Abstract

High-order harmonic generation in gases by use of femtosecond lasers is a source of ultrashort pulses in the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV). For many applications it is necessary to select radiation of only one specific harmonic order without affecting the duration of the ultrashort pulse. A three-grating monochromator that meets this demand has been designed and modeled by ray tracing as well as by wave-optical simulations. The only remaining temporal stretching of an XUV pulse is due to distortion of the pulse front on the gratings and is predicted to be ∼1 fs. The design has been successfully tested in the near infrared. Finally, the monochromator is also capable of eliminating any existing linear chirp in the harmonic pulses, thus compressing them to shorter durations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  29. Z. Bor, B. Racz, “Group velocity dispersion in prisms and its application to pulse compression and travelling wave excitation,” Opt. Commun. 54, 165–170 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  30. O. E. Martinez, “Pulse distortions in tilted pulse schemes for ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Commun. 59, 229–232 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  31. O. E. Martinez, “Grating and prism compressors in the case of finite beam size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 929–934 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Pretzler, A. Kasper, K. J. Witte, “Angular chirp and tilted light pulses in CPA lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 1–9 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. Hebling, “Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759–1763 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  34. Z. L. Horváth, K. Osvay, Z. Bor, “Dispersed femtosecond pulses in the vicinity of the focus,” Opt. Commun. 111, 478–482 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Z. Bor, Z. L. Horvath, “Distortions of femtosecond pulses in lenses: wave optical description,” Opt. Commun. 94, 249–258 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, “Impact of chromatic and spherical aberration on the focusing of ultrashort light pulses by lenses,” Opt. Lett. 18, 137–139 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  43. P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, A. L’Huillier, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Towards the tailoring of high-order harmonic emission,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).
  45. K. Eidmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, G. D. Tsakiris, “Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259–273 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2002

E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, N. A. Papadogiannis, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Witte, “A dispersionless Michelson interferometer for the characterization of attosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 197–206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br-2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Descamps, L. Roos, C. Delfin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “Two- and three-photon ionization of rare gases using femtosecond harmonic pulses generated in a gas medium,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, C. Dorrer, “The role of dispersion in ultrafast optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Pretzler, A. Kasper, K. J. Witte, “Angular chirp and tilted light pulses in CPA lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 1–9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

G. O. Mattei, M. A. Gil, “Spherical aberration in spatial and temporal transforming lenses of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1058–1064 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, “Compensation of optical path lengths in extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray monochromators,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6040–6049 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, S. Watanabe, “Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564–2567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4041–4044 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cacciani, W. Ubachs, P. C. Hinnen, C. Lyngå, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “Lifetime measurements of the E1Π, ν = 0 and ν = 1 states of 12C16O, 13C16O, and 13C18O,” Astrophys. J. 499, L223–L226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Itiani, Y. Nabekawa, K. Kondo, S. Watanabe, “Generation of 13TW, 26fs pulses in a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 134, 134–138 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Gonzalez Inchauspe, O. E. Martinez, “Aberration compensation of a curved diffraction grating stretcher for femtosecond chirped-pulse amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2696–2700 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Hebling, “Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759–1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Lyngå, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “High order harmonic generation in molecular gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 3293–3302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheriaux, P. Rousseau, F. Salin, J. P. Chambaret, B. Walker, L. F. Dimauro, “Aberration-free stretcher design for ultrashort-pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 21, 414–416 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, M. Lewenstein, “Coherence control of high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776–3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L47–L52 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping and processing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161–237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Lazaridis, G. Debarge, P. Gallion, “Time-bandwidth product of chirped sech2 pulses: application to phase-amplitude-coupling factor measurement,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1160–1162 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

Z. L. Horváth, K. Osvay, Z. Bor, “Dispersed femtosecond pulses in the vicinity of the focus,” Opt. Commun. 111, 478–482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, “Impact of chromatic and spherical aberration on the focusing of ultrashort light pulses by lenses,” Opt. Lett. 18, 137–139 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Haight, D. R. Peale, “Antibonding state on the Ge(111):As surface: spectroscopy and dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979–3982 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

Z. Bor, Z. L. Horvath, “Distortions of femtosecond pulses in lenses: wave optical description,” Opt. Commun. 94, 249–258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. Eidmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, G. D. Tsakiris, “Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259–273 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

1987

O. E. Martinez, “3000 times grating compressor with positive group velocity dispersion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 59–64 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

O. E. Martinez, “Pulse distortions in tilted pulse schemes for ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Commun. 59, 229–232 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. E. Martinez, “Grating and prism compressors in the case of finite beam size,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 929–934 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

Z. Bor, B. Racz, “Group velocity dispersion in prisms and its application to pulse compression and travelling wave excitation,” Opt. Commun. 54, 165–170 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454–458 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellini, M.

Biegert, J.

R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, A. L’Huillier, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Towards the tailoring of high-order harmonic emission,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

Bierbaum, V.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bierbaum, V. M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br-2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bor, Z.

Z. L. Horváth, K. Osvay, Z. Bor, “Dispersed femtosecond pulses in the vicinity of the focus,” Opt. Commun. 111, 478–482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bor, Z. L. Horvath, “Distortions of femtosecond pulses in lenses: wave optical description,” Opt. Commun. 94, 249–258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bor, “Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses,” Opt. Lett. 14, 119–121 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Bor, B. Racz, “Group velocity dispersion in prisms and its application to pulse compression and travelling wave excitation,” Opt. Commun. 54, 165–170 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brorson, S. D.

Bruzzese, R.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N. H.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cacciani, P.

P. Cacciani, W. Ubachs, P. C. Hinnen, C. Lyngå, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “Lifetime measurements of the E1Π, ν = 0 and ν = 1 states of 12C16O, 13C16O, and 13C18O,” Astrophys. J. 499, L223–L226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ceccherini, P.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambaret, J. P.

Chang, Z.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Charalambidis, D.

E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, N. A. Papadogiannis, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Witte, “A dispersionless Michelson interferometer for the characterization of attosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 197–206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheriaux, G.

de Lisio, C.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debarge, G.

Delfin, C.

D. Descamps, L. Roos, C. Delfin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “Two- and three-photon ionization of rare gases using femtosecond harmonic pulses generated in a gas medium,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Descamps, D.

D. Descamps, L. Roos, C. Delfin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “Two- and three-photon ionization of rare gases using femtosecond harmonic pulses generated in a gas medium,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 031404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J.-C.

J.-C. Diels, W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (Elsevier, London, 1996), Chap. 2.6.

Dimauro, L. F.

Dorrer, C.

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M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
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R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, A. L’Huillier, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Towards the tailoring of high-order harmonic emission,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

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Gil, M. A.

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L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br-2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
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P. Cacciani, W. Ubachs, P. C. Hinnen, C. Lyngå, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “Lifetime measurements of the E1Π, ν = 0 and ν = 1 states of 12C16O, 13C16O, and 13C18O,” Astrophys. J. 499, L223–L226 (1998).
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M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, A. L’Huillier, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Towards the tailoring of high-order harmonic emission,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

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M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
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R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, A. L’Huillier, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Towards the tailoring of high-order harmonic emission,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

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M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
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C. Lyngå, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “High order harmonic generation in molecular gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 3293–3302 (1996).
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[CrossRef]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br-2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
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D. Descamps, C. Lyngå, J. Norin, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, J.-F. Hergott, H. Merdji, P. Salières, M. Bellini, T. W. Hänsch, “Extreme ultraviolet interferometry measurements with high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett. 25, 135–137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Cacciani, W. Ubachs, P. C. Hinnen, C. Lyngå, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “Lifetime measurements of the E1Π, ν = 0 and ν = 1 states of 12C16O, 13C16O, and 13C18O,” Astrophys. J. 499, L223–L226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Lyngå, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “High order harmonic generation in molecular gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 3293–3302 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
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Mevel, E.

J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L47–L52 (1995).
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L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br-2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
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K. Eidmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, G. D. Tsakiris, “Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259–273 (1990).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
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T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, S. Watanabe, “Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564–2567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, N. A. Papadogiannis, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Witte, “A dispersionless Michelson interferometer for the characterization of attosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 197–206 (2002).
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Nugent-Glandorf, L.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1875–1886 (2002).
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L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br-2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
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Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4041–4044 (1999).
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T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, S. Watanabe, “Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564–2567 (1999).
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Z. L. Horváth, K. Osvay, Z. Bor, “Dispersed femtosecond pulses in the vicinity of the focus,” Opt. Commun. 111, 478–482 (1994).
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E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, N. A. Papadogiannis, D. Charalambidis, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Witte, “A dispersionless Michelson interferometer for the characterization of attosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 197–206 (2002).
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A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
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Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Salin, F.

Samuels, D. A.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1875–1886 (2002).
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L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br-2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
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Scheer, M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1875–1886 (2002).
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L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br-2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193002 (2001).
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M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
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P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
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M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
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J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L47–L52 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
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Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4041–4044 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

K. Eidmann, M. Kühne, P. Müller, G. D. Tsakiris, “Characterization of pinhole transmission gratings,” J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 2, 259–273 (1990).
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P. Cacciani, W. Ubachs, P. C. Hinnen, C. Lyngå, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “Lifetime measurements of the E1Π, ν = 0 and ν = 1 states of 12C16O, 13C16O, and 13C18O,” Astrophys. J. 499, L223–L226 (1998).
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C. Lyngå, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, “High order harmonic generation in molecular gases,” J. Phys. B 29, 3293–3302 (1996).
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J. Larsson, E. Mevel, R. Zerne, A. L’Huillier, C.-G. Wahlström, S. Svanberg, “Two-colour time-resolved spectroscopy of helium using high-order harmonics,” J. Phys. B 28, L47–L52 (1995).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sekikawa, T. Ohno, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, S. Watanabe, “Pulse compression of a high-order harmonic by compensating the atomic dipole phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2564–2567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Wang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, “Generation of coherent soft x-rays at 2.7 nm using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2967–2970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnürer, Ch. Spielmann, P. Wobrauschek, C. Streli, N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, K. Ferencz, R. Koppitsch, Z. Cheng, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, “Coherent 0.5-keV x-ray emission from helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3236–3239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, P. Ceccherini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Altucci, R. Bruzzese, C. de Lisio, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Spectral features and modeling of high-order harmonics generated by sub-10-fs pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2494–2497 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, C. Dorrer, “The role of dispersion in ultrafast optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1–29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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R. A. Sawyer, Experimental Spectroscopy (Dover, New York, 1963).

R. López-Martens, J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, K. Varjú, A. L’Huillier, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, U. Keller, M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Towards the tailoring of high-order harmonic emission,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a grating-pair stretcher consisting of two plane gratings (G1 and G2) and two lenses. If grating G1 is imaged onto G2, then the resultant GDD is zero and pulse shaping including the selection of a spectral range takes place in the common Fourier plane of the lenses. If the image of G1 lies before or behind G2, then the resultant GDD is negative (b) or positive (c), respectively. For more details see Subsection 1.A.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of angular dispersion on the duration of a laser pulse. The pulse becomes chirped and tilted, and the pulse duration is temporally lengthened from τ0 to τ + τ t . For more explanations, see text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of a spherical grating in the Rowland configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-grating setup. The second grating is made to compensate for the pulse-front tilt introduced by the first grating. The pulse, however, becomes strongly chirped.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three-grating setup. The added transmission grating cancels the chirp introduced by the two spherical gratings but slightly tilts the wave front. The slit selects a central wavelength and a wavelength range.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of the ray-tracing calculations for several grating configurations. For explanations, see text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Illustration of the contributions to the temporal stretch. The GD variation over the bandwidth of the pulse along the chief ray gives the temporal stretch that is due to chirp; the GD between the two marginal rays at a given wavelength represents the pulse-front distortion. See also Fig. 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup. The negative lens L1 creates a virtual focus at the entrance position of the first grating, G1. After the three gratings, the beam is collimated by the cylindrical lens, L2. The pulse length is measured either by an autocorrelator or by a streak camera. To measure the pulse length before the gratings we inserted the autocorrelator before L1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temporal stretch for the two-grating (dashed curve) and the three-grating (solid curve) setups. The line density is 800 lines/mm for the spherical gratings and 1000 lines/mm for the transmission grating.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

GD for the chief and marginal rays as a function of wavelength for the 17th harmonic. In (b) the angle of the transmission grating (1000 lines/mm) has been adjusted to produce the minimum stretch. In (a) and (c) it was adjusted to compensate for (a) positive or (c) negative chirp of the XUV pulse.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Pulse Lengths after Passage of Near-Infrared Pulses through the Setup

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated Stretches of High Harmonics of an 800-nm Laser Pulse

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pω=L cos θ,  θ=θω,
ϕω=ωc Pω=ωc L cos θω.
τ=τ01+4 ln 2GDDτ0221/2,
tan γ=ω dθdω
τt=Dc tan γ=Dc ω dθdω,
D  Δω dθdω L.
ϕgω=ω/cPgω+φdω.
GDω=dϕgdω=Pgωc,
Ex, t= fx, t-texpiωt×exp-2 ln2t2/τ2dt,

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