Abstract

A telecentric confocal optical arrangement is presented that greatly reduces the diffraction aberrations of the acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Analytical expressions for the aberrations were identified based on the fundamental properties of Bragg diffraction, and additional aberrations due to focusing through the AOTF were also included. The analysis was verified by use of a geometrical ray trace optical code, and an experimental AOTF system was analyzed. Considerable improvement in the potential spatial resolution is predicted with confocal optics, which could accommodate large pixel-limited image fields of greater than 106 pixels. When the image quality of the experimental system was assessed, the resolution was found to be improved by the confocal optics and was diffraction limited. Higher resolution could have been obtained with the use of larger optics to increase the throughput before being limited by the aberrations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, S. T. K. Nieh, T. W. Hansch, “Electronic tuning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269–271 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. A. Coquin, K. W. Cheung, “Electronically tunable external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 599–600 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2 lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, P. Chenausky, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. W. Shipp, J. Biggins, C. W. Wade, “Performance characteristics of an electronically tunable acousto-optic filter for fast scanning spectrophotometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 565–569 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Bates, D. Halliwell, D. Findlay, “Astronomical spectrophotometry with an acousto-optic filter photometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 257–260 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Bardak, G. J. Wolga, “Acousto-optic spectrometer system used to monitor combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4279–4285 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. A. Glenar, J. J. Himan, B. Saif, J. Bergstrahl, “Acousto-optic imaging spectropolarimetry for remote detection sensing,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7412–7424 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. R. Suhre, J. G. Theodore, “White-light imaging by use of a multiple passband acousto-optic tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4494–4501 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. S. Wachman, W. H. Niu, D. L. Farkas, “Imaging acousto-optic tunable filter with 0.35-micrometer spatial resolution,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5220–5226 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. R. Suhre, E. Villa, “Imaging spectroradiometer for the 8–12-μm region with a 3 cm-1 passband acousto-optic tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2340–2345 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Gupta, L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, D. R. Suhre, B. Kaminski, P. Metes, “Object detection with a field-portable spectropolarimetric imager,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6626–6632 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Yano, A. Watanabe, “Acousto-optic TeO2 tunable filter using far-off-axis anisotropic Bragg diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2250–2258 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, N. T. Nelamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 187.
  20. I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 824–829 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 84.
  22. N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736–3745 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

2001

1998

1996

1994

1993

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, N. T. Nelamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Bardak, G. J. Wolga, “Acousto-optic spectrometer system used to monitor combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4279–4285 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Coquin, K. W. Cheung, “Electronically tunable external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 599–600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984

1981

I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 824–829 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976

T. Yano, A. Watanabe, “Acousto-optic TeO2 tunable filter using far-off-axis anisotropic Bragg diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2250–2258 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Shipp, J. Biggins, C. W. Wade, “Performance characteristics of an electronically tunable acousto-optic filter for fast scanning spectrophotometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 565–569 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971

D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, S. T. K. Nieh, T. W. Hansch, “Electronic tuning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269–271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736–3745 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Baran, J. E.

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bardak, M.

Barocsi, A.

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bates, B.

Bergstrahl, J.

Biggins, J.

S. W. Shipp, J. Biggins, C. W. Wade, “Performance characteristics of an electronically tunable acousto-optic filter for fast scanning spectrophotometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 565–569 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 187.

Buhay, H.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2 lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, P. Chenausky, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chang, I. C.

I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 824–829 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. W.

K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Coquin, K. W. Cheung, “Electronically tunable external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 599–600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Conroy, J. J.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2 lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, P. Chenausky, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Coquin, G. A.

G. A. Coquin, K. W. Cheung, “Electronically tunable external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 599–600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Denes, L. J.

N. Gupta, L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, D. R. Suhre, B. Kaminski, P. Metes, “Object detection with a field-portable spectropolarimetric imager,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6626–6632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2 lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, P. Chenausky, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dwelle, R.

I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Farkas, D. L.

Findlay, D.

Glenar, D. A.

Gottlieb, M.

N. Gupta, L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, D. R. Suhre, B. Kaminski, P. Metes, “Object detection with a field-portable spectropolarimetric imager,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6626–6632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, N. T. Nelamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2 lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, P. Chenausky, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, N.

Hagedorn, C.

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hallikainen, J.

J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Halliwell, D.

Hansch, T. W.

D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, S. T. K. Nieh, T. W. Hansch, “Electronic tuning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269–271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, S. T. K. Nieh, T. W. Hansch, “Electronic tuning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269–271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Heffner, B. L.

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Himan, J. J.

Jaaskelainen, T.

J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jakab, L.

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, B.

Katzka, P.

I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, I.

I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Liew, S. C.

K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lo, C. N.

K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Metes, P.

Nelamed, N. T.

D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, N. T. Nelamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nieh, S. T. K.

D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, S. T. K. Nieh, T. W. Hansch, “Electronic tuning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269–271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Niu, W. H.

Parkkinen, J.

J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Richter, P.

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Saif, B.

Schrodter, C.

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shipp, S. W.

S. W. Shipp, J. Biggins, C. W. Wade, “Performance characteristics of an electronically tunable acousto-optic filter for fast scanning spectrophotometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 565–569 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Singh, N. B.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2 lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, P. Chenausky, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 84.

Suhre, D. R.

N. Gupta, L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, D. R. Suhre, B. Kaminski, P. Metes, “Object detection with a field-portable spectropolarimetric imager,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6626–6632 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Suhre, E. Villa, “Imaging spectroradiometer for the 8–12-μm region with a 3 cm-1 passband acousto-optic tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2340–2345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Suhre, J. G. Theodore, “White-light imaging by use of a multiple passband acousto-optic tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4494–4501 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, N. T. Nelamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2 lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, P. Chenausky, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. J.

D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, S. T. K. Nieh, T. W. Hansch, “Electronic tuning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269–271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Theodore, J. G.

Uchida, N.

N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736–3745 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Villa, E.

Wachman, E. S.

Wade, C. W.

S. W. Shipp, J. Biggins, C. W. Wade, “Performance characteristics of an electronically tunable acousto-optic filter for fast scanning spectrophotometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 565–569 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, A.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 187.

Wolga, G. J.

Yano, T.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. J. Taylor, S. E. Harris, S. T. K. Nieh, T. W. Hansch, “Electronic tuning of a dye laser using the acousto-optic filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 269–271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. A. Coquin, K. W. Cheung, “Electronically tunable external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 599–600 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, N. T. Nelamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 824–829 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736–3745 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Shipp, J. Biggins, C. W. Wade, “Performance characteristics of an electronically tunable acousto-optic filter for fast scanning spectrophotometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 565–569 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2 lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, P. Chenausky, R. A. Sauerbrey, J. H. Tillotson, eds., Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 187.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 84.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the telecentric confocal optics for the AOTF system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wave-vector diagram for a positive uniaxial crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principal rays with the AOTF at an arbitrary position, showing the angular spread produced by the AOTF diffraction aberrations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Analytically calculated geometrical blur angles as a function of the AOTF position by use of ideal confocal lenses and various analytical approximations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical code calculation of the geometrical spot width on the focal plane array for variable AOTF position compared with the analytical calculation with ideal lenses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Resolution chart image from the telecentric confocal system at 750 nm with the AOTF near the optimum position.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 AOTF and Telecentric Confocal System Parameters

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ki=ka+kd,
|ki|=2πni/λ0, |kd|=2πnd/λ0, |ka|=2π/Λ,
λ02/Λ2=no2+ni2-2noni cosθi-θd,
ni=cos2 θi/no2+sin2 θi/ne2-1/2,
λ0/Λnoθi-θd.
θd/λ0λ0/nono/λ0-1/noΛ.
Δθd-Δλ/λ0λ0/noΛ,
αd=no|Δθdl2|f2,
αs=l1n2-1/8fn3f-number3,
Δf=l1n-1/n,
αc=l1/n2fΔλn/λ0/f-number.
α=αd+αs+αc,

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