Abstract

In the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology (EARLINET), 19 aerosol lidar systems from 11 European countries were compared. Aerosol extinction or backscatter coefficient profiles were measured by at least two systems for each comparison. Aerosol extinction coefficients were derived from Raman lidar measurements in the UV (351 or 355 nm), and aerosol backscatter profiles were calculated from pure elastic backscatter measurements at 351 or 355, 532, or 1064 nm. The results were compared for height ranges with high and low aerosol content. Some systems were additionally compared with sunphotometers and starphotometers. Predefined maximum deviations were used for quality control of the results. Lidar systems with results outside those limits could not meet the quality assurance criterion. The algorithms for deriving aerosol backscatter profiles from elastic lidar measurements were tested separately, and the results are described in Part 2 of this series of papers [Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004)]. In the end, all systems were quality assured, although some had to be modified to improve their performance. Typical deviations between aerosol backscatter profiles were 10% in the planetary boundary layer and 0.1 × 10-6 m-1 sr-1 in the free troposphere.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Errata

Volker Matthias, Volker Freudenthaler, Aldo Amodeo, Ioan Balin, Dimitris Balis, Jens Bösenberg, Anatoly Chaikovsky, Georgius Chourdakis, Adolfo Comeron, Arnaud Delaval, Ferdinando De Tomasi, Ronald Eixmann, Arne Hågård, Leonce Komguem, Stephan Kreipl, Renaud Matthey, Vincenzo Rizi, José António Rodrigues, Ulla Wandinger, and Xuan Wang, "Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the framework of the EARLINET project. 1. Instruments: erratum," Appl. Opt. 43, 2578-2579 (2004)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-43-12-2578

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.
  2. G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1996).
  3. A. Apituley, “Comparison of the RIVM tropospheric ozone lidar to in situ measuring instruments using data acquired during TROLIX,” Rep. 722701001 (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheit en Millieu, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 1995).
  4. J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).
  5. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, D. T. Walsh, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and intercomparisons and validation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4914–4923 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Ferrare, D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. O’C. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Sherlock, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, “Implementation and validation of a Raman lidar measurement of middle and upper tropospheric water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5838–5850 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).
  10. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4671–4676 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Linné, D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, T. P. Tooman, J. Bösenberg, K. Ertel, S. Lehmann, “Intercomparison of DIAL and Raman lidar measurements of humidity profiles,” in A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 293–298.
  12. S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, “Comparison of columnar aerosol optical properties measured by the MODIS airborne simulator with in situ measurements: a case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 592–593 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg aerosol characterization experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.
  20. J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1638–1643 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. Edlen, “The dispersion of standard air,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 339 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Elterman, “UV, visible, and IR attenuation for altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” Environmental Research Paper 285, AFCRL-68-0153 (U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Cambridge, Mass., 1968).
  26. B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Error caused by using a constant extinction/backscattering ratio in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3929–3932 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. V. A. Kovalev, H. Moosmüller, “Distortion of particulate extinction profiles measured with lidar in a two-component atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6499–6507 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Matsumoto, N. Takeuchi, “Effects of misestimated far-end boundary values on two common lidar inversion solutions,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6451–6456 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. Bösenberg, R. Timm, V. Wulfmeyer, “Study on retrieval algorithms for a backscatter lidar,” Final Rep. 226 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1997).
  31. A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).
  33. D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  34. B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004

2002

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg aerosol characterization experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sherlock, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, “Implementation and validation of a Raman lidar measurement of middle and upper tropospheric water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5838–5850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, “Comparison of columnar aerosol optical properties measured by the MODIS airborne simulator with in situ measurements: a case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 592–593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1996).

1995

R. A. Ferrare, D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. O’C. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

1990

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, D. T. Walsh, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and intercomparisons and validation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4914–4923 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4671–4676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

1984

1981

1972

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1953

Alpers, M.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Althausen, D.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Amiridis, V.

Amodeo, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Ancellet, G.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Ansmann, A.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg aerosol characterization experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Apituley, A.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

A. Apituley, “Comparison of the RIVM tropospheric ozone lidar to in situ measuring instruments using data acquired during TROLIX,” Rep. 722701001 (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheit en Millieu, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 1995).

Bakan, S.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Balis, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Barnes, R. A.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bergwerff, H.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Böckmann, C.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Bodhaine, B. A.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boselli, A.

Bösenberg, J.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1996).

H. Linné, D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, T. P. Tooman, J. Bösenberg, K. Ertel, S. Lehmann, “Intercomparison of DIAL and Raman lidar measurements of humidity profiles,” in A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 293–298.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, R. Timm, V. Wulfmeyer, “Study on retrieval algorithms for a backscatter lidar,” Final Rep. 226 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1997).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Browell, E. V.

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burris, J.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4671–4676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4671–4676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Calpini, B.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Chu, W. P.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Clauder, E.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, C. N.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

De Tomasi, F.

Delaval, A.

DeTomasi, F.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Dier, H.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1996).

Dutton, E. G.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edlen, B.

Edner, H.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Eixmann, R.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, “UV, visible, and IR attenuation for altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” Environmental Research Paper 285, AFCRL-68-0153 (U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Cambridge, Mass., 1968).

Engelbart, D.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

Ertel, K.

H. Linné, D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, T. P. Tooman, J. Bösenberg, K. Ertel, S. Lehmann, “Intercomparison of DIAL and Raman lidar measurements of humidity profiles,” in A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 293–298.

Evans, K. D.

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. O’C. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R.

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4671–4676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. O’C. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fiebig, M.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, J.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Fischer, J.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

Flamant, P.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Franke, A.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Freudenthaler, V.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Frioud, M.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Galle, B.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Garnier, A.

Gassó, S.

S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, “Comparison of columnar aerosol optical properties measured by the MODIS airborne simulator with in situ measurements: a case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 592–593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gendt, G.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

Giehl, H.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Godin, S. M.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, D. T. Walsh, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and intercomparisons and validation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4914–4923 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4671–4676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

H. Linné, D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, T. P. Tooman, J. Bösenberg, K. Ertel, S. Lehmann, “Intercomparison of DIAL and Raman lidar measurements of humidity profiles,” in A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 293–298.

Görsdorf, U.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1996).

Grabbe, G. C.

G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1996).

Güldner, J.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

Hagard, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Hågård, A.

Hauchecorne, A.

Hegg, D. A.

S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, “Comparison of columnar aerosol optical properties measured by the MODIS airborne simulator with in situ measurements: a case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 592–593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herber, A.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hube, H.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iarlori, M.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Ismail, S.

Jäger, H.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, F.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keckhut, P.

Klett, J. D.

Komguem, L.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Kovalev, V. A.

Kreipl, S.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Larchevêque, G.

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, S.

H. Linné, D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, T. P. Tooman, J. Bösenberg, K. Ertel, S. Lehmann, “Intercomparison of DIAL and Raman lidar measurements of humidity profiles,” in A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 293–298.

Lehmann, V.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

Leifer, R.

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leiterer, U.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg aerosol characterization experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

Lindqvist, L. O.

Linné, H.

H. Linné, D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, T. P. Tooman, J. Bösenberg, K. Ertel, S. Lehmann, “Intercomparison of DIAL and Raman lidar measurements of humidity profiles,” in A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 293–298.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Matsumoto, M.

Matthias, V.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1996).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Mattis, I.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

McCormick, M. P.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, I. S.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4671–4676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, D. T. Walsh, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and intercomparisons and validation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4914–4923 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGee, T. J.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4671–4676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, S. H.

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. O’C. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Melquist, J.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Michaelis, W.

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Moosmüller, H.

Müller, D.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neisser, J.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

Newman, P.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O’C. Starr, D.

R. A. Ferrare, D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. O’C. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pandolfi, M.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Papayannis, A.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Pappalardo, G.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Parsons, C. L.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Peters, G.

G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1996).

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Resendes, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Riebesell, M.

Rocadenbosch, F.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Sarközi, J.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Sasano, Y.

Schaberl, T.

G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1996).

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Schmidlin, F. J.

R. A. Ferrare, D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. O’C. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schneidenbach, L.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Schneider, J.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Senff, C.

G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1996).

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, V.

Sherlock, V.

Slusser, J. R.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirniov, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sonnemann, G.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Spaakman, J.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Spinelli, N.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Steinhagen, H.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

Stohl, A.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Swart, D. J. P.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Takeuchi, N.

Tanré, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Timm, R.

J. Bösenberg, R. Timm, V. Wulfmeyer, “Study on retrieval algorithms for a backscatter lidar,” Final Rep. 226 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1997).

Tooman, T. P.

H. Linné, D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, T. P. Tooman, J. Bösenberg, K. Ertel, S. Lehmann, “Intercomparison of DIAL and Raman lidar measurements of humidity profiles,” in A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 293–298.

Torres, A.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Turner, D. D.

H. Linné, D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, T. P. Tooman, J. Bösenberg, K. Ertel, S. Lehmann, “Intercomparison of DIAL and Raman lidar measurements of humidity profiles,” in A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 293–298.

Vaughan, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Visconti, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

von Cossart, G.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Vorobieva, E.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Wagner, F.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wallinder, E.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Walsh, D. T.

Walsh, T. D.

Wandinger, U.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg aerosol characterization experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Wang, P.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Weiss, V.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Wendisch, M.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D. N.

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. O’C. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whitemann, D.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4671–4676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wiedensohler, A.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg aerosol characterization experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wiegner, M.

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Wood, N. B.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wulfmeyer, V.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

J. Bösenberg, R. Timm, V. Wulfmeyer, “Study on retrieval algorithms for a backscatter lidar,” Final Rep. 226 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1997).

Zörner, S.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. D. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Klett, “Lidar inversion with variable backscatter/extinction ratios,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1638–1643 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Error caused by using a constant extinction/backscattering ratio in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3929–3932 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, D. T. Walsh, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and intercomparisons and validation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4914–4923 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindqvist, T. D. Walsh, J. Burris, J. Butler, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Measurement intercomparison of the JPL and GSFC stratospheric ozone lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4671–4676 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsumoto, N. Takeuchi, “Effects of misestimated far-end boundary values on two common lidar inversion solutions,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6451–6456 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Kovalev, H. Moosmüller, “Distortion of particulate extinction profiles measured with lidar in a two-component atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6499–6507 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sherlock, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, “Implementation and validation of a Raman lidar measurement of middle and upper tropospheric water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5838–5850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Böckmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, A. Hågård, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larchevêque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “Aerosol lidar intercomparison in the frame of the EARLINET project. 2. Aerosol backscatter algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 977–989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contr. Atmos. Phys.

G. C. Grabbe, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, U. Görsdorf, V. Matthias, G. Peters, T. Schaberl, C. Senff, “Intercomparison of ozone measurements between lidar and ECC-sondes,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 69, 189–203 (1996).

J. Appl. Meteorol.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482–489 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

R. A. Ferrare, D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. O’C. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, R. A. Barnes, C. L. Parsons, A. Torres, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, P. Wang, J. Butler, P. Newman, J. Burris, R. Ferrare, D. Whitemann, T. J. McGee, “Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ, a rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 10037–10042 (1990).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2000JD000202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single-scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19673–19689 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. D

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, A. Wiedensohler, U. Leiterer, “Lindenberg aerosol characterization experiment 1998 (LACE 98): overview,” J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 10.1029/2000JD000233 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Meteorol. Z.

H. Steinhagen, S. Bakan, J. Bösenberg, H. Dier, D. Engelbart, J. Fischer, G. Gendt, U. Görsdorf, J. Güldner, F. Jansen, V. Lehmann, U. Leiterer, J. Neisser, V. Wulfmeyer, “Field campaign LINEX 96/1—possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere,” Meteorol. Z. 6, 377–391 (1998).

Remote Sens. Environ.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirniov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, “Comparison of columnar aerosol optical properties measured by the MODIS airborne simulator with in situ measurements: a case study,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 592–593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Bösenberg, R. Timm, V. Wulfmeyer, “Study on retrieval algorithms for a backscatter lidar,” Final Rep. 226 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1997).

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

H. Linné, D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, T. P. Tooman, J. Bösenberg, K. Ertel, S. Lehmann, “Intercomparison of DIAL and Raman lidar measurements of humidity profiles,” in A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 293–298.

L. Elterman, “UV, visible, and IR attenuation for altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” Environmental Research Paper 285, AFCRL-68-0153 (U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Cambridge, Mass., 1968).

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, M. Pandolfi, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Matthias, F. DeTomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, X. Wang, “Aerosol lidar intercomparisons in the framework of EARLINET. 3. Raman lidar algorithm for aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hagard, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: a European aerosol research lidar network,” in Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, A. Dabas, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., selected papers of the 20th International Laser Radar Conference (Edition Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

A. Apituley, “Comparison of the RIVM tropospheric ozone lidar to in situ measuring instruments using data acquired during TROLIX,” Rep. 722701001 (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheit en Millieu, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 1995).

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. N. de Jonge, J. Melquist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spaakman, D. J. P. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Intercomparison Experiment, TROLIX’91, field phase report.” Rep. 102 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of intercomparison experiments performed for EARLINET quality assurance. The systems from Linköping (lk), Lisbon (li), and Palaiseau (pl) had to repeat the intercomparisons: (mob.), mobile microlidar; (stat.), stationary system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intercomparison of aerosol backscatter profiles at 351 and 355 nm of the lidar systems from Leipzig (le), Munich (mu), and Hamburg (hh). Measurements were taken on 11 August 1998 at 21:15–21:45 UT during the LACE 98 experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intercomparison of aerosol backscatter profiles at 532 nm between Munich (mu) and Thessaloniki (th) taken on (a) 22 September 2000 at 18:10–18:15 UT and (b) 23 September 2000 at 9:40–9:45 UT.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intercomparison of aerosol backscatter profiles at 355 and 532 nm between Munich (mu) and Potenza (po) taken on 10 October 2000 at 16:20–17:02 UT.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intercomparison of aerosol backscatter profiles at 532 nm between Hamburg (hh) and Neuchâtel (ne) taken on (a) 11 September 2000 at 19:40–20:00 UT and (b) 13 September at 14:51–15:08 UT.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intercomparison of aerosol extinction profiles at 355 nm between Hamburg (hh) and Leipzig (le) taken on 11 August 1998 at 21:15–21:45 UT.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intercomparison of aerosol extinction profiles at 355 nm between Hamburg (hh) and Aberystwyth (ab) taken on (a) 6 May 2001 at 20:30–20:45 UT and (b) 7 May 2001 at 20:44–21:44 UT.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intercomparison of aerosol optical depth measurements with the MPI Raman lidar (hh), the IFT Raman lidar (le), and the starphotometer from Meteorologisches Observatorium Lindenberg on 11–12 August 1998. Photometer error bars are of the order of 0.01–0.02 for all wavelengths.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Intercomparison of aerosol optical depth measurements with the MPI Raman lidar and the sunphotometer from the Laboratoire Météorologie Dynamique, Palaiseau. Photometer error bars are estimated to 0.02, excluding extrapolation errors.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Absolute values of the mean deviations and standard deviations of all aerosol backscatter intercomparisons in the PBL.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relative values of the mean deviations and standard deviations of all aerosol backscatter intercomparisons in the PBL.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Absolute values of the mean deviations and standard deviations of all aerosol backscatter intercomparisons in the FT.

Tables (11)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of EARLINET Lidar Systems

Tables Icon

Table 2 Dates and Places of the EARLINET Intercomparison Experiments

Tables Icon

Table 3 Maximum Allowed Relative and Absolute Deviations for the Compared Quantities

Tables Icon

Table 4 Leipzig and Munich Backscatter Intercomparisonsa

Tables Icon

Table 5 Munich and Hamburg Backscatter Intercomparisonsa

Tables Icon

Table 6 Leipzig and Hamburg Backscatter Intercomparisonsa

Tables Icon

Table 7 Munich and Thessaloniki Backscatter Intercomparisonsa

Tables Icon

Table 8 Munich and Potenza Backscatter Intercomparisonsa

Tables Icon

Table 9 Hamburg and Neuchâtel Backscatter Intercomparisonsa

Tables Icon

Table 10 Hamburg and Leipzig Extinction Intercomparisons on 11/08/1998a

Tables Icon

Table 11 Hamburg and Aberystwyth Extinction Intercomparisonsa

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pλ, z=P0λCβaerλ, z+βmolλ, zz2 ×exp-20zαaerλ, ζ+αmolλ, ζdζ;
βaerz=-βmolz+Pzz2 exp -2Saer-Smol0zβmolζdζP0C-2Saer0z Pζζ2 exp-2Saer-Smol0ζ βmolzdzdζ,
βaerz=-βmolz+Xzexp-2Saer-Smol0zβmolζdζXz0/βaerz0+βmolz0 -2Saer0ζ Xζexp-2Saer-Smolz0ζβmolzdzdζ.
αaer, zλ0=11+λ0/λRk ×ddzlnNzPRzz2-αmolλ0, z-αmolλR, z,
m¯=i=1n Δmn
Δm¯=i=1n Δmn
Δm¯rel=100×Δm¯m¯.
δm=i=1nΔm2n-11/2
δmrel=100×δmm¯.

Metrics