Abstract

We report on the feasibility of deriving microphysical parameters of bimodal particle size distributions from Mie-Raman lidar based on a triple Nd:YAG laser. Such an instrument provides backscatter coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm. The inversion method employed is Tikhonov’s inversion with regularization. Special attention has been paid to extend the particle size range for which this inversion scheme works to ∼10 μm, which makes this algorithm applicable to large particles, e.g., investigations concerning the hygroscopic growth of aerosols. Simulations showed that surface area, volume concentration, and effective radius are derived to an accuracy of ∼50% for a variety of bimodal particle size distributions. For particle size distributions with an effective radius of <1 μm the real part of the complex refractive index was retrieved to an accuracy of ±0.05, the imaginary part was retrieved to 50% uncertainty. Simulations dealing with a mode-dependent complex refractive index showed that an average complex refractive index is derived that lies between the values for the two individual modes. Thus it becomes possible to investigate external mixtures of particle size distributions, which, for example, might be present along continental rims along which anthropogenic pollution mixes with marine aerosols. Measurement cases obtained from the Institute for Tropospheric Research six-wavelength aerosol lidar observations during the Indian Ocean Experiment were used to test the capabilities of the algorithm for experimental data sets. A benchmark test was attempted for the case representing anthropogenic aerosols between a broken cloud deck. A strong contribution of particle volume in the coarse mode of the particle size distribution was found.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” Geophys J. Res. 108(D19), 4600, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003538 , 2003.

Special issue on Characterization of Asian Aerosols and Their Radiative Impacts on Climate, Part 1, J. Geophys. Res. 108, No. 23 (2003).

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, A. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. Shekar Reddy, F. Wagner, R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4059, doi 10.1029/2002JD002473(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Special issue on Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment, J. Geophys. Res. 107, D21 (2002).

Special issueon Indian Ocean Experiment , J. Geophys. Res. 107, D19 (2002).

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001109(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman lidar observations: case study,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, “Hybrid regularization method for ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2, Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. B. Russell, J. Heintzenberg, “An overview of the ACE∼2 clear sky column closure experiment (CLEARCOLUMN),” Tellus Ser. B 52, 463–483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Special issue on Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment, J. Geophys. Res. 105, D8 (2000).

Special issue on Aerosol Characterization Experiment 2, Tellus Ser. B 52, No. 2 (2000).

1999

Special issue on Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment, J. Geophys. Res. 104, D2 (1999).

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, “Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and number density measurements using a Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D24), 31411–31419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1992

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Horvath, R. L. Gunter, S. W. Wilkison, “Determination of the coarse mode of the atmospheric aerosol using data from a forward-scattering spectrometer probe,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 12, 964–980 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1985

1981

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alpers, M.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Althausen, A.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, A. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. Shekar Reddy, F. Wagner, R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4059, doi 10.1029/2002JD002473(2003).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” Geophys J. Res. 108(D19), 4600, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003538 , 2003.

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001109(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2, Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman lidar observations: case study,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Althausen, D. J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” Geophys J. Res. 108(D19), 4600, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003538 , 2003.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, A. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. Shekar Reddy, F. Wagner, R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4059, doi 10.1029/2002JD002473(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001109(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2, Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Aoki, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Balis, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Böckmann, C.

C. Böckmann, “Hybrid regularization method for ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Bösenberg, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Boucher, O.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419, 215–223 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browell, E. V.

Calpini, B.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Cantrell, W.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A. I.

Cass, G. R.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Chung, C. E.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, A. D.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clauder, E.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, J. A.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Collins, W. D.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Conant, W. C.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Donovan, D. P.

Dubovik, O.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dulac, F.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eixmann, R.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Ferrare, R. A.

Fiebig, M.

Flamant, P.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Franke, A.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Franke, K.

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” Geophys J. Res. 108(D19), 4600, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003538 , 2003.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, A. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. Shekar Reddy, F. Wagner, R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4059, doi 10.1029/2002JD002473(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2, Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthaler, V.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Giehl, H.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Griaznov, V.

Gunter, R. L.

H. Horvath, R. L. Gunter, S. W. Wilkison, “Determination of the coarse mode of the atmospheric aerosol using data from a forward-scattering spectrometer probe,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 12, 964–980 (1990).
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Hågård, A.

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D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
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I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001109(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2, Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman lidar observations: case study,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4863–4869 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Müller, H.

Murayama, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakane, H.

Novakov, T.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ogren, J. A.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Papayannis, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Podgorny, I. A.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prather, K.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Priestley, K.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prospero, J. M.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qing, P.

Quenzel, H.

Quinn, P. K.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, K.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, V.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rasch, P.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Resendes, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rupert, S.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. Heintzenberg, “An overview of the ACE∼2 clear sky column closure experiment (CLEARCOLUMN),” Tellus Ser. B 52, 463–483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sadourny, R.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sarközi, J.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Sasano, Y.

Satheesh, S. K.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scheele, R.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, A. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. Shekar Reddy, F. Wagner, R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4059, doi 10.1029/2002JD002473(2003).
[CrossRef]

Schneidenbach, L.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Schneider, J.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Schult, I.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. E.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shekar Reddy, M.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, A. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. Shekar Reddy, F. Wagner, R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4059, doi 10.1029/2002JD002473(2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, P.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shon, B.-J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
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Smirnov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Sugimoto, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Tanré, D.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, O. Boucher, “A satellite view of aerosols in the climate system,” Nature 419, 215–223 (2002).
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O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thomalla, E.

Trickl, T.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Uno, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Valero, F. P. J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. J. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P. J. Valero, “The Indian Ocean Experiment: an integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28371–28398 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

Venkataraman, C.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, A. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. Shekar Reddy, F. Wagner, R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4059, doi 10.1029/2002JD002473(2003).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I.

Visconti, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

von Hoyningen-Huene, W.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001109(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vorobieva, E.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, F.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, A. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. Shekar Reddy, F. Wagner, R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4059, doi 10.1029/2002JD002473(2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” Geophys J. Res. 108(D19), 4600, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003538 , 2003.

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001109(2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2, Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
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A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001109(2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
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D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, M. Fiebig, “Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength Raman lidar observations: case study,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4863–4869 (2001).
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D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
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D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
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D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
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A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
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J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
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A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
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Whiteman, D. N.

Wiegner, M.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

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H. Horvath, R. L. Gunter, S. W. Wilkison, “Determination of the coarse mode of the atmospheric aerosol using data from a forward-scattering spectrometer probe,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 12, 964–980 (1990).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Zhou, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Zörner, S.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
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H. Horvath, R. L. Gunter, S. W. Wilkison, “Determination of the coarse mode of the atmospheric aerosol using data from a forward-scattering spectrometer probe,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 12, 964–980 (1990).
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D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
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D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: simulation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2358–2368 (1999).
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D. Müller, F. Wagner, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, M. Wendisch, D. Althausen, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1879–1892 (2000).
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I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
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Appl. Phys. B

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
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M. Hess, P. Koepke, I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
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Geophys J. Res.

D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “Indo-Asian pollution during INDOEX: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” Geophys J. Res. 108(D19), 4600, doi: 10.1029/2003JD003538 , 2003.

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
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J. Atmos. Sci.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanré, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B.-J. Shon, J.-G. Won, S.-C. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observations of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
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K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, A. Althausen, C. Venkataraman, M. Shekar Reddy, F. Wagner, R. Scheele, “Optical properties of the Indo-Asian haze layer over the tropical Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(D2), 4059, doi 10.1029/2002JD002473(2003).
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D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar, 2, Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28595 (2001).
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A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
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A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Müller, D. Althausen, A. Herber, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE∼2: Optical particle properties inferred from multiwavelength lidar and star/Sun photometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4259, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001109(2002).
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D. Müller, A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Microphysical particle properties and single-scattering albedo inferred from multiwavelength lidar observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D15), 4248, doi 10.1029/2001JD001110(2002).
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J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nouger, P. J. van der Linden, D. Xiaosu, eds., Third Assessment Report of Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 163–167.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German Aerosol Lidar Network: methodology, data, analysis,” MPI Report 317 (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of (a) aerosol extinction and (b) backscatter coefficients on particle size for wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm and refractive indices m = 1.35 - i0 (solid line) and m = 1.35 - i0.02 (dots). Coefficients α and β were obtained by integrating the Mie efficiencies over single-mode log-normal size distribution of width lnσ = 0.1. The results are normalized to the particle total volume V t . The inset in (b) shows the behavior of β(λ) for m = 1.35 - i.02 in the radius range from 1 to 10 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of particle backscatter (solid) and particle extinction (dot) coefficients at λ = 1064 nm on particle radius for m = 1.35 - i0, m = 1.45 - i0, and m = 1.5 - i0. The results are normalized to the total volume V t of the particles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of particle backscatter and particle extinction coefficients at 355-, 532-, 1064-nm wavelengths on the real part of the refractive index for type II aerosol. The imaginary part of refractive index m I = 0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieval of volume size distribution for (a) type I and (b) type II aerosols. Simulations were performed for 3β + 2α (dash, dot) and 6β + 2α (dash-dot) data sets using volume kernel functions. Refractive indices m = 1.45 - i0.015 (dash, dash-dot) and m = 1.65 - i0.015 (dot) were assumed unknown. Optical data were free of errors. Solid line represents the initial bimodal particle size distribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Volume size distribution for known (dot) and unknown (dash, dash-dot) refractive index m = 1.45 - i0.015. Simulations were performed for 3β + 2α (dash) and 6β + 2α (dot, dash-dot) data sets using volume kernel functions. Optical data were free of errors. The solid line represents the initial bimodal particle size distribution. Results obtained with known m for the 3β + 2α data set are close to the results obtained with the 6β + 2α data set.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Errors of estimation of number (N t ), surface (S t ), volume (V t ) concentration, particle effective radius r eff, and averaged discrepancy ρave as a function of averaging interval ρmax. For the inversion of the 3β + 2α data set the (a) volume and (b) surface area kernel functions were used. The error of the optical data is 10%. The dashed line represents the chosen interval of averaging.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Real (squares) and imaginary (circles) parts of the complex refractive index calculated with volume (filled symbols) and surface area (open symbols) kernels as a function of averaging interval ρmax. The data set is the same as in Fig. 6. The initial refractive index is m = 1.45 - i0.01. The dashed line represents the chosen interval of averaging.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of averaging of solutions on the basis of five base functions. Shown is the solution corresponding to the minimum discrepancy (dash-dot), the averaged solution (dashes), and the initial bimodal distribution (solid curve). The data set is the same as in Fig. 6. The dotted curves indicate the mean-square deviation of the individual solutions used for the calculation of the average value.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Volume concentration distribution retrieved with number (NK), surface area (SK), volume (VK), fourth- (K-4) and fifth- (K-5) order kernel functions. The solid curve represents the initial bimodal distribution. The error of the data set is 20%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Size distribution retrieved with different numbers of base functions: 5 (dash-dot), 8 (dash), and 12 (dot). Solid curve represents the initial size distribution. Volume kernels were used. The data set consisted of 3β + 2α with a 10% error. The complex refractive index was assumed unknown during inversion.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Uncertainty of size distributions for ten runs of (a) type I and (b) type II aerosol retrieval. The 3β + 2α optical data were inverted with volume kernels and had a 10% error.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Same as Fig. 11 but for a monomodal particle size distribution.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Volume size distributions for the refractive indices of m = 1.35 - i0 (dot, dash, dash-dot-dot) and m = 1.35 - i0.02 (dash-dot, short dash), and the use of volume kernels. Simulations were done for the case of error-free data (dash-dot, dash), and data errors of 10% (short dash, dot, dash-dot-dot) for a 3β + 2α data set. The solid curve represents the initial bimodal particle size distribution. The dash-dot-dot curve represents the result for a data error of 10% and a known refractive index of m = 1.35 - i0.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Retrieval of size distribution with different refractive indices in the fine (m f ) and the coarse (m c ) modes. For inversion of the 3β + 2α data set volume kernel functions were used. Optical data were error free. The solid curve represents the initial size distribution.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Retrieval of the size distribution for m f = 1.55 - i0.01 and m c = 1.35 - i0. The optical data errors were 10%. Dotted curves represent the scattering of solutions obtained in ten program runs. For inversion of the 3β + 2α data set volume kernel functions were used. The solid curve represents the initial size distribution.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Volume size distribution at (a) 600–1000-m and (b) 1325–1650-m layers retrieved from 6β + 2α (solid, dash-dot) and 3β + 2α (dash, dot) data sets by use of volume density kernels. The results were obtained for high (solid, dash) and low (dash-dot, dot) values of β1064.

Tables (6)

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Table 1 Typical Parameters of Bimodal Distribution of Different Types of Aerosola

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Table 2 Errors of Estimation of Aerosol Total Number (Nt), Surface (S t ), Volume (V t ) Concentration, and Effective Radius (r eff) a

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Table 3 Uncertainties of Parameter Estimations from 3β + 2α Data Sets for Type I and Type II Aerosolsa

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Table 4 Optical Data for Two Measurement Cases Taken from INDOEX

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Table 5 Particle Parameters for a 600–1000-m Layer Retrieved from 6β + 2α and 3β + 2α Data Sets by Use of Volume Kernelsa

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Table 6 Particle Parameters for a 1325–1650-m Layer Retrieved from 6β + 2α and 3β + 2α Data Sets by Use of Volume Kernelsa

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

gi=0 Kim, r, λdnrdrdr, i=1,,Nopt.
Ki4=Kir4, Ki5=Kir5Kik=Kirk.
frj CjBjrdr,
giδ=j=1Nbf AijCj,
Aij=rminrmax Kim, λ, rBjrdr,
C¯=ATA+γH-1ATgδ.
dnrd lnr=i=f,cNti2π1/2ln σiexp-ln r-ln rin22ln σi2.
riv=rinexp3ln σ2,
Vti=Nti43 πrin3 exp92ln σ2.
ρave1Noptigi-giavegi.

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