Abstract

The feasibility of making space-based carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for global and regional carbon-cycle studies is explored. With the proposed detection method, we use absorption of reflected sunlight near 1.58 μm. The results indicate that the small (∼1%) changes in CO2 near the Earth’s surface are detectable provided that an adequate sensor signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution are achievable. Modification of the sunlight path by scattering of aerosols and cirrus clouds could, however, lead to systematic errors in the CO2 column retrieval; therefore ancillary aerosol and cloud data are important to reduce errors. Precise measurement of surface pressure and good knowledge of the atmospheric temperature profile are also required.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

2002 (4)

Z. Yang, G. C. Toon, J. S. Margolis, P. O. Wennberg, “Atmospheric CO2 retrieved from ground-based near IR solar spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014537 (2002).

D. M. O’Brien, P. J. Rayner, “Global observations of carbon budget 2, CO2 concentrations from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 m band of CO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000617 (2002).

Z. Kuang, J. Margolis, G. Toon, D. Crisp, Y. Yung, “Spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 by high-resolution NIR spectrometry of reflected sunlight: an introductory study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2001GL014298 (2002).

K. R. Gurney, R. M. Law, A. S. Denning, P. J. Rayner, D. Baker, P. Bousquet, L. Bruhwiler, Y.-H. Chen, P. Ciais, S. Fan, I. Y. Fung, M. Gloor, M. Heimann, K. Higuchi, J. John, T. Maki, S. Maksyutov, K. Masarie, P. Peylin, M. Prather, B. C. Pak, J. Randerson, J. Sarmiento, S. Taguchi, T. Takahashi, C.-W. Yuen, “Towards robust regional estimates of CO2 sources and sinks using atmospheric transport models,” Nature (London) 415, 626–630 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

P. J. Rayner, D. M. O’Brien, “The utility of remotely sensed CO2 concentration data in surface source inversions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 175–178 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Pak, M. J. Prather, “CO2 source inversions using satellite observations of the upper troposphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4571–4574 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Myneni, J. Dong, C. J. Tucker, R. K. Kaufmann, P. E. Kauppi, J. Liski, L. Zhou, V. Alexeyev, M. K. Hughes, “A large carbon sink in the woody biomass of Northern forests,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 14784–14789 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Tolton, D. Plouffe, “Sensitivity of radiometric measurements of the atmospheric CO2 column from space,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1305–1313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Andrews, K. A. Boering, S. C. Wofsy, B. C. Daube, D. B. Jones, S. Alex, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, “Empirical age spectra for the midlatitude lower stratosphere from in situ observations of CO2: quantitative evidence for a subtropical ‘barrier’ to horizontal transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10257–10274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

P. F. Ambrico, A. Amodeo, P. D. Girolamo, N. Spinelli, “Sensitivity analysis of differential absorption lidar measurements in the mid-infrared region,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6847–6865 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Schimel, J. I. House, K. A. Hibbard, P. Bousquet, P. Cias, P. Peylin, B. H. Braswell, M. J. Apps, D. Baker, A. Bondeau, J. Canadell, G. Churkina, W. Cramer, A. S. Denning, C. B. Field, P. Friedlingstein, C. Goodale, M. Heimann, R. A. Houghton, J. M. Melillo, B. Moore, D. Murdiyarso, I. Noble, S. W. Pacala, I. C. Prentice, M. R. Paupach, P. J. Rayner, R. J. Scholes, W. L. Steffen, C. Wirth, “Contribution of increasing CO2 and climate to carbon storage by ecosystems in the United States,” Science 287, 2004–2006 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Stephens, A. Heidinger, “Molecular line absorption in a scattering atmosphere. Part I: Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 1599–1614 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidinger, G. L. Stephens, “Molecular line absorption in a scattering atmosphere. Part II: Application to remote sensing in the O2 A band,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 1615–1634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

D. M. O’Brien, R. M. Mitchell, S. A. English, G. A. Da Costa, “Airborne measurements of air mass from O2 A-band absorption spectra,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 1272–1286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Susskind, C. Barnet, J. Blaisdell, “Determination of atmospheric and surface parameters from simulated Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)/Humidity Sounder Brazil (HSB) sounding data: retrieval and cloud clearing methodology,” Adv. Space Res. 21, 369–384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282, 442–446 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. 2. Applications to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16519–16535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

D. P. Wylie, W. P. Menzel, H. M. Woolf, K. I. Strabala, “Four years of global cirrus cloud statistics using HIRS,” J. Clim. 12, 1972–1986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, K. P. Shine, “Studies of the radiative properties of ice and mixed-phase clouds,” Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 120, 111–137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Conway, P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, “Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22831–22855 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, J.-L. Moncet, “Line-by-line calculation of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: application to water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15761–15785 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

T. Nakajawa, K. Miyashita, S. Aoki, M. Tanaka, “Temporal and spatial variations of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric carbon dioxide,” Tellus Ser. B 43, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

U. Schmidt, A. Khedim, “In situ measurements of carbon dioxide in the winter arctic vortex and at midlatitudes: an indicator of the ‘age’ of stratospheric air,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 763–766 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Pinty, M. M. Verstraete, “Extracting information on surface properties from bidirectional reflectance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96D, 2865–2874 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, T. Takahashi, “Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Y. Takano, K.-N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I: Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, “Algorithms for radiative intensity calculations in moderately thick atmospheres using a truncation approximation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 40, 51–69 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. M. Mitchell, D. M. O’Brien, “Error estimates for passive satellite measurement of surface pressure using absorption in the A band of oxygen,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 1981–1990 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1977 (2)

1976 (3)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Sci. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. M. McMillin, H. E. Fleming, “Atmospheric transmittance of an absorbing gas: a computationally fast and accurate transmittance model for absorbing gases with constant mixing ratios in inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 15, 358–363 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Heaton, “Temperature scaling of absorption coefficients,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 16, 801–804 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

W. L. Smith, “Iterative solution of the radiative transfer equation for temperature and absorbing gas profile of an atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1993–1999 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Chahine, “Inverse problems in radiative transfer: determination of atmospheric parameters,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 960–967 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 61–88 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

L. G. Henyey, J. L. Greenstein, “Diffuse radiation in the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 93, 70–83 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, L.

F. Kneizys, E. Shuttle, W. Gallery, J. Chetwynd, L. Abreu, J. Selby, S. Clough, R. Fenn, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance computer code LOWTRAN 6,” AFGL-83-0187 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1983).

Alex, S.

A. E. Andrews, K. A. Boering, S. C. Wofsy, B. C. Daube, D. B. Jones, S. Alex, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, “Empirical age spectra for the midlatitude lower stratosphere from in situ observations of CO2: quantitative evidence for a subtropical ‘barrier’ to horizontal transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10257–10274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alexeyev, V.

R. B. Myneni, J. Dong, C. J. Tucker, R. K. Kaufmann, P. E. Kauppi, J. Liski, L. Zhou, V. Alexeyev, M. K. Hughes, “A large carbon sink in the woody biomass of Northern forests,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 14784–14789 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambrico, P. F.

Amodeo, A.

Andrews, A. E.

A. E. Andrews, K. A. Boering, S. C. Wofsy, B. C. Daube, D. B. Jones, S. Alex, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, S. E. Strahan, “Empirical age spectra for the midlatitude lower stratosphere from in situ observations of CO2: quantitative evidence for a subtropical ‘barrier’ to horizontal transport,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10257–10274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, S.

T. Nakajawa, K. Miyashita, S. Aoki, M. Tanaka, “Temporal and spatial variations of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric carbon dioxide,” Tellus Ser. B 43, 106–117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, M. Fukabori, T. Aoki, “Trace gas remote sounding from near IR sun glint observation with tunable etalons,” in High Spectral Resolution Infrared Remote Sensing for Earth’s Weather and Climate Studies, ASI Ser. 19, A. Chedin, M. T. Chahine, N. A. Scott, eds. (NATO Advanced Study Institute, Berlin, 1993), pp. 309–322.
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, M. Fukabori, T. Aoki, “Trace gas remote sounding from near IR sun glint observation with tunable etalons,” in High Spectral Resolution Infrared Remote Sensing for Earth’s Weather and Climate Studies, ASI Ser. 19, A. Chedin, M. T. Chahine, N. A. Scott, eds. (NATO Advanced Study Institute, Berlin, 1993), pp. 309–322.
[CrossRef]

Apps, M. J.

D. Schimel, J. I. House, K. A. Hibbard, P. Bousquet, P. Cias, P. Peylin, B. H. Braswell, M. J. Apps, D. Baker, A. Bondeau, J. Canadell, G. Churkina, W. Cramer, A. S. Denning, C. B. Field, P. Friedlingstein, C. Goodale, M. Heimann, R. A. Houghton, J. M. Melillo, B. Moore, D. Murdiyarso, I. Noble, S. W. Pacala, I. C. Prentice, M. R. Paupach, P. J. Rayner, R. J. Scholes, W. L. Steffen, C. Wirth, “Contribution of increasing CO2 and climate to carbon storage by ecosystems in the United States,” Science 287, 2004–2006 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, B. H.

B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 61–88 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Asano, S.

Baker, D.

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Monochromatic one-way (space-to-ground) transmittance of CO2 (in blue) and H2O (in red) at nadir in the 1.58-μm band. The output spectral resolution is 1.4 × 10-3 cm-1. We used the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere in the calculation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the solar radiation process as it goes through the atmosphere and back to space and test schemes for the radiance sensitivities to CO2 concentration changes. I dir is the direct solar beam reflected toward the sensor FOV by the Earth’s surface. I bsct is the atmospheric backscattering and I srfl is the scattered light reflecting from the surface in the FOV. I rsct is the surface-reflected light and is then scattered toward the sensor, and I msct is the light that has already been scattered and then scattered again toward the sensor (so-called multiple scattering). The CO2 perturbation test schemes include a 1-ppmv mixing ratio increase in the whole column of atmosphere and a 1% change in the PBL (0–2 km).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top-of-the-atmosphere CO2 spectrum. Top panel, the nadir-viewing back-to-space radiance (mW m-2 cm sr-1); middle panel, the radiance zoom in for 6358–6362 cm-1; bottom panel, the radiance sensitivity to the 1-ppmv CO2 column mixing ratio increase in the whole atmosphere for three spectral resolutions. The solar zenith angle is 30° and the surface reflectivity is 0.3. The off-line frequency (ν off = 6359.45 cm-1) and the on-line frequency (ν on = 6359.98 cm-1) used for the radiance ratio calculations are marked by arrows at the top of the middle panel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Back-to-space radiance change for a 1% CO2 concentration increase in the atmospheric boundary layer (0–2 km).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top panel, the back-to-space radiance (mW m-2 cm-1 sr-1) at the 1.58-μm band for nadir viewing at an 80° solar zenith angle. Bottom panel, the radiance change in percentage corresponding to a 1% CO2 concentration increase in the atmospheric boundary layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Off-line to on-line radiance ratio sensitivities to the 1% CO2 concentration increase in the PBL, maritime, rural, and urban aerosol extinction and cirrus clouds. The off-line frequency is chosen to be 6382.7 cm-1 and is marked with an arrow in the top panel.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Back-to-space radiance change for a 1 K error in temperature profile data. The sign of the error in each layer is randomly generated.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Influence of water-vapor absorption on the back-to-space radiances.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Optical Characteristics of Aerosols and Cirrus Cloud Used in the Radiance Calculationsa

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Table 2 List of Baseline Input and Output Parameters of Radiance Simulations

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Table 3 Direct Beam Idir, the Sum of Scattered Radiances Isct = Ibsct + Isrfl + Irsct + Imsct, and the Total Back-to-Space Radiances Itot at a Pair of Adjacent Off-Line and On-Line Channels Near the R-Branch Center and the Off-Line/On-Line Radiance Ratios for Baseline Clear-Sky and Cirrus Cases, Respectively, and the Sensitivity of the Ratio to the Cirrusa

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Table 4 Same as Table 3 but for Cirrus Asymmetry Parameter Perturbation Runs

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Table 5 Same as Table 3 but for Three Solar Zenith Angles

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Itot=Idir+Ibsct+Isrfl+Irsct+Imsct.
Idirνoff=rsI0 exp-τνoff+τcld1μ0+1μ1,
Idirνon=rsI0 exp-τνon+τcld1μ0+1μ1.
c0=IdirνoffIdirνon=expΔτ1μ0+1μ1,
Isrflνoff=rsI0ωoffpμd4π1-exp-τνoff+τcldμ0×exp-τcldμ1+τνoff1μ0+1μ1+τνoffl1μd-1μ0,
Isrflνon=rsI0ωonpμd4π1-exp-τνon+τcldμ0×exp-τcldμ1+τνon1μ0+1μ1+τνonl1μd-1μ0,
ωoff=τcldsctτνoff+τcld, ωon=τcldsctτνon+τcld,
Isrflνoff=rsI0pμd4πμ0 τcldsctexp-τcldμ1+τνoff1μ0+1μ1+τνoffl1μd-1μ0,
Isrflνon=rsI0pμd4πμ0 τcldsctexp-τcldμ1+τνon1μ0+1μ1+τνonl1μd-1μ0.
c1=IsrflνoffIsrflνon=expΔτ1μ0+1μ1+Δτl1μd-1μ0,
Δc1=c1-c0c0=expΔτl1μd-1μ0-1.
Δc2=expΔτl1μu-1μ1-1,
Δc3=exp-Δτl1μ0+1μ1-1.
Δc4=expΔτl1μu-1μ1+1μd-1μ0-1,

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