Abstract

A distributed Brillouin scattering sensor has been employed to identify several inner wall cutouts in an end-capped steel pipe by measuring the axial and hoop strain distributions along the outer surface of the pipe. The locations of structural indentations that constitute 50–60% of the inner pipe wall are found and distinguished by use of their corresponding strain—pressure data. These results are quantified in terms of the fiber orientation, defect size and depth, and behavior relative to those of unperturbed pipe sections.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Tapanes, “Fibre optic sensing solutions for real-time pipeline integrity monitoring,” presented at the Australian Pipeline Industry Association National Convention, 27–30October2001; http://www.iceweb.com.au/Newtech/FFT_Pipeline_Integrity_Paper.pdf .
  2. National Transportation Safety Board , “Pipeline accident brief” (National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, D.C., 2001); http://www.ntsb.gov/publictn/2001/PAB0103.htm .
  3. Energy and Utilities Board , “Pipeline performance in Alberta 1980–1997” (Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1998); http://www.eub.gov.ab.ca/bbs/documents/reports/r98g.pdf .
  4. X. Bao, M. DeMerchant, A. Brown, T. Bremmer, “Tensile and compressive strain measurement in the lab and field with the distributed Brillouin scattering sensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1698–1704 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Bao, D. J. Webb, D. A. Jackson, “32-km distributed temperature sensor based on Brillouin loss in an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1561–1563 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, “Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107–108 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, “Thermal effects on Brillouin frequency shift in jacketed optical silica fibers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2219–2222 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Zeng, X. Bao, C. Y. Chhoa, T. W. Bremner, A. W. Brown, M. D. DeMerchant, G. Ferrier, A. L. Kalamkarov, A. V. Georgiades, “Strain measurement in a concrete beam by use of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed fiber sensor with single-mode fibers embedded in glass fiber reinforced polymer rods and bonded to steel reinforcing bars,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5105–5114 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. W. Brown, M. D. DeMerchant, X. Bao, T. W. Bremner, “Spatial resolution enhancement of a Brillouin distributed sensor using a novel signal processing method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1179–1183 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Heckman, “Finite element analysis of pressure vessels” (Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, Calif.1998), http://www.mbari.org/education/internship/98interns/98internpapers/98heckman.pdf .

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, “Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Bremmer, T.

Bremner, T. W.

Brown, A.

Brown, A. W.

Chhoa, C. Y.

DeMerchant, M.

DeMerchant, M. D.

Ferrier, G.

Georgiades, A. V.

Horiguchi, T.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, “Thermal effects on Brillouin frequency shift in jacketed optical silica fibers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2219–2222 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, “Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

Kalamkarov, A. L.

Kurashima, T.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, “Thermal effects on Brillouin frequency shift in jacketed optical silica fibers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2219–2222 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, “Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

T. Kurashima, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, “Thermal effects on Brillouin frequency shift in jacketed optical silica fibers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2219–2222 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, “Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

Zeng, X.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, “Tensile strain dependence of Brillouin frequency shift in silica optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107–108 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

E. Tapanes, “Fibre optic sensing solutions for real-time pipeline integrity monitoring,” presented at the Australian Pipeline Industry Association National Convention, 27–30October2001; http://www.iceweb.com.au/Newtech/FFT_Pipeline_Integrity_Paper.pdf .

National Transportation Safety Board , “Pipeline accident brief” (National Transportation Safety Board, Washington, D.C., 2001); http://www.ntsb.gov/publictn/2001/PAB0103.htm .

Energy and Utilities Board , “Pipeline performance in Alberta 1980–1997” (Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1998); http://www.eub.gov.ab.ca/bbs/documents/reports/r98g.pdf .

D. Heckman, “Finite element analysis of pressure vessels” (Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, Calif.1998), http://www.mbari.org/education/internship/98interns/98internpapers/98heckman.pdf .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the 1.83-m steel pipe used for the distributed Brillouin sensing experiment. The internal pressure was contained by two bolted 42 kg end caps, and a frame near each end supported the pipe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the distribution of inner wall-cutouts (defects): (a) axial installation of sensing fiber (b) and hoop installation of sensing fiber (c). Region A is a 5.3 cm × 61 cm long cutout with 60% wall thinning, which starts at 23 and ends at 84 cm. Region B consists of the rest of the unperturbed pipe. Regions C and D are 1.3 cm × 10 cm cutouts with 50% and 60% wall thinning, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Axial strain distribution along the longitudinal direction of the pipe through defect A and unperturbed region B. The strain difference between the maximum from the defective region and the minimum from the unperturbed region is 32 με at a 200-psi internal pressure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Strain—pressure slope along the longitudinal direction of the pipe through defect A and unperturbed region B. The strain—pressure slope with 0.48 με/psi is highest in the defective region, decreases at the edges of the defect, and remains constant at 0.16 με/psi near the middle of the unperturbed region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Axial strain—pressure slopes of defects A, C, and D. A bigger strain—pressure slope is shown for the middle of defect A (60%-depleted wall) compared with the middle of unperturbed region B and defect C (50%-depleted wall).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Hoop strain distributions about one pipe circumference encompassing defective region A. Two maxima, corresponding to one complete loop, can be observed.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Strain—pressure slopes about one pipe circumference encompassing defective region A obtained by hoop strain measurements. The minimum and maximum slopes of 0.21 and 0.27 με/psi, spaced approximately 180° apart, correspond to the unperturbed and defective regions, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Strain—pressure slopes obtained by hoop strain measurements of defects C and D. The strain—pressure slopes of defective regions C and D are 0.18 and 0.21 με/psi, corresponding to 50- and 60%-depleted walls, respectively. As expected, a larger strain—pressure slope indicates a thinner pipe wall.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of Cutouts (Defects)

Equations (2)

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vBT0, ε=Cεε-ε0+vB0T0, ε0,
vBT, ε0=CTT-T0+vB0T0, ε0,

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