Abstract

Starting from the successful Keck telescope design, we construct and analyze the control matrix for the active control system of the primary mirror of a generalized segmented-mirror telescope, with up to 1000 segments and including an alternative sensor geometry to the one used at Keck. In particular we examine the noise propagation of the matrix and its consequences for both seeing-limited and diffraction-limited observations. The associated problem of optical alignment of such a primary mirror is also analyzed in terms of the distinct but related matrices that govern this latter problem.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, J. L. Codona, W. B. Davison, B. Martin, “20- and 30-m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 183–193 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayede, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, B. Gregory, “Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. G. A. Chanan, M. Troy, F. G. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, D. Kirkman, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescopes: the broadband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 140 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1989), pp. 484–487.
  18. E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).
  19. D. G. MacMartin, G. A. Chanan, “Control of the California Extremely Large Telescope primary mirror,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 69–80 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. G. MacMartin, G. Chanan, “Measurement accuracy in control of segmented-mirror telescopes,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, E. Leffert, “Residual misalignments of the Keck telescope primary mirror segments: classification of modes and implications for adaptive optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 307–317 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

Adams, M. T.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, P.

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodriguez Espinoza, F. R. Kabana, “GTC project: present and future,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, Proc. SPIE4004, 26–35 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

Anderson, T.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, J. L. Codona, W. B. Davison, B. Martin, “20- and 30-m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 183–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ardeberg, A. L.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Z.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

Barnes, T. G.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J. L.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bischof, C.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

Booth, J. A.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brunetto, E.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burgarella, D.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayede, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burge, J. H.

J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, J. L. Codona, W. B. Davison, B. Martin, “20- and 30-m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 183–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carlberg, R.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chanan, G.

D. G. MacMartin, G. Chanan, “Measurement accuracy in control of segmented-mirror telescopes,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, E. Leffert, “Residual misalignments of the Keck telescope primary mirror segments: classification of modes and implications for adaptive optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 307–317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chanan, G. A.

G. A. Chanan, C. Ohara, M. Troy, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck Telescopes: the narrowband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4706–4714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Chanan, M. Troy, F. G. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, D. Kirkman, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescopes: the broadband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. MacMartin, G. A. Chanan, “Control of the California Extremely Large Telescope primary mirror,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 69–80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Chanan, “Design of the Keck Observatory alignment camera,” in Precision Instrument Design, T. C. Bristow, A. E. Hathaway, eds., Proc. SPIE1036, 59–70 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Codona, J. L.

J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, J. L. Codona, W. B. Davison, B. Martin, “20- and 30-m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 183–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

R. Cohen, T. Mast, J. Nelson, “Performance of the W. M. Keck Telescope active mirror control system,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 105–116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Conan, R.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cornell, M. E.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crabtree, D. R.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crampton, D.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Croz, J. D.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

Davidge, T. J.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davison, W. B.

J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, J. L. Codona, W. B. Davison, B. Martin, “20- and 30-m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 183–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dekens, F. G.

Demmel, J.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

Dierickx, P.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dohlen, K.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayede, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dongarra, J.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

Faber, S. M.

J. E. Nelson, T. S. Mast, S. M. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and Telescope,” Keck Observatory Rep. No. 90 (W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, Hawaii, 1985).

Fedrigo, E.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayede, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fitzsimmons, J. T.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B.

W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1989), pp. 484–487.

Fowler, J. R.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaffney, N. I.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gedig, M. H.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gilmozzi, R.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goncharov, A.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Greenbaum, A.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

Gregory, B.

S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, B. Gregory, “Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Halliday, D. J.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hammarling, S.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

Hammer, F.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayede, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herriot, R. G.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hesse, J. E.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G. J.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G. M.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N. N.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kabana, F. R.

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodriguez Espinoza, F. R. Kabana, “GTC project: present and future,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, Proc. SPIE4004, 26–35 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kirkman, D.

Koch, F.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leffert, E.

M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, E. Leffert, “Residual misalignments of the Keck telescope primary mirror segments: classification of modes and implications for adaptive optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 307–317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lelouarn, M.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

MacMartin, D. G.

D. G. MacMartin, G. A. Chanan, “Control of the California Extremely Large Telescope primary mirror,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 69–80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. G. MacMartin, G. Chanan, “Measurement accuracy in control of segmented-mirror telescopes,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Marchetti, E.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin, B.

J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, J. L. Codona, W. B. Davison, B. Martin, “20- and 30-m telescope designs with potential for subsequent incorporation into a track-mounted pair (20/20 or 30/30),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 183–193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mast, T.

G. A. Chanan, M. Troy, F. G. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, D. Kirkman, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescopes: the broadband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Mast, J. Nelson, “Segmented mirror control system hardware for CELT,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 226–240 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Cohen, T. Mast, J. Nelson, “Performance of the W. M. Keck Telescope active mirror control system,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 105–116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mast, T. S.

J. E. Nelson, T. S. Mast, S. M. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and Telescope,” Keck Observatory Rep. No. 90 (W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, Hawaii, 1985).

McKenney, A.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

Michaels, S.

Monnet, G. J.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morbey, C. L.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nance, C. E.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

G. A. Chanan, M. Troy, F. G. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, D. Kirkman, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescopes: the broadband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Mast, J. Nelson, “Segmented mirror control system hardware for CELT,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 226–240 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson, “CELT segment positioning actuators—requirements,” CELT Tech. Note No. 5 (University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, Calif.2001).

R. Cohen, T. Mast, J. Nelson, “Performance of the W. M. Keck Telescope active mirror control system,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 105–116 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. E.

J. E. Nelson, T. S. Mast, S. M. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and Telescope,” Keck Observatory Rep. No. 90 (W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, Hawaii, 1985).

J. E. Nelson, “Progress on the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 47–59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Noethe, L.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, C.

Oke, J. B.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ostrouchov, S.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

Owner-Petersen, M.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pazder, J. S.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piche, F.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Press, W.

W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1989), pp. 484–487.

Quattri, M.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, L. W.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ricklets, R. L.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riewaldt, H.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rigaut, R.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayede, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S. C.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez Espinoza, J. M.

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodriguez Espinoza, F. R. Kabana, “GTC project: present and future,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, Proc. SPIE4004, 26–35 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sarazin, M. S.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sayede, F.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayede, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sirko, E.

M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, E. Leffert, “Residual misalignments of the Keck telescope primary mirror segments: classification of modes and implications for adaptive optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 307–317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Snel, R.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, D.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

Spiesman, W. J.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spyromilio, J.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stepp, L. M.

S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, B. Gregory, “Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strom, S. E.

S. E. Strom, L. M. Stepp, B. Gregory, “Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope: a point design based on science drivers,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 116–128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Szeto, K.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S.

W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1989), pp. 484–487.

Troy, M.

G. A. Chanan, C. Ohara, M. Troy, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck Telescopes: the narrowband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4706–4714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Chanan, M. Troy, F. G. Dekens, S. Michaels, J. Nelson, T. Mast, D. Kirkman, “Phasing the mirror segments of the Keck telescopes: the broadband phasing algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, E. Leffert, “Residual misalignments of the Keck telescope primary mirror segments: classification of modes and implications for adaptive optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 307–317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Veran, J.-P.

S. C. Roberts, C. L. Morbey, D. R. Crabtree, R. Carlberg, D. Crampton, T. J. Davidge, J. T. Fitzsimmons, M. H. Gedig, D. J. Halliday, J. E. Hesse, R. G. Herriot, J. B. Oke, J. S. Pazder, K. Szeto, J.-P. Veran, “Canadian very large optical telescope technology studies,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 104–115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W.

W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1989), pp. 484–487.

Walker, D.

T. Anderson, A. L. Ardeberg, J. Beckers, A. Goncharov, M. Owner-Petersen, H. Riewaldt, R. Snel, D. Walker, “The Euro-50 extremely large telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 214–225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Worthington, P. T.

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yaitskova, N.

P. Dierickx, J. L. Beckers, E. Brunetto, R. Conan, E. Fedrigo, R. Gilmozzi, N. N. Hubin, F. Koch, M. Lelouarn, E. Marchetti, G. J. Monnet, L. Noethe, M. Quattri, M. S. Sarazin, J. Spyromilio, N. Yaitskova, “The eye of the beholder: designing the OWL,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 151–170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zamkotsian, F.

D. Burgarella, K. Dohlen, M. Ferrari, F. Zamkotsian, F. Hammer, F. Sayede, R. Rigaut, “Large petal telescope for the next-generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 93–103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Other (20)

M. Troy, G. Chanan, E. Sirko, E. Leffert, “Residual misalignments of the Keck telescope primary mirror segments: classification of modes and implications for adaptive optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical/IR Telescopes VI, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE3352, 307–317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Nelson, T. S. Mast, S. M. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and Telescope,” Keck Observatory Rep. No. 90 (W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, Hawaii, 1985).

J. Nelson, ed., “The California Extremely Large Telescope,” CELT Rep. No. 34 (University of California and California Institute of Technology, Santa Cruz, Calif., 2002).

T. Mast, J. Nelson, “Segmented mirror control system hardware for CELT,” in Optical Design, Materials, Fabrication, and Maintenance, P. Dierickx, ed., Proc. SPIE4003, 226–240 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson, “CELT segment positioning actuators—requirements,” CELT Tech. Note No. 5 (University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, Calif.2001).

T. G. Barnes, M. T. Adams, J. A. Booth, M. E. Cornell, N. I. Gaffney, J. R. Fowler, G. J. Hill, G. M. Hill, C. E. Nance, F. Piche, L. W. Ramsey, R. L. Ricklets, W. J. Spiesman, P. T. Worthington, “Commissioning experience with the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, T. A. Sebring, T. Andersen, eds., Proc. SPIE4004, 14–25 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Alvarez, J. M. Rodriguez Espinoza, F. R. Kabana, “GTC project: present and future,” in Telescope Structures, Enclosures, Controls, Assembly/Integration/Validation, and Commissioning, Proc. SPIE4004, 26–35 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Chanan, “Design of the Keck Observatory alignment camera,” in Precision Instrument Design, T. C. Bristow, A. E. Hathaway, eds., Proc. SPIE1036, 59–70 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1989), pp. 484–487.

E. Anderson, Z. Bai, C. Bischof, J. Demmel, J. Dongarra, J. D. Croz, A. Greenbaum, S. Hammarling, A. McKenney, S. Ostrouchov, D. Sorensen, LAPACK User’s Guide, 2nd ed. (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 1995).

D. G. MacMartin, G. A. Chanan, “Control of the California Extremely Large Telescope primary mirror,” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 69–80 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. G. MacMartin, G. Chanan, “Measurement accuracy in control of segmented-mirror telescopes,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

J. E. Nelson, “Progress on the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT),” in Future Giant Telescopes, J. R. P. Angel, R. Gilmozzi, eds., Proc. SPIE4840, 47–59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Segment geometry of (a) an 11-ring telescope and (b) CELT. The 36-segment Keck geometry corresponds to the central three rings of (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of the three actuator positions and 12 sensing points on a segment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry of the vertical (CELT) sensors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two lowest-spatial-frequency (highest error multiplier) modes for CELT, assuming vertical sensors with η = 0.05: (a) mode 1, (b) mode 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 but for the two highest-spatial-frequency (lowest error multiplier) modes: (a) mode 3236, (b) mode 3237.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Individual error multipliers for primary mirror active control systems of telescopes with 3, 7, and 11 rings and for CELT. All cases correspond to vertical sensors with η = 0.05. The straight lines (plotted only for the three-ring telescope and for CELT) show that the error multipliers for the n s /3 lowest modes can be approximated by the function 0.5ns/i, where n s is the number of segments and i is the mode number.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6 but for residual error multipliers, defined to include the multipliers for the indicated mode and for all higher-order modes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two lowest-spatial-frequency (highest error multiplier) phasing modes for CELT: (a) mode 1, (b) mode 2. Note the large tilt components.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 8, but for the two highest-spatial-frequency (lowest error multiplier) modes: (a) mode 1078, (b) mode 1079.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Error multipliers for phasing modes of CELT: upper curve, residual multipliers (defined as in Fig. 7); lower curve, individual mode multipliers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Rms Raya Tilt (One Dimension) per Nanometer of Sensor Noise for Various Telescopesb

Equations (32)

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Δs=rΔzh,
Δs1,1=Δz13 h+f cos 30°-g sin 30°/h,Δs2,1=Δz13 h+a-fcos 30°+g sin 30°/h,Δs3,1=Δz13 h+a cos 30°-g/h,Δs4,1=Δz13 h+a cos 30°+g/h,Δs5,1=Δz13 h+a-fcos 30°-g sin 30°/h,Δs6,1=Δz13 h+f cos 30°+g sin 30°/h.
Δs1,1+Δs5,1+Δs9,1=Δz,Δs2,1+Δs6,1+Δs10,1=Δz,Δs3,1+Δs7,1+Δs11,1=Δz,Δs4,1+Δs8,1+Δs12,1=Δz.
ΔC1-ΔC2C=±2Δsd,
G=12dC.
Aj,1=±Δsj,1/Δz,
ΔC1-ΔC2C=ΔA1-ΔA2A-Δd1-Δd2d.
ΔC1-ΔC2C=-4rΔzlh-lΔz2hd,
A1,1=-13 h+f cos 30°/h-η sin 30°,A1,2=13 h+a-fcos 30°/h-η sin 30°,A1,3=-13 h+a cos 30°/h-η,A1,4=13 h+a cos 30°/h-η,A1,5=-13 h+a-fcos 30°/h-η sin 30°,A1,6=13 h+f cos 30°/h-η sin 30°,
η=l28hδ
Δsi=j AijΔzj,
Δzj=i BjiΔsi.
A=UWVT,
B=VW-1UT,
i Vij2=1
δa=αδs,
δa2=k δak2=k αk2δs2.
rk2=jk αj2.
αj2=iVijwj2.
pj=z1j+z2j+z3j/3
z1p=z3p=z3p,
z1z2=z2z3=z3z1.
βx2=βy2=94h2z2-p2.
z˜2=βx2x2+βy2y2+p2,
x2=y2=524 a2,
z˜2=κz2+1-κp2,
κ=1516a2h2.
p2=19nsijk VikVjkwk2,
tx2=1nsh2ijk cixcjxVikVjkwk2,
c1x=0, c2x=3, c3x=-3
c1y=-2, c2y=1, c3y=1.
qj=pi+j-pi-j,

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