald, M. J. Harris, “Operating microscope-induced retinal phototoxicity during pars plana vitrectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 521–525 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. McDonald, A. R. Irvine, “Light induced maculopathy from the operating microscope in extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 90, 945–951 (1983).
[PubMed]

Miller, S. A.

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T. C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[PubMed]

S. A. Miller, R. H. James, D. H. Sliney, “Indirect ophthalmoscopes: evaluation for potential hazard,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1631–1637 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Packer, A. J.

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–128 (1986).
[PubMed]

Peyser, R.

D. K. Berler, R. Peyser, “Light intensity and visual acuity following cataract surgery,” Ophthalmology 90, 933–936 (1983).
[PubMed]

Ross, W. H.

W. H. Ross, “Light-induced maculopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 488–493 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanitato, J. A.

J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 751–754 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, H.

R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sliney, D. H.

S. A. Miller, R. H. James, D. H. Sliney, “Indirect ophthalmoscopes: evaluation for potential hazard,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1631–1637 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 349.

Stamler, J. F.

J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
[PubMed]

Straatsma, B. R.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).

Suelflow, J. A.

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–128 (1986).
[PubMed]

Van Oye, R.

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Verbraeken, H.

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Verdier, D.

J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
[PubMed]

Wolbarsht, M. L.

D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 349.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (5)

S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
[PubMed]

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).

W. H. Ross, “Light-induced maculopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 488–493 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–128 (1986).
[PubMed]

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (5)

S. L. Hupp, “Delayed, incomplete recovery of macular function after photic retinal damage associated with extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior lens insertion (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1022–1023 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation (correspondence),” Arch. Ophthalmol. 105, 751–754 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. McDonald, M. J. Harris, “Operating microscope-induced retinal phototoxicity during pars plana vitrectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 521–525 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Can. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. E. Gomolin, R. K. Koenekoop, “Presumed photic retinopathy after cataract surgery: an angiographic study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 221, 221–224 (1993).

Int. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (6)

M. A. Mainster, W. T. Ham, F. C. Delori, “Potential retinal hazards. Instruments and Environmental Light Sources,” Ophthalmology 90, 927–932 (1983).
[PubMed]

D. K. Berler, R. Peyser, “Light intensity and visual acuity following cataract surgery,” Ophthalmology 90, 933–936 (1983).
[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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[PubMed]

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Other (2)

D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 349.

M. S. Rea, ed., The IESNA Lighting Handbook, 9th ed. (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, 2000), pp. P6–2F.

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used to focus light from an indirect ophthalmoscope and slit lamp onto the end of a 1-mm-diameter fiber-optic cable.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Ratios of the Relative Radiant Energy Collected under Various Conditions with Hand-Held Lenses and the Head-Mounted Indirect Ophthalmoscope to the Relative Radiant Energy Collected with Fixed Components, along with the Standard Deviation and the Maximum and Minimum Values Obtained

Metrics