We combine a Monte Carlo technique with Mie theory to develop a method for simulating optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging through homogeneous turbid media. In our model the propagating light is represented by a plane wavelet; its line propagation direction and path length in the turbid medium are determined by the Monte Carlo technique, and the process of scattering by small particles is computed according to Mie theory. Incorporated into the model is the numerical phase function obtained with Mie theory. The effect of phase function on simulation is also illustrated. Based on this improved Monte Carlo technique, OCT imaging is directly simulated and phase information is recorded. Speckles, resolution, and coherence gating are discussed. The simulation results show that axial and transversal resolutions decrease as probing depth increases. Adapting a light source with a low coherence improves the resolution. The selection of an appropriate coherence length involves a trade-off between intensity and resolution.
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