Abstract

Dip-coated films, which are widely used in the coating industry, are usually measured by capacitive methods with micrometric precision. For the first time to our knowledge, we have applied an interferometric determination of the evolution of thickness in real time to nonvolatile Newtonian mineral oils with several viscosities and distinct dip withdrawing speeds. The evolution of film thickness during the process depends on time as t -1/2, in accordance with a simple model. Comparison with measured results with an uncertainty of ±0.007 μm) showed good agreement after the initial steps of the process had been completed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. E. Scriven, “Physics and applications of dip coating and spin coating,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 121, 717–729 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. R. Schunk, A. J. Hurd, C. J. Brinker, “Free-meniscus coating processes,” in Liquid Film Coating, S. F. Kistler, P. M. Schweizer, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1997), Chap. 13.
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, W. L. Wilkinson, “Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389–396 (1973).
  4. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1986), p. 424.
  5. F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, “Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 1022–1023 (1993).
  6. F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, Mino Green, “Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,” J. Phys. III 3, 2059–2063 (1993).
  7. D. Qu, E. Rancé, S. Garoff, “Dip coated films of volatile liquids,” Phys. Fluids 14, 1154–1156 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara, M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, C. V. Santilli, “Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, Toshimitsu Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 729–730 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. D. Landau, B. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Physicochim. URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).
  10. B. G. Levich, Physicochemical Hydrodynamics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1962), Chap. 12.
  11. C. Gutfinger, J. A. Tallmadge, “Films of non-Newtonian fluids adhering to flat plates,” AIChE. J. 11, 403–413 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. A. White, J. A. Tallmadge, “Theory of drag out of liquids on flat plates,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 20, 33–37 (1965).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Qu, E. Rancé, S. Garoff, “Dip coated films of volatile liquids,” Phys. Fluids 14, 1154–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, Mino Green, “Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,” J. Phys. III 3, 2059–2063 (1993).

1988 (1)

L. E. Scriven, “Physics and applications of dip coating and spin coating,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 121, 717–729 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, W. L. Wilkinson, “Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389–396 (1973).

1965 (2)

C. Gutfinger, J. A. Tallmadge, “Films of non-Newtonian fluids adhering to flat plates,” AIChE. J. 11, 403–413 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. A. White, J. A. Tallmadge, “Theory of drag out of liquids on flat plates,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 20, 33–37 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

L. D. Landau, B. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Physicochim. URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).

Alcantara, P.

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara, M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, C. V. Santilli, “Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, Toshimitsu Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 729–730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brinker, C. J.

P. R. Schunk, A. J. Hurd, C. J. Brinker, “Free-meniscus coating processes,” in Liquid Film Coating, S. F. Kistler, P. M. Schweizer, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1997), Chap. 13.
[CrossRef]

Dawnay, E.

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, Mino Green, “Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,” J. Phys. III 3, 2059–2063 (1993).

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, “Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 1022–1023 (1993).

Fardad, A.

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, Mino Green, “Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,” J. Phys. III 3, 2059–2063 (1993).

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, “Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 1022–1023 (1993).

Garoff, S.

D. Qu, E. Rancé, S. Garoff, “Dip coated films of volatile liquids,” Phys. Fluids 14, 1154–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Green, Mino

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, Mino Green, “Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,” J. Phys. III 3, 2059–2063 (1993).

Gutfinger, C.

C. Gutfinger, J. A. Tallmadge, “Films of non-Newtonian fluids adhering to flat plates,” AIChE. J. 11, 403–413 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, F.

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, Mino Green, “Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,” J. Phys. III 3, 2059–2063 (1993).

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara, M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, C. V. Santilli, “Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, Toshimitsu Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 729–730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, “Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 1022–1023 (1993).

Hurd, A. J.

P. R. Schunk, A. J. Hurd, C. J. Brinker, “Free-meniscus coating processes,” in Liquid Film Coating, S. F. Kistler, P. M. Schweizer, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1997), Chap. 13.
[CrossRef]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau, B. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Physicochim. URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).

Levich, B. G.

L. D. Landau, B. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Physicochim. URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).

B. G. Levich, Physicochemical Hydrodynamics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1962), Chap. 12.

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1986), p. 424.

Michels, A. F.

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara, M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, C. V. Santilli, “Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, Toshimitsu Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 729–730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, M. B.

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara, M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, C. V. Santilli, “Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, Toshimitsu Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 729–730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qu, D.

D. Qu, E. Rancé, S. Garoff, “Dip coated films of volatile liquids,” Phys. Fluids 14, 1154–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rancé, E.

D. Qu, E. Rancé, S. Garoff, “Dip coated films of volatile liquids,” Phys. Fluids 14, 1154–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rizzato, A. P.

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara, M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, C. V. Santilli, “Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, Toshimitsu Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 729–730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santilli, C. V.

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara, M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, C. V. Santilli, “Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, Toshimitsu Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 729–730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schunk, P. R.

P. R. Schunk, A. J. Hurd, C. J. Brinker, “Free-meniscus coating processes,” in Liquid Film Coating, S. F. Kistler, P. M. Schweizer, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1997), Chap. 13.
[CrossRef]

Scriven, L. E.

L. E. Scriven, “Physics and applications of dip coating and spin coating,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 121, 717–729 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Spiers, R. P.

R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, W. L. Wilkinson, “Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389–396 (1973).

Subabaraman, C. V.

R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, W. L. Wilkinson, “Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389–396 (1973).

Tallmadge, J. A.

C. Gutfinger, J. A. Tallmadge, “Films of non-Newtonian fluids adhering to flat plates,” AIChE. J. 11, 403–413 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. A. White, J. A. Tallmadge, “Theory of drag out of liquids on flat plates,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 20, 33–37 (1965).
[CrossRef]

White, D. A.

D. A. White, J. A. Tallmadge, “Theory of drag out of liquids on flat plates,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 20, 33–37 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, W. L.

R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, W. L. Wilkinson, “Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389–396 (1973).

Yeatman, E. M.

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, Mino Green, “Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,” J. Phys. III 3, 2059–2063 (1993).

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, “Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 1022–1023 (1993).

Acta Physicochim. URSS (1)

L. D. Landau, B. G. Levich, “Dragging of a liquid by a moving plate,” Acta Physicochim. URSS 17, 42–54 (1942).

AIChE. J. (1)

C. Gutfinger, J. A. Tallmadge, “Films of non-Newtonian fluids adhering to flat plates,” AIChE. J. 11, 403–413 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. Sci. (2)

D. A. White, J. A. Tallmadge, “Theory of drag out of liquids on flat plates,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 20, 33–37 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Spiers, C. V. Subabaraman, W. L. Wilkinson, “Free coating of a Newtonian liquid onto a vertical surface,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 29, 389–396 (1973).

J. Phys. III (1)

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, Mino Green, “Real-time optical monitoring of spin coating,” J. Phys. III 3, 2059–2063 (1993).

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

L. E. Scriven, “Physics and applications of dip coating and spin coating,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 121, 717–729 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids (1)

D. Qu, E. Rancé, S. Garoff, “Dip coated films of volatile liquids,” Phys. Fluids 14, 1154–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

F. Horowitz, A. F. Michels, P. Alcantara, M. B. Pereira, A. P. Rizzato, C. V. Santilli, “Real-time interferometric monitoring of dip coating,” in 18th Congress of the International Commission for Optics, A. J. Glass, J. W. Goodman, M. Chang, A. H. Guenther, Toshimitsu Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3749, 729–730 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Levich, Physicochemical Hydrodynamics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1962), Chap. 12.

P. R. Schunk, A. J. Hurd, C. J. Brinker, “Free-meniscus coating processes,” in Liquid Film Coating, S. F. Kistler, P. M. Schweizer, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1997), Chap. 13.
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1986), p. 424.

F. Horowitz, E. M. Yeatman, E. Dawnay, A. Fardad, “Optics as a key to spin coating sol-gel films,” in 16th Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Optics as a Key to High Technology, G. Akos, T. Lippenyi, G. Lupkovics, A. Podmaniczky, eds., Proc. SPIE1983, 1022–1023 (1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Illustration of the optical monitor, which comprises 1, a laser; 2, a beam splitter; 3, lenses; 4, a reference detector; 5, a sample; 6, a liquid bath; 7, a dip-coater support; 8, a sample detector; 9, a lock-in amplifier; 10, a microcomputer; and 11, a chopper. (b) Schematic of the dip-coating batch process, where laser probing is shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal evolution of reflectance for mineral oil OP60 during dip coating. Refractive indices (n) at 660 nm: 1.503 ± 0.001 for a glass substrate (Brewster method) and 1.470 ± 0.001 for mineral oil OP60 (Abbe refractometry).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thickness variation, in wavelength units, for a film of mineral oil OP60 during dip coating at several withdrawing speeds (U). Although experimental points were obtained at each λ/4 variation, for clarity we show only data at each λ variation. The experimental uncertainty is of the order of λ/50.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thickness variations in wavelength units, for films of mineral oils OP20, OP60, and OP400 during dip coating at the same withdrawal speed (U). Although experimental points were obtained at each λ/4 variation, for clarity we show only data at each λ variation. The experimental uncertainty is of the order of λ/50.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical Properties of the Oils under Analysis during Dip Coatinga

Equations (10)

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σ 3hx3+μ 2vxy2+ρg=0,
Pσ=-σ2hx2-σ1R0,
υ 2vxy2+g=0,
vxy=0=0, vxyy=h=0.
vxy=gυhy-y22.
q=1h00h0 vxydy,
q=g h33υ,
htx=-qxt=-ρgh2μhx.
h=Bμgρxt,
h=B1/t, B=C1vx/g,

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