Abstract

The performance of natural guide star adaptive-optics systems for telescopes located on the Antarctic plateau is evaluated and compared with adaptive-optics systems operated with the characteristic mid-latitude atmosphere found at Mauna Kea. A 2-m telescope with tip-tilt correction and an 8-m telescope equipped with a high-order adaptive-optics system are considered. Because of the large isoplanatic angle of the South Pole atmosphere, the anisoplanatic error associated with an adaptive-optics correction is negligible, and the achievable resolution is determined only by the fitting error associated with the number of corrected wave-front modes, which depends on the number of actuators on the deformable mirror. The usable field of view of an adaptive-optics equipped Antarctic telescope is thus orders of magnitude larger than for a similar telescope located at a mid-latitude site; this large field of view obviates the necessity for multiconjugate adaptive-optics systems that use multiple laser guide stars. These results, combined with the low infrared sky backgrounds, indicate that the Antarctic plateau is the best site on Earth at which to perform high-resolution imaging with large telescopes, either over large fields of view or with appreciable sky coverage. Preliminary site-testing results obtained recently from the Dome Concordia station indicate that this site is far superior to even the South Pole.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2002 (3)

T. Travouillon, M. C. B. Ashey, M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, R. F. Lowenstein, “Atmospheric turbulence at the South Pole and its implications for astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 400, 1163–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Marks, “Astronomical seeing from the summits of the Antarctic plateau,” Astron. Astrophys. 385, 328–336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Lloyd, B. R. Oppenheimer, J. R. Graham, “The potential of differential astrometric interferometry from the high Antarctic plateau,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 19, 318–322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, M. C. B. Ashley, “Science goals for an Antarctic Large Infrared Telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 18, 158–165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, M. G. Burton, P. G. Calisse, J. R. Everett, R. J. Pernic, A. Phillips, J. W. V. Storey, “Operation of the Near Infrared Sky Monitor at the South Pole,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 19, 328–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. G. Hidas, M. G. Burton, M. A. Chamberlain, J. W. V. Storey, “Infrared and submillimetre observing conditions on the Antarctic Plateau,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 17, 260–269 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Harder, A. Chelli, “Estimating the point spread function of the adaptive optics system ADONIS using the wavefront sensor measurements,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 142, 119–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

R. I. Davies, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, A. Eckart, S. Rabien, S. Anders, S. Hippler, M. Kasper, P. Kalas, A. Quirrenbach, A. Glindemann, “The science potential of ALFA: adaptive optics with natural and laser guide stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 345–353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Marks, J. Vernin, M. Azouit, J. F. Manigault, C. Clevelin, “Measurement of optical seeing on the high Antarctic plateau,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 161–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Phillips, M. G. Burton, M. C. B. Ashley, J. W. V. Storey, J. P. Lloyd, D. A. Harper, J. Bally, “The near infrared sky emission at the South Pole in winter,” Astrophys. J. 527, 1009–1022 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Veran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope adaptive optics bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, S. Chevas, “Turbulence profile with generalized scidar at San Pedro Martir Observatory and isoplanatic studies,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106–1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (4)

R. W. Wilson, C. R. Jenkins, “Adaptive optics for astronomy: theoretical performance and limitations,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 268, 39–61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Racine, “The telescopic point-spread function,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 108, 699–705 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Marks, J. Vernin, M. Azouit, J. W. Briggs, M. G. Burton, M. C. B. Ashley, J. F. Manigault, “Antarctic site testing—microthermal measurements of surface-layer seeing at the South Pole,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 118, 385–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. V. Storey, M. C. B. Ashley, M. G. Burton, “An automated astrophysical observatory for Antarctica,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 13, 35–40 (1996).

1995 (1)

T. A. ten Brummelaar, “The contribution of high order Zernike modes to wavefront tilt,” Opt. Commun. 115, 417–424 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (6)

1993 (2)

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, D. T. Gavel, J. M. Brase, “Tip-tilt compensation: resolution limits for ground-based telescopes using laser guide star adaptive optics,” Astrophys. J. 407, 428–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy: principles, performance, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

P. Dierickx, “Optical performance of large ground-based telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 569–588 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Rigaut, E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677–684 (1992).

T. S. McKechnie, “Atmospheric turbulence and the resolution limits of large ground-based telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1937–1954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

B. M. Welsh, C. S. Gardner, “Effects of turbulence induced anisoplanatism on the imaging performance of adaptive-astronomical telescopes using laser guide stars,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 69–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier, M. Northcott, J. E. Graves, “A simple low-order adaptive optics system for near-infrared applications,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 103, 131–149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1174–1180 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1982 (1)

G. A. Tyler, D. L. Fried, “Image-position error associated with a quadrant detector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 804–809 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

1973 (1)

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

Acton, D. S.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allen, C. W.

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone, London, 1976).

An, J.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anders, S.

R. I. Davies, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, A. Eckart, S. Rabien, S. Anders, S. Hippler, M. Kasper, P. Kalas, A. Quirrenbach, A. Glindemann, “The science potential of ALFA: adaptive optics with natural and laser guide stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 345–353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, R.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Veran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope adaptive optics bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ashey, M. C. B.

T. Travouillon, M. C. B. Ashey, M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, R. F. Lowenstein, “Atmospheric turbulence at the South Pole and its implications for astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 400, 1163–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Travoullion, M. C. B. Ashey, M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, “Seeing measurements at the South Pole using a Hartmann wavefront sensor: ADIMM,” Astron. Astrophys. (to be published).

Ashley, M. C. B.

M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, M. C. B. Ashley, “Science goals for an Antarctic Large Infrared Telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 18, 158–165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, M. G. Burton, P. G. Calisse, J. R. Everett, R. J. Pernic, A. Phillips, J. W. V. Storey, “Operation of the Near Infrared Sky Monitor at the South Pole,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 19, 328–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Phillips, M. G. Burton, M. C. B. Ashley, J. W. V. Storey, J. P. Lloyd, D. A. Harper, J. Bally, “The near infrared sky emission at the South Pole in winter,” Astrophys. J. 527, 1009–1022 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Marks, J. Vernin, M. Azouit, J. W. Briggs, M. G. Burton, M. C. B. Ashley, J. F. Manigault, “Antarctic site testing—microthermal measurements of surface-layer seeing at the South Pole,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 118, 385–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. V. Storey, M. C. B. Ashley, M. G. Burton, “An automated astrophysical observatory for Antarctica,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 13, 35–40 (1996).

Avicola, K.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Avila, R.

R. Avila, J. Vernin, S. Chevas, “Turbulence profile with generalized scidar at San Pedro Martir Observatory and isoplanatic studies,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 1106–1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Azouit, M.

R. D. Marks, J. Vernin, M. Azouit, J. F. Manigault, C. Clevelin, “Measurement of optical seeing on the high Antarctic plateau,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 161–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Marks, J. Vernin, M. Azouit, J. W. Briggs, M. G. Burton, M. C. B. Ashley, J. F. Manigault, “Antarctic site testing—microthermal measurements of surface-layer seeing at the South Pole,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 118, 385–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bally, J.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Phillips, M. G. Burton, M. C. B. Ashley, J. W. V. Storey, J. P. Lloyd, D. A. Harper, J. Bally, “The near infrared sky emission at the South Pole in winter,” Astrophys. J. 527, 1009–1022 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balm, S. P.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bania, T. M.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy: principles, performance, and applications,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).
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M. G. Hidas, M. G. Burton, M. A. Chamberlain, J. W. V. Storey, “Infrared and submillimetre observing conditions on the Antarctic Plateau,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 17, 260–269 (2000).
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A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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R. D. Marks, J. Vernin, M. Azouit, J. F. Manigault, C. Clevelin, “Measurement of optical seeing on the high Antarctic plateau,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 161–172 (1999).
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A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, M. G. Burton, P. G. Calisse, J. R. Everett, R. J. Pernic, A. Phillips, J. W. V. Storey, “Operation of the Near Infrared Sky Monitor at the South Pole,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 19, 328–336 (2001).
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F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Veran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope adaptive optics bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
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P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
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Hackenberg, W.

R. I. Davies, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, A. Eckart, S. Rabien, S. Anders, S. Hippler, M. Kasper, P. Kalas, A. Quirrenbach, A. Glindemann, “The science potential of ALFA: adaptive optics with natural and laser guide stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 345–353 (1999).
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W. J. Wilde, E. J. Kibblewhite, D. A. Haper, “Performance estimates for a near infrared adaptive optics system at the South Pole,” in Astrophysics from Antarctica, G. Novak, R. H. Landsberg, eds., Vol. 141 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomy Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1998), pp. 303–310.

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S. Harder, A. Chelli, “Estimating the point spread function of the adaptive optics system ADONIS using the wavefront sensor measurements,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 142, 119–135 (2000).
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Harper, D. A.

A. Phillips, M. G. Burton, M. C. B. Ashley, J. W. V. Storey, J. P. Lloyd, D. A. Harper, J. Bally, “The near infrared sky emission at the South Pole in winter,” Astrophys. J. 527, 1009–1022 (1999).
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Hippler, S.

R. I. Davies, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, A. Eckart, S. Rabien, S. Anders, S. Hippler, M. Kasper, P. Kalas, A. Quirrenbach, A. Glindemann, “The science potential of ALFA: adaptive optics with natural and laser guide stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 345–353 (1999).
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P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
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Huang, M.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Ingalls, J. G.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Jackson, J. M.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Veran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope adaptive optics bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
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R. I. Davies, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, A. Eckart, S. Rabien, S. Anders, S. Hippler, M. Kasper, P. Kalas, A. Quirrenbach, A. Glindemann, “The science potential of ALFA: adaptive optics with natural and laser guide stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 345–353 (1999).
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Kasper, M.

R. I. Davies, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, A. Eckart, S. Rabien, S. Anders, S. Hippler, M. Kasper, P. Kalas, A. Quirrenbach, A. Glindemann, “The science potential of ALFA: adaptive optics with natural and laser guide stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 345–353 (1999).
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Kibblewhite, E. J.

W. J. Wilde, E. J. Kibblewhite, D. A. Haper, “Performance estimates for a near infrared adaptive optics system at the South Pole,” in Astrophysics from Antarctica, G. Novak, R. H. Landsberg, eds., Vol. 141 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomy Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1998), pp. 303–310.

Kooi, J. W.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Lai, O.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Veran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope adaptive optics bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
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Lane, A. P.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, J.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
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J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, M. G. Burton, P. G. Calisse, J. R. Everett, R. J. Pernic, A. Phillips, J. W. V. Storey, “Operation of the Near Infrared Sky Monitor at the South Pole,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 19, 328–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd, J. P.

J. P. Lloyd, B. R. Oppenheimer, J. R. Graham, “The potential of differential astrometric interferometry from the high Antarctic plateau,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 19, 318–322 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Phillips, M. G. Burton, M. C. B. Ashley, J. W. V. Storey, J. P. Lloyd, D. A. Harper, J. Bally, “The near infrared sky emission at the South Pole in winter,” Astrophys. J. 527, 1009–1022 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lo, K. Y.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Lowenstein, R. F.

T. Travouillon, M. C. B. Ashey, M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, R. F. Lowenstein, “Atmospheric turbulence at the South Pole and its implications for astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 400, 1163–1172 (2002).
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Lupton, W.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
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Ma, S.

Macintosh, B.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Manigault, J. F.

R. D. Marks, J. Vernin, M. Azouit, J. F. Manigault, C. Clevelin, “Measurement of optical seeing on the high Antarctic plateau,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 161–172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Marks, J. Vernin, M. Azouit, J. W. Briggs, M. G. Burton, M. C. B. Ashley, J. F. Manigault, “Antarctic site testing—microthermal measurements of surface-layer seeing at the South Pole,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 118, 385–390 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. D.

R. D. Marks, “Astronomical seeing from the summits of the Antarctic plateau,” Astron. Astrophys. 385, 328–336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, M. G. Burton, P. G. Calisse, J. R. Everett, R. J. Pernic, A. Phillips, J. W. V. Storey, “Operation of the Near Infrared Sky Monitor at the South Pole,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 19, 328–336 (2001).
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J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, M. G. Burton, P. G. Calisse, J. R. Everett, R. J. Pernic, A. Phillips, J. W. V. Storey, “Operation of the Near Infrared Sky Monitor at the South Pole,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 19, 328–336 (2001).
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Quirrenbach, A.

R. I. Davies, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, A. Eckart, S. Rabien, S. Anders, S. Hippler, M. Kasper, P. Kalas, A. Quirrenbach, A. Glindemann, “The science potential of ALFA: adaptive optics with natural and laser guide stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 345–353 (1999).
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R. I. Davies, W. Hackenberg, T. Ott, A. Eckart, S. Rabien, S. Anders, S. Hippler, M. Kasper, P. Kalas, A. Quirrenbach, A. Glindemann, “The science potential of ALFA: adaptive optics with natural and laser guide stars,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 345–353 (1999).
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G. Molodij, J. Rayrole, “Performance analysis for THEMIS image stabilizer optical system. II. Anisoplanatism limitations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 128, 229–244 (1997).
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Rigaut, F.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Veran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope adaptive optics bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
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Rousset, G.

Salmon, D.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Veran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope adaptive optics bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
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Sasiela, R. J.

Scheider, R.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Shelton, C.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
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Staguhn, J.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Stanley, T.

Stark, A. A.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Stilburn, J.

F. Rigaut, D. Salmon, R. Arsenault, J. Thomas, O. Lai, D. Rouan, J. P. Veran, P. Gigan, D. Crampton, J. M. Fletcher, J. Stilburn, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, “Performance of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope adaptive optics bonnette,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 152–164 (1998).
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Stomski, P.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
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Stone, J.

Storey, J. W. V.

T. Travouillon, M. C. B. Ashey, M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, R. F. Lowenstein, “Atmospheric turbulence at the South Pole and its implications for astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 400, 1163–1172 (2002).
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J. S. Lawrence, M. C. B. Ashley, M. G. Burton, P. G. Calisse, J. R. Everett, R. J. Pernic, A. Phillips, J. W. V. Storey, “Operation of the Near Infrared Sky Monitor at the South Pole,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 19, 328–336 (2001).
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T. Travoullion, M. C. B. Ashey, M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, “Seeing measurements at the South Pole using a Hartmann wavefront sensor: ADIMM,” Astron. Astrophys. (to be published).

Stutzki, J.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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T. Travouillon, M. C. B. Ashey, M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, R. F. Lowenstein, “Atmospheric turbulence at the South Pole and its implications for astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 400, 1163–1172 (2002).
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T. Travoullion, M. C. B. Ashey, M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, “Seeing measurements at the South Pole using a Hartmann wavefront sensor: ADIMM,” Astron. Astrophys. (to be published).

Tsubota, K.

P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
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Vernin, J.

R. D. Marks, J. Vernin, M. Azouit, J. F. Manigault, C. Clevelin, “Measurement of optical seeing on the high Antarctic plateau,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 161–172 (1999).
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A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Welsh, B. M.

Wilde, W. J.

W. J. Wilde, E. J. Kibblewhite, D. A. Haper, “Performance estimates for a near infrared adaptive optics system at the South Pole,” in Astrophysics from Antarctica, G. Novak, R. H. Landsberg, eds., Vol. 141 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomy Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1998), pp. 303–310.

Wilson, R. W.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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P. Wizinowich, D. S. Acton, C. Shelton, P. Stomski, J. Gathright, K. Ho, W. Lupton, K. Tsubota, C. Max, J. Brase, J. An, K. Avicola, S. Olivier, D. Gavel, B. Macintosh, A. Chez, J. Larkin, “First light adaptive optics images from the Keck II telescope: a new era of high angular resolution imagery,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 315–319 (2000).
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Wright, G. A.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Zhang, Z.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Zimmerman, P.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Zimmerman, R.

A. A. Stark, J. Bally, S. P. Balm, T. M. Bania, A. D. Bolatto, R. A. Chamberlain, G. Engargiola, M. Huang, J. G. Ingalls, K. Jacobs, J. M. Jackson, J. W. Kooi, A. P. Lane, K. Y. Lo, R. D. Marks, C. L. Martin, D. Mumma, R. Ojha, R. Scheider, J. Staguhn, J. Stutzki, C. W. Walker, R. W. Wilson, G. A. Wright, Z. Zhang, P. Zimmerman, R. Zimmerman, “The Antarctic submillimetre telescope and remote observatory (AST/RO),” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 113, 567–585 (2001).
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Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Astrophys. (4)

J. Vernin, C. Munon-Tunoz, “Optical site testing campaign at the Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 284, 311–318 (1994).

T. Travouillon, M. C. B. Ashey, M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, R. F. Lowenstein, “Atmospheric turbulence at the South Pole and its implications for astronomy,” Astron. Astrophys. 400, 1163–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Marks, “Astronomical seeing from the summits of the Antarctic plateau,” Astron. Astrophys. 385, 328–336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Rigaut, E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics: the tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astrophys. 261, 677–684 (1992).

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (5)

G. Molodij, J. Rayrole, “Performance analysis for THEMIS image stabilizer optical system. II. Anisoplanatism limitations,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 128, 229–244 (1997).
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S. Harder, A. Chelli, “Estimating the point spread function of the adaptive optics system ADONIS using the wavefront sensor measurements,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 142, 119–135 (2000).
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A. Phillips, M. G. Burton, M. C. B. Ashley, J. W. V. Storey, J. P. Lloyd, D. A. Harper, J. Bally, “The near infrared sky emission at the South Pole in winter,” Astrophys. J. 527, 1009–1022 (1999).
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T. Travoullion, M. C. B. Ashey, M. G. Burton, J. W. V. Storey, “Seeing measurements at the South Pole using a Hartmann wavefront sensor: ADIMM,” Astron. Astrophys. (to be published).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive-index structure constant (C N 2) profiles for the MK median (dotted curve), the SP median (dashed curve), and the SP25 (solid curve) atmospheres. The MK atmosphere is from the Hufnagel-Valley boundary model. The SP curves are from analytic fits of microthermal balloon and SODAR data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Horizontal wind speed (V) profiles for the MK median (dotted curve), the SP median (dashed curve), and the SP25 (solid curve) atmospheres. The MK wind speed is from the Bufton model. The SP wind speed profiles are analytical fits to SP meteorological balloon data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Strehl ratio achievable with perfect on-axis adaptive-optics correction for a 2-m telescope and an 8-m telescope. The MK atmosphere, the SP25 atmosphere, and the SP atmosphere are graphed in left-right pairs of figures, as labeled. In each figure the Strehl ratio is shown versus wavelength for the uncompensated atmosphere (UN), tip-tilt removed correction (TR), 5-radial order correction (N5), and 10-radial order correction (N10), as marked in the top left figure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

rms tip-tilt anisoplanatic error for a 2-m telescope operating at 2.4 μm with MK (dotted curve), SP (dashed curve), and SP25 (solid curve) atmospheres as a function of the separation between guide star and object.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Combined rms SNR ratio and bandwidth tip-tilt errors as a function of guide star magnitude for a 2-m telescope operating at 2.4 μm with MK (dotted curve), SP (dashed curve), and SP25 (solid curve) atmospheres.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Strehl width versus sky coverage factor for a 2-m telescope operating at 2.4 μm with tip-tilt correction. The resolution achievable for observations of the galactic plane (PL) and the galactic pole (PO) are shown for the MK, SP, and SP25 atmospheres. The uncompensated atmospheric seeing FWHM at this wavelength is 0.72″, 1.46″, and 0.97″ for the MK, SP, and SP25 atmospheres, respectively. The diffraction-limited telescopic point-spread function FWHM is 0.25″.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Strehl width for a 2-m telescope as a function of wavelength for tilt-removed seeing (TR) for MK, SP, and SP25 atmospheres, as marked in the top figure. (a) Observations of the galactic plane, (b) observations of the galactic pole. The Strehl width for each uncompensated atmosphere (UN) and the diffraction limit (DIFF LIM) is also shown in each figure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Residual phase variance from combined residual fitting error and anisoplanatic error versus separation angle between guide star and object for an 8-m telescope with the MK and SP atmospheres. An increasing number of Zernike term corrections (of radial orders N = 1, 5, 10, 15, 20) is shown. The units of phase variance are (D/ r 0)5/3 rad2. The uncompensated atmosphere introduces a phase variance of 1.0299.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Total wave-front phase variance versus guide star separation angle and stellar magnitude for sky coverage factors of top, 10% and bottom, 90%. Data are for observations of the galactic plane with an 8-m telescope operated at 2.4 μm with MK, SP, and SP25 atmospheres, as marked in the top figure.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Strehl ratio versus sky coverage factor for an 8-m telescope operated at 2.4 μm with adaptive optics corrections up to (a) radial order N = 10 and (b) radial order N = 20. In each figure, galactic plane (PL) and galactic pole (PO) observations are shown for MK, SP, and SP25 atmospheres, as marked in the bottom figure.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Strehl width versus wavelength for 20-radial-order Zernike polynomial correction of an 8-m telescope with MK, SP, and SP25 atmospheres, as marked in the top figure. (a) Observations of the galactic pole, (b) observations of the galactic plane. In each case both 50% and 90% sky coverage factors are plotted, as is the diffraction limit.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of Coefficients Used in SP, SP25, and MK Atmospheric Models: Eqs. (5)–(7)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of Parameters Used in Analysis

Equations (34)

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Dϕr=ϕx+r-ϕx2,
Dϕr=6.88r/r05/3,
r0=0.185λ6/5secθ0 CN2zdz-3/5,
φFWHM=0.98λ/r0.
CN2z=a1 exp-zs1+a2 exp-z-s222d2+a3zs310 exp-zs3,
Vω2z=ν12+ν2 exp-z-z12z222,
CN2z=a1 exp-z-s12d2+a2 exp-zs2+a3 exp-zs3.
ϕRρ, α=j=2 ajαZjρ,
ajα= WρϕRρ, αZjρd2ρ.
Zj=n+1Rnmρ2sinmθm0, jevenRnmρ2cosmθm0, joddRn0ρm=0.
Rnm=s=0n-m/2×-1sn-s!s!n+m/2-s!n-m/2-s! ρn-2s.
Δϕres2N=3.895Dr05/3n=1n+12In,00-n=1Nn+12In,00,
In,00=0 x-14/3Jn+12xdx
S=1-exp-ϕ10/3/61+D/r02+exp-ϕ2.
Δϕtilt2=Δϕres2+ϕta2+ϕsnr2+ϕbw2+ϕca2,
Δϕres2=0.134D/r05/3.
σ=ϕ22π2λD21/2.
σTA=6.14D-1/6sθ0 CN2zfΔzdz1/2,
fΔz8.06×10-2 s2.040.513+s1.90s<400.12×10-2s2.040.511+s1.06s>40,
s=zαsecθD,
σSNR=3π16λTD2κtttan-1κtt2-1/2κttfcΓ01/210mv/5,
σBW=fTfcλTD,
fT=0.331D-1/6λT-1secθ0 CN2zVω2zdz1/2.
fcopt=8fTr03πD Γ01/22κtttan-1κtt2-1/410-mν/52/3.
σCA=Nc+1-7/60.00551 λTDDr05/6,
Psky=1-exp-πα2  mν, b,
Δϕho2=Δϕres2+ϕanis2+ϕSNR2+ϕbw2.
Δϕres2+ϕanis2=3.895Dr05/3n=1n+12In,m0-n=1n+12F-In,00,
F=0 CN2zIn,msdz0 CN2zdz,
In,m=0 x-14/3Jn+12xJ0sxdx--1m0 x-14/3Jn+12xJ2msxdx.
αiso=2.912πλ20 z5/3CN2dz-5/3.
ϕsnr2=λwsλ24π2κhofho1+ds/r023ηTds2Np+8π2Nr2κho2fho21+ds/r023ηTds2Np2,
ϕbw2=CfG/fho5/3,
fG=0.01962πλ20ν5/3CN2zdz3/5.

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