Abstract

A hybrid tabletop (2 m × 3 m) terawatt chirped-pulse amplification Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass laser (1054 nm, 475 fs, 500 mJ, 9 × 1017 W cm-2) has been developed for laser-matter experiments. An overall gain factor of 1010 was achieved for the laser. The results of laser applications in the studies of soft-x-ray Ni-like Mo 18.9-nm lasing and of harmonic generation from solid surfaces are presented.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, A. E. Dangor, R. S. Marjoribanks, S. Moustaizis, D. Neely, S. G. Preston, J. S. Wark, I. Watts, M. Zepf, “Feasibility study of high harmonic generation from short wavelength lasers interacting with solid targets,” Opt. Commun. 148, 289–294 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Beaudoin, C. Y. Chien, J. S. Coe, L. T. Tapie, G. Mourou, “Ultrahigh-contrast Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass terawatt laser system,” Opt. Lett. 17, 865–867 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnurer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, “Proposal of a longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo ion x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Li, Z. Xu, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “Femtosecond pulse driven 4.3 nm laser in nickel-like tungsten ions,” Phys. Lett. A 263, 117–120 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Li, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, T. W. Barbee, A. L. Osterheld, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Saturated tabletop x-ray laser system at 19 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1098–1101 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Ishizawa, K. Inaba, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “High-order harmonic generation from solid surface plasma by using a picosecond laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 60–66 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “The spatial distribution of high-order harmonics from solid surface plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 995–1001 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation efficiency from solid surface plasma by controlling the electron density gradient picosecond produced plasma,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 384–393 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Strickland, G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, T. Kita, T. Harada, “Development of a flat-field grazing incidence XUV spectrometer and its application in picosecond XUV spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2386–2392 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, “Studies of advanced soft x-ray laser and coherent higher harmonic generation using intense subpicosecond laser produced high density plasma,” J. Lumin. 100, 291–300 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, “Highly directive 18.9 nm nickellike molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150-mJ pump energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 253902 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. T. Hansen, S. C. Wilks, P. E. Young, “Spectral evidence for collisionless absorption in subpicosecond laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5019–5022 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, “Measurements of blue shifts due to collisionless absorption in harmonic generation from subpicosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 026414 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  21. Z. A. Gizzi, D. Giulietti, A. Giulietti, P. Auderbert, S. Bastiani, J. P. Geindre, A. Mysyrowicz, “Simultaneous measurements of hard x-rays and second-harmonic emission in fs laser-target interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2278–2281 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. G. Veres, J. S. Bakos, I. B. Foldes, K. Gál, Z. Juhász, G. Kocsis, S. Szatmári, “Polarization of harmonics generated by ultrashort KrF-laser pulses on solid surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 48, 390–396 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Polarization effects in harmonic generation from solid surfaces,” J. Opt. B 3, S112–S117 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Puhov, “Short-pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 3425–3437 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. von der Linde, “Generation of high-order optical harmonics from solid surface,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 315–319 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. Rzazewski, L. Plaja, L. Roso, D. von der Linde, “Probe-field reflection on a plasma surface driven by a strong electromagnetic field,” J. Phys. B 33, 2549–2558 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. von der Linde, H. Schulz, T. Engers, H. Schuler, “Second harmonic generation in plasmas produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2388–2397 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Kolhweyer, C. D. Tsakiris, C.-G. Wahlstrom, C. Tillman, I. Merser, “Harmonic generation from solid-vacuum interface irradiated at high laser intensities,” Opt. Commun. 117, 431–438 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  30. I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, G. Veres, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in a UV laser plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 776–781 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  31. I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in plasmas of different density gradients,” Phys. Lett. A 258, 312–316 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383–1386 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. J. A. Stamper, B. H. Ripin, “Faraday-rotation measurements of megagauss magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 138–141 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  34. R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Experimental study of harmonic generation from solid surfaces irradiated by multi-picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 63, 026402 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2002 (3)

H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, “Studies of advanced soft x-ray laser and coherent higher harmonic generation using intense subpicosecond laser produced high density plasma,” J. Lumin. 100, 291–300 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, “Highly directive 18.9 nm nickellike molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150-mJ pump energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 253902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, “Measurements of blue shifts due to collisionless absorption in harmonic generation from subpicosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 026414 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation efficiency from solid surface plasma by controlling the electron density gradient picosecond produced plasma,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 384–393 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Polarization effects in harmonic generation from solid surfaces,” J. Opt. B 3, S112–S117 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Experimental study of harmonic generation from solid surfaces irradiated by multi-picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 63, 026402 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

Y. Li, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, T. W. Barbee, A. L. Osterheld, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Saturated tabletop x-ray laser system at 19 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1098–1101 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Rzazewski, L. Plaja, L. Roso, D. von der Linde, “Probe-field reflection on a plasma surface driven by a strong electromagnetic field,” J. Phys. B 33, 2549–2558 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “The spatial distribution of high-order harmonics from solid surface plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 995–1001 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (6)

C. T. Hansen, S. C. Wilks, P. E. Young, “Spectral evidence for collisionless absorption in subpicosecond laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5019–5022 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Veres, J. S. Bakos, I. B. Foldes, K. Gál, Z. Juhász, G. Kocsis, S. Szatmári, “Polarization of harmonics generated by ultrashort KrF-laser pulses on solid surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 48, 390–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Li, Z. Xu, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “Femtosecond pulse driven 4.3 nm laser in nickel-like tungsten ions,” Phys. Lett. A 263, 117–120 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, K. Inaba, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “High-order harmonic generation from solid surface plasma by using a picosecond laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 60–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. von der Linde, “Generation of high-order optical harmonics from solid surface,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 315–319 (1999).
[Crossref]

I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in plasmas of different density gradients,” Phys. Lett. A 258, 312–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, A. E. Dangor, R. S. Marjoribanks, S. Moustaizis, D. Neely, S. G. Preston, J. S. Wark, I. Watts, M. Zepf, “Feasibility study of high harmonic generation from short wavelength lasers interacting with solid targets,” Opt. Commun. 148, 289–294 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, “Proposal of a longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo ion x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnurer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (4)

P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. A. Gizzi, D. Giulietti, A. Giulietti, P. Auderbert, S. Bastiani, J. P. Geindre, A. Mysyrowicz, “Simultaneous measurements of hard x-rays and second-harmonic emission in fs laser-target interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2278–2281 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, G. Veres, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in a UV laser plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 776–781 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Puhov, “Short-pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 3425–3437 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Kolhweyer, C. D. Tsakiris, C.-G. Wahlstrom, C. Tillman, I. Merser, “Harmonic generation from solid-vacuum interface irradiated at high laser intensities,” Opt. Commun. 117, 431–438 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

D. von der Linde, H. Schulz, T. Engers, H. Schuler, “Second harmonic generation in plasmas produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2388–2397 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383–1386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Beaudoin, C. Y. Chien, J. S. Coe, L. T. Tapie, G. Mourou, “Ultrahigh-contrast Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass terawatt laser system,” Opt. Lett. 17, 865–867 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

D. Strickland, G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1975 (1)

J. A. Stamper, B. H. Ripin, “Faraday-rotation measurements of megagauss magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 138–141 (1975).
[Crossref]

Andiel, U.

M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
[Crossref]

Auderbert, P.

Z. A. Gizzi, D. Giulietti, A. Giulietti, P. Auderbert, S. Bastiani, J. P. Geindre, A. Mysyrowicz, “Simultaneous measurements of hard x-rays and second-harmonic emission in fs laser-target interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2278–2281 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakarezos, M.

P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakonyi, Z.

I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in plasmas of different density gradients,” Phys. Lett. A 258, 312–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, G. Veres, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in a UV laser plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 776–781 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bakos, J. S.

I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in plasmas of different density gradients,” Phys. Lett. A 258, 312–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Veres, J. S. Bakos, I. B. Foldes, K. Gál, Z. Juhász, G. Kocsis, S. Szatmári, “Polarization of harmonics generated by ultrashort KrF-laser pulses on solid surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 48, 390–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, G. Veres, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in a UV laser plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 776–781 (1996).
[Crossref]

Barbee, T. W.

Bastiani, S.

Z. A. Gizzi, D. Giulietti, A. Giulietti, P. Auderbert, S. Bastiani, J. P. Geindre, A. Mysyrowicz, “Simultaneous measurements of hard x-rays and second-harmonic emission in fs laser-target interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2278–2281 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaudoin, Y.

Campbell, E. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ceglio, N. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakera, J. A.

R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Polarization effects in harmonic generation from solid surfaces,” J. Opt. B 3, S112–S117 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Experimental study of harmonic generation from solid surfaces irradiated by multi-picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 63, 026402 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chambers, D. M.

M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, A. E. Dangor, R. S. Marjoribanks, S. Moustaizis, D. Neely, S. G. Preston, J. S. Wark, I. Watts, M. Zepf, “Feasibility study of high harmonic generation from short wavelength lasers interacting with solid targets,” Opt. Commun. 148, 289–294 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chien, C. Y.

Coe, J. S.

Da Silva, L. B.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dangor, A. E.

M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, A. E. Dangor, R. S. Marjoribanks, S. Moustaizis, D. Neely, S. G. Preston, J. S. Wark, I. Watts, M. Zepf, “Feasibility study of high harmonic generation from short wavelength lasers interacting with solid targets,” Opt. Commun. 148, 289–294 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danson, C.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

Danson, C. N.

P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunn, J.

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, T. W. Barbee, A. L. Osterheld, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Saturated tabletop x-ray laser system at 19 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1098–1101 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dyson, A.

P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
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Eckart, M. J.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eidmann, K.

M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
[Crossref]

Engers, T.

D. von der Linde, H. Schulz, T. Engers, H. Schuler, “Second harmonic generation in plasmas produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2388–2397 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fews, A. P.

P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foldes, I. B.

G. Veres, J. S. Bakos, I. B. Foldes, K. Gál, Z. Juhász, G. Kocsis, S. Szatmári, “Polarization of harmonics generated by ultrashort KrF-laser pulses on solid surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 48, 390–396 (1999).
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I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in plasmas of different density gradients,” Phys. Lett. A 258, 312–316 (1999).
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I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, G. Veres, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in a UV laser plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 776–781 (1996).
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Gahn, C.

M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gál, K.

G. Veres, J. S. Bakos, I. B. Foldes, K. Gál, Z. Juhász, G. Kocsis, S. Szatmári, “Polarization of harmonics generated by ultrashort KrF-laser pulses on solid surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 48, 390–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ganeev, R. A.

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, “Highly directive 18.9 nm nickellike molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150-mJ pump energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 253902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, “Studies of advanced soft x-ray laser and coherent higher harmonic generation using intense subpicosecond laser produced high density plasma,” J. Lumin. 100, 291–300 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, “Measurements of blue shifts due to collisionless absorption in harmonic generation from subpicosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 026414 (2002).
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R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Polarization effects in harmonic generation from solid surfaces,” J. Opt. B 3, S112–S117 (2001).
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R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Experimental study of harmonic generation from solid surfaces irradiated by multi-picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 63, 026402 (2001).
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Geindre, J. P.

Z. A. Gizzi, D. Giulietti, A. Giulietti, P. Auderbert, S. Bastiani, J. P. Geindre, A. Mysyrowicz, “Simultaneous measurements of hard x-rays and second-harmonic emission in fs laser-target interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2278–2281 (1996).
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Gibbon, P.

P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
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Giulietti, A.

Z. A. Gizzi, D. Giulietti, A. Giulietti, P. Auderbert, S. Bastiani, J. P. Geindre, A. Mysyrowicz, “Simultaneous measurements of hard x-rays and second-harmonic emission in fs laser-target interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2278–2281 (1996).
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Giulietti, D.

Z. A. Gizzi, D. Giulietti, A. Giulietti, P. Auderbert, S. Bastiani, J. P. Geindre, A. Mysyrowicz, “Simultaneous measurements of hard x-rays and second-harmonic emission in fs laser-target interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2278–2281 (1996).
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Gizzi, Z. A.

Z. A. Gizzi, D. Giulietti, A. Giulietti, P. Auderbert, S. Bastiani, J. P. Geindre, A. Mysyrowicz, “Simultaneous measurements of hard x-rays and second-harmonic emission in fs laser-target interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2278–2281 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, P. D.

R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Polarization effects in harmonic generation from solid surfaces,” J. Opt. B 3, S112–S117 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Experimental study of harmonic generation from solid surfaces irradiated by multi-picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 63, 026402 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hagelstein, P. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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Hansen, C. T.

C. T. Hansen, S. C. Wilks, P. E. Young, “Spectral evidence for collisionless absorption in subpicosecond laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5019–5022 (1999).
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Harada, T.

Hatcher, C. W.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hawryluk, A. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hazi, A. U.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunter, J. R.

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inaba, K.

A. Ishizawa, K. Inaba, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “High-order harmonic generation from solid surface plasma by using a picosecond laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 60–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ishizawa, A.

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, “Highly directive 18.9 nm nickellike molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150-mJ pump energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 253902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, “Studies of advanced soft x-ray laser and coherent higher harmonic generation using intense subpicosecond laser produced high density plasma,” J. Lumin. 100, 291–300 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, “Measurements of blue shifts due to collisionless absorption in harmonic generation from subpicosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 026414 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation efficiency from solid surface plasma by controlling the electron density gradient picosecond produced plasma,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 384–393 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “The spatial distribution of high-order harmonics from solid surface plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 995–1001 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, K. Inaba, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “High-order harmonic generation from solid surface plasma by using a picosecond laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 60–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

Juhász, Z.

G. Veres, J. S. Bakos, I. B. Foldes, K. Gál, Z. Juhász, G. Kocsis, S. Szatmári, “Polarization of harmonics generated by ultrashort KrF-laser pulses on solid surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 48, 390–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kalachnikov, M.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnurer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
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Kanai, T.

H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, “Studies of advanced soft x-ray laser and coherent higher harmonic generation using intense subpicosecond laser produced high density plasma,” J. Lumin. 100, 291–300 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, “Measurements of blue shifts due to collisionless absorption in harmonic generation from subpicosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 026414 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, “Highly directive 18.9 nm nickellike molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150-mJ pump energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 253902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation efficiency from solid surface plasma by controlling the electron density gradient picosecond produced plasma,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 384–393 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “The spatial distribution of high-order harmonics from solid surface plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 995–1001 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, K. Inaba, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “High-order harmonic generation from solid surface plasma by using a picosecond laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 60–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, “Proposal of a longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo ion x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kauffman, R. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Key, M. H.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kita, T.

Kocsis, G.

G. Veres, J. S. Bakos, I. B. Foldes, K. Gál, Z. Juhász, G. Kocsis, S. Szatmári, “Polarization of harmonics generated by ultrashort KrF-laser pulses on solid surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 48, 390–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kolhweyer, S.

S. Kolhweyer, C. D. Tsakiris, C.-G. Wahlstrom, C. Tillman, I. Merser, “Harmonic generation from solid-vacuum interface irradiated at high laser intensities,” Opt. Commun. 117, 431–438 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kruer, W. L.

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383–1386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuroda, H.

T. Ozaki, R. A. Ganeev, A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, “Highly directive 18.9 nm nickellike molybdenum x-ray laser operating at 150-mJ pump energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 253902 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, “Studies of advanced soft x-ray laser and coherent higher harmonic generation using intense subpicosecond laser produced high density plasma,” J. Lumin. 100, 291–300 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, R. A. Ganeev, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, T. Ozaki, “Measurements of blue shifts due to collisionless absorption in harmonic generation from subpicosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. E 66, 026414 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation efficiency from solid surface plasma by controlling the electron density gradient picosecond produced plasma,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 384–393 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “The spatial distribution of high-order harmonics from solid surface plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 995–1001 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ishizawa, K. Inaba, T. Kanai, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “High-order harmonic generation from solid surface plasma by using a picosecond laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 60–66 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Li, Z. Xu, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “Femtosecond pulse driven 4.3 nm laser in nickel-like tungsten ions,” Phys. Lett. A 263, 117–120 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, “Proposal of a longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo ion x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
[Crossref]

N. Nakano, H. Kuroda, T. Kita, T. Harada, “Development of a flat-field grazing incidence XUV spectrometer and its application in picosecond XUV spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2386–2392 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langdon, A. B.

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383–1386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, P.

P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, C. L. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

R. Li, Z. Xu, T. Ozaki, H. Kuroda, “Femtosecond pulse driven 4.3 nm laser in nickel-like tungsten ions,” Phys. Lett. A 263, 117–120 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Li, T. Ozaki, T. Kanai, H. Kuroda, “Proposal of a longitudinally pumped saturated Ni-like Mo ion x-ray laser at 18.9 nm,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 7093–7102 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, T. W. Barbee, A. L. Osterheld, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Saturated tabletop x-ray laser system at 19 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1098–1101 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lichters, R.

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Puhov, “Short-pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 3425–3437 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

Loukakos, P.

P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacGowan, B. J.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Machacek, A.

M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
[Crossref]

MacPhee, A. G.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

Marjoribanks, R. S.

D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, A. E. Dangor, R. S. Marjoribanks, S. Moustaizis, D. Neely, S. G. Preston, J. S. Wark, I. Watts, M. Zepf, “Feasibility study of high harmonic generation from short wavelength lasers interacting with solid targets,” Opt. Commun. 148, 289–294 (1998).
[Crossref]

Matthews, D. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Medecki, H.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merser, I.

S. Kolhweyer, C. D. Tsakiris, C.-G. Wahlstrom, C. Tillman, I. Merser, “Harmonic generation from solid-vacuum interface irradiated at high laser intensities,” Opt. Commun. 117, 431–438 (1995).
[Crossref]

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, A. Puhov, “Short-pulse laser harmonics from oscillating plasma surfaces driven at relativistic intensity,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 3425–3437 (1996).
[Crossref]

Moreno, J. C.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Moustaizis, S.

D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, A. E. Dangor, R. S. Marjoribanks, S. Moustaizis, D. Neely, S. G. Preston, J. S. Wark, I. Watts, M. Zepf, “Feasibility study of high harmonic generation from short wavelength lasers interacting with solid targets,” Opt. Commun. 148, 289–294 (1998).
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P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
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R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Experimental study of harmonic generation from solid surfaces irradiated by multi-picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 63, 026402 (2001).
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D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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K. Rzazewski, L. Plaja, L. Roso, D. von der Linde, “Probe-field reflection on a plasma surface driven by a strong electromagnetic field,” J. Phys. B 33, 2549–2558 (2000).
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K. Rzazewski, L. Plaja, L. Roso, D. von der Linde, “Probe-field reflection on a plasma surface driven by a strong electromagnetic field,” J. Phys. B 33, 2549–2558 (2000).
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P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnurer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
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D. von der Linde, H. Schulz, T. Engers, H. Schuler, “Second harmonic generation in plasmas produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2388–2397 (1992).
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D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Polarization effects in harmonic generation from solid surfaces,” J. Opt. B 3, S112–S117 (2001).
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R. A. Ganeev, J. A. Chakera, M. Raghuramaih, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, P. D. Gupta, “Experimental study of harmonic generation from solid surfaces irradiated by multi-picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 63, 026402 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Y. Li, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, T. W. Barbee, A. L. Osterheld, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Saturated tabletop x-ray laser system at 19 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1098–1101 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, J. R. Hunter, V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Gain saturation regime for laser-driven tabletop, transient Ni-like ion x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4834–4837 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnurer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[Crossref]

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J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
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J. A. Stamper, B. H. Ripin, “Faraday-rotation measurements of megagauss magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 138–141 (1975).
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D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in plasmas of different density gradients,” Phys. Lett. A 258, 312–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, G. Veres, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in a UV laser plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 776–781 (1996).
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G. Veres, J. S. Bakos, I. B. Foldes, K. Gál, Z. Juhász, G. Kocsis, S. Szatmári, “Polarization of harmonics generated by ultrashort KrF-laser pulses on solid surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 48, 390–396 (1999).
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J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
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Tillman, C.

S. Kolhweyer, C. D. Tsakiris, C.-G. Wahlstrom, C. Tillman, I. Merser, “Harmonic generation from solid-vacuum interface irradiated at high laser intensities,” Opt. Commun. 117, 431–438 (1995).
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D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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S. Kolhweyer, C. D. Tsakiris, C.-G. Wahlstrom, C. Tillman, I. Merser, “Harmonic generation from solid-vacuum interface irradiated at high laser intensities,” Opt. Commun. 117, 431–438 (1995).
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Tsakiris, G. D.

M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
[Crossref]

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G. Veres, J. S. Bakos, I. B. Foldes, K. Gál, Z. Juhász, G. Kocsis, S. Szatmári, “Polarization of harmonics generated by ultrashort KrF-laser pulses on solid surfaces,” Europhys. Lett. 48, 390–396 (1999).
[Crossref]

I. B. Foldes, J. S. Bakos, G. Veres, Z. Bakonyi, T. Nagy, S. Szatmari, “Harmonic generation in a UV laser plasma,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 776–781 (1996).
[Crossref]

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K. Rzazewski, L. Plaja, L. Roso, D. von der Linde, “Probe-field reflection on a plasma surface driven by a strong electromagnetic field,” J. Phys. B 33, 2549–2558 (2000).
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D. von der Linde, “Generation of high-order optical harmonics from solid surface,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 315–319 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. von der Linde, H. Schulz, T. Engers, H. Schuler, “Second harmonic generation in plasmas produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2388–2397 (1992).
[Crossref]

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S. Kolhweyer, C. D. Tsakiris, C.-G. Wahlstrom, C. Tillman, I. Merser, “Harmonic generation from solid-vacuum interface irradiated at high laser intensities,” Opt. Commun. 117, 431–438 (1995).
[Crossref]

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P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, A. E. Dangor, R. S. Marjoribanks, S. Moustaizis, D. Neely, S. G. Preston, J. S. Wark, I. Watts, M. Zepf, “Feasibility study of high harmonic generation from short wavelength lasers interacting with solid targets,” Opt. Commun. 148, 289–294 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. A. Norreys, M. Zepf, S. Moustaizis, A. P. Fews, J. Zhang, P. Lee, M. Bakarezos, C. N. Danson, A. Dyson, P. Gibbon, P. Loukakos, D. Neely, F. N. Walsh, J. S. Wark, A. E. Dangor, “Efficient extreme UV harmonics generated from picosecond laser pulse interactions with solid targets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1832–1835 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, A. E. Dangor, R. S. Marjoribanks, S. Moustaizis, D. Neely, S. G. Preston, J. S. Wark, I. Watts, M. Zepf, “Feasibility study of high harmonic generation from short wavelength lasers interacting with solid targets,” Opt. Commun. 148, 289–294 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
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D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
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C. T. Hansen, S. C. Wilks, P. E. Young, “Spectral evidence for collisionless absorption in subpicosecond laser-solid interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5019–5022 (1999).
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S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, M. Tabak, A. B. Langdon, “Absorption of ultra-intense laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1383–1386 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Will, I.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnurer, I. Will, W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[Crossref]

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M. Zepf, G. D. Tsakiris, G. Pretzler, I. Watts, D. M. Chambers, P. A. Norreys, U. Andiel, A. E. Dangor, K. Eidmann, C. Gahn, A. Machacek, J. S. Wark, K. Witte, “Role of the plasma scale length in the harmonic generation from solid targets,” Phys. Rev. E 58, R5253–R5256 (1998).
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Science (1)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser setup: O, master oscillator; GPs, Glan prisms; FRs, Faraday rotators; M’s, mirrors; G’s, gratings; L’s, lenses; TFPs, thin-film polarizers; PCs, Pockels cells; Ti:S, Ti:sapphire active element; A, Nd:glass amplifier; QWP, quarter-wave plate; HWP, half-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Autocorrelation traces of (a) input radiation and (b) compressed output pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of laser radiation after (a) the master oscillator, (b) the Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier, (c) the Nd:glass amplifier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of (a) third-order 6.03-nm and fourth-order 4.86-nm resonant boron lines, (b) a Mo plasma continuum without longitudinal pumping, (c) a longitudinally pumped Ni-like Mo laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) s- and (b) p-polarized harmonic yield for an s-polarized pump laser. (c) p-polarized harmonic yield for a p-polarized pump laser calculated from one-dimensional PIC simulations at an intensity of 1 × 1017 W cm-2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of (a) second- and (b) fifth-harmonic intensity on the polarization of the driving laser.

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