Abstract

It has recently been noted that hemispherical structures have useful reflection characteristics. We describe a new application that makes use of these characteristics by controlling the reflectance of a surface composed of an array of hemispherical liquid droplets. In this system the reflectance state is spatially controlled through the use of electrowetting to alter the shape of an array of droplets. This may have an application in the field of electronic image displays.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Khan, X. Huang, R. Armbruster, F. Nicholson, N. Miller, B. Wall, J. W. Doane, “Super high brightness reflective cholesteric display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 460–463.
  2. P. Drzaic, B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, L. Zhang, A. Loxley, R. Feeney, J. Jacobson, “A printed and rollable bistable electronic display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 1131–1134.
  3. M. A. Mossman, D. S. Arney, R. W. Biernath, R. J. N. Coope, A. Kotlicki, M. J. Pellerite, J. E. Potts, S. P. Rao, L. A. Whitehead, “New reflective display technique based on total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 20, pp. 311–314.
  4. B. J. Feenstra, R. A. Hayes, I. G. J. Camps, L. M. Hage, M. T. Johnson, T. Roquest-Carmes, L. J. M. Schlangen, “A reflective display based on electrowetting: principle and properties,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 322–324.
  5. R. H. Hayes, B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425, 383–385 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. H. Morrissy, “Will traditional TN/FSTN LCDs dominate in low power, reflective display applications?” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings( Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 80–83.
  7. M. A. Mossman, V. H. Kwong, J. Pond, L. A. Whitehead, “A high reflectance, wide viewing angle reflective display using total internal reflection in micro-hemispheres,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 233–235.
  8. F. M. White, Fluid Mechanics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986), p. 30.
  9. A. Nakajima, H. Kazuhito, T. Watanabe, “Recent studies on super-hydrophobic films,” Monatsh. Chem. 132, 31–41 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Nishino, M. Meguro, N. Katsuhiko, M. Matsushita, Y. Ueda, “The lowest surface free energy based on -CF3 alignment,” Langmuir 15, 4321–4323 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Herminghaus, “Roughness-induced non-wetting,” Europhys. Lett. 52, 165–170 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Nakajima, K. Hasimoto, T. Watanabe, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir 16, 7044–7047 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. J. J. Verheijen, M. W. J. Prins, “Reversible electrowetting and trapping of charge: model and experiments,” Langmuir 15, 6616–6620 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Berge, J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Beni, M. A. Tenan, “Dynamics of electrowetting displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6011–6015 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. K. Sheridon, “Electrocapillary color display sheet,” U.S. patent5,757,345 (26May1998).
  17. HIREC 100 is a product of NTT Advanced Technology Corporation, Shinjuku Mitsui Building 2-1-1, Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-0431, Japan.
  18. TracePro is ray-tracing software and a product of Lambda Research Corporation, 80 Taylor St., P.O. Box 1400, Littleton, Mass. 01460-440.

2003 (1)

R. H. Hayes, B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425, 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Nakajima, H. Kazuhito, T. Watanabe, “Recent studies on super-hydrophobic films,” Monatsh. Chem. 132, 31–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

S. Herminghaus, “Roughness-induced non-wetting,” Europhys. Lett. 52, 165–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, K. Hasimoto, T. Watanabe, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir 16, 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Berge, J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. J. J. Verheijen, M. W. J. Prins, “Reversible electrowetting and trapping of charge: model and experiments,” Langmuir 15, 6616–6620 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishino, M. Meguro, N. Katsuhiko, M. Matsushita, Y. Ueda, “The lowest surface free energy based on -CF3 alignment,” Langmuir 15, 4321–4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

G. Beni, M. A. Tenan, “Dynamics of electrowetting displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6011–6015 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J. D.

P. Drzaic, B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, L. Zhang, A. Loxley, R. Feeney, J. Jacobson, “A printed and rollable bistable electronic display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 1131–1134.

Armbruster, R.

A. Khan, X. Huang, R. Armbruster, F. Nicholson, N. Miller, B. Wall, J. W. Doane, “Super high brightness reflective cholesteric display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 460–463.

Arney, D. S.

M. A. Mossman, D. S. Arney, R. W. Biernath, R. J. N. Coope, A. Kotlicki, M. J. Pellerite, J. E. Potts, S. P. Rao, L. A. Whitehead, “New reflective display technique based on total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 20, pp. 311–314.

Beni, G.

G. Beni, M. A. Tenan, “Dynamics of electrowetting displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6011–6015 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Berge, B.

B. Berge, J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biernath, R. W.

M. A. Mossman, D. S. Arney, R. W. Biernath, R. J. N. Coope, A. Kotlicki, M. J. Pellerite, J. E. Potts, S. P. Rao, L. A. Whitehead, “New reflective display technique based on total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 20, pp. 311–314.

Camps, I. G. J.

B. J. Feenstra, R. A. Hayes, I. G. J. Camps, L. M. Hage, M. T. Johnson, T. Roquest-Carmes, L. J. M. Schlangen, “A reflective display based on electrowetting: principle and properties,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 322–324.

Comiskey, B.

P. Drzaic, B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, L. Zhang, A. Loxley, R. Feeney, J. Jacobson, “A printed and rollable bistable electronic display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 1131–1134.

Coope, R. J. N.

M. A. Mossman, D. S. Arney, R. W. Biernath, R. J. N. Coope, A. Kotlicki, M. J. Pellerite, J. E. Potts, S. P. Rao, L. A. Whitehead, “New reflective display technique based on total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 20, pp. 311–314.

Doane, J. W.

A. Khan, X. Huang, R. Armbruster, F. Nicholson, N. Miller, B. Wall, J. W. Doane, “Super high brightness reflective cholesteric display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 460–463.

Drzaic, P.

P. Drzaic, B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, L. Zhang, A. Loxley, R. Feeney, J. Jacobson, “A printed and rollable bistable electronic display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 1131–1134.

Feeney, R.

P. Drzaic, B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, L. Zhang, A. Loxley, R. Feeney, J. Jacobson, “A printed and rollable bistable electronic display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 1131–1134.

Feenstra, B. J.

R. H. Hayes, B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425, 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Feenstra, R. A. Hayes, I. G. J. Camps, L. M. Hage, M. T. Johnson, T. Roquest-Carmes, L. J. M. Schlangen, “A reflective display based on electrowetting: principle and properties,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 322–324.

Hage, L. M.

B. J. Feenstra, R. A. Hayes, I. G. J. Camps, L. M. Hage, M. T. Johnson, T. Roquest-Carmes, L. J. M. Schlangen, “A reflective display based on electrowetting: principle and properties,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 322–324.

Hasimoto, K.

A. Nakajima, K. Hasimoto, T. Watanabe, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir 16, 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, R. A.

B. J. Feenstra, R. A. Hayes, I. G. J. Camps, L. M. Hage, M. T. Johnson, T. Roquest-Carmes, L. J. M. Schlangen, “A reflective display based on electrowetting: principle and properties,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 322–324.

Hayes, R. H.

R. H. Hayes, B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425, 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herminghaus, S.

S. Herminghaus, “Roughness-induced non-wetting,” Europhys. Lett. 52, 165–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

A. Khan, X. Huang, R. Armbruster, F. Nicholson, N. Miller, B. Wall, J. W. Doane, “Super high brightness reflective cholesteric display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 460–463.

Jacobson, J.

P. Drzaic, B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, L. Zhang, A. Loxley, R. Feeney, J. Jacobson, “A printed and rollable bistable electronic display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 1131–1134.

Johnson, M. T.

B. J. Feenstra, R. A. Hayes, I. G. J. Camps, L. M. Hage, M. T. Johnson, T. Roquest-Carmes, L. J. M. Schlangen, “A reflective display based on electrowetting: principle and properties,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 322–324.

Katsuhiko, N.

T. Nishino, M. Meguro, N. Katsuhiko, M. Matsushita, Y. Ueda, “The lowest surface free energy based on -CF3 alignment,” Langmuir 15, 4321–4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kazuhito, H.

A. Nakajima, H. Kazuhito, T. Watanabe, “Recent studies on super-hydrophobic films,” Monatsh. Chem. 132, 31–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

A. Khan, X. Huang, R. Armbruster, F. Nicholson, N. Miller, B. Wall, J. W. Doane, “Super high brightness reflective cholesteric display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 460–463.

Kotlicki, A.

M. A. Mossman, D. S. Arney, R. W. Biernath, R. J. N. Coope, A. Kotlicki, M. J. Pellerite, J. E. Potts, S. P. Rao, L. A. Whitehead, “New reflective display technique based on total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 20, pp. 311–314.

Kwong, V. H.

M. A. Mossman, V. H. Kwong, J. Pond, L. A. Whitehead, “A high reflectance, wide viewing angle reflective display using total internal reflection in micro-hemispheres,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 233–235.

Loxley, A.

P. Drzaic, B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, L. Zhang, A. Loxley, R. Feeney, J. Jacobson, “A printed and rollable bistable electronic display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 1131–1134.

Matsushita, M.

T. Nishino, M. Meguro, N. Katsuhiko, M. Matsushita, Y. Ueda, “The lowest surface free energy based on -CF3 alignment,” Langmuir 15, 4321–4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meguro, M.

T. Nishino, M. Meguro, N. Katsuhiko, M. Matsushita, Y. Ueda, “The lowest surface free energy based on -CF3 alignment,” Langmuir 15, 4321–4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, N.

A. Khan, X. Huang, R. Armbruster, F. Nicholson, N. Miller, B. Wall, J. W. Doane, “Super high brightness reflective cholesteric display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 460–463.

Morrissy, J. H.

J. H. Morrissy, “Will traditional TN/FSTN LCDs dominate in low power, reflective display applications?” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings( Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 80–83.

Mossman, M. A.

M. A. Mossman, V. H. Kwong, J. Pond, L. A. Whitehead, “A high reflectance, wide viewing angle reflective display using total internal reflection in micro-hemispheres,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 233–235.

M. A. Mossman, D. S. Arney, R. W. Biernath, R. J. N. Coope, A. Kotlicki, M. J. Pellerite, J. E. Potts, S. P. Rao, L. A. Whitehead, “New reflective display technique based on total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 20, pp. 311–314.

Nakajima, A.

A. Nakajima, H. Kazuhito, T. Watanabe, “Recent studies on super-hydrophobic films,” Monatsh. Chem. 132, 31–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, K. Hasimoto, T. Watanabe, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir 16, 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, F.

A. Khan, X. Huang, R. Armbruster, F. Nicholson, N. Miller, B. Wall, J. W. Doane, “Super high brightness reflective cholesteric display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 460–463.

Nishino, T.

T. Nishino, M. Meguro, N. Katsuhiko, M. Matsushita, Y. Ueda, “The lowest surface free energy based on -CF3 alignment,” Langmuir 15, 4321–4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pellerite, M. J.

M. A. Mossman, D. S. Arney, R. W. Biernath, R. J. N. Coope, A. Kotlicki, M. J. Pellerite, J. E. Potts, S. P. Rao, L. A. Whitehead, “New reflective display technique based on total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 20, pp. 311–314.

Peseux, J.

B. Berge, J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pond, J.

M. A. Mossman, V. H. Kwong, J. Pond, L. A. Whitehead, “A high reflectance, wide viewing angle reflective display using total internal reflection in micro-hemispheres,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 233–235.

Potts, J. E.

M. A. Mossman, D. S. Arney, R. W. Biernath, R. J. N. Coope, A. Kotlicki, M. J. Pellerite, J. E. Potts, S. P. Rao, L. A. Whitehead, “New reflective display technique based on total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 20, pp. 311–314.

Prins, M. W. J.

H. J. J. Verheijen, M. W. J. Prins, “Reversible electrowetting and trapping of charge: model and experiments,” Langmuir 15, 6616–6620 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rao, S. P.

M. A. Mossman, D. S. Arney, R. W. Biernath, R. J. N. Coope, A. Kotlicki, M. J. Pellerite, J. E. Potts, S. P. Rao, L. A. Whitehead, “New reflective display technique based on total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 20, pp. 311–314.

Roquest-Carmes, T.

B. J. Feenstra, R. A. Hayes, I. G. J. Camps, L. M. Hage, M. T. Johnson, T. Roquest-Carmes, L. J. M. Schlangen, “A reflective display based on electrowetting: principle and properties,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 322–324.

Schlangen, L. J. M.

B. J. Feenstra, R. A. Hayes, I. G. J. Camps, L. M. Hage, M. T. Johnson, T. Roquest-Carmes, L. J. M. Schlangen, “A reflective display based on electrowetting: principle and properties,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 322–324.

Sheridon, N. K.

N. K. Sheridon, “Electrocapillary color display sheet,” U.S. patent5,757,345 (26May1998).

Tenan, M. A.

G. Beni, M. A. Tenan, “Dynamics of electrowetting displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6011–6015 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, Y.

T. Nishino, M. Meguro, N. Katsuhiko, M. Matsushita, Y. Ueda, “The lowest surface free energy based on -CF3 alignment,” Langmuir 15, 4321–4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Verheijen, H. J. J.

H. J. J. Verheijen, M. W. J. Prins, “Reversible electrowetting and trapping of charge: model and experiments,” Langmuir 15, 6616–6620 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wall, B.

A. Khan, X. Huang, R. Armbruster, F. Nicholson, N. Miller, B. Wall, J. W. Doane, “Super high brightness reflective cholesteric display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 460–463.

Watanabe, T.

A. Nakajima, H. Kazuhito, T. Watanabe, “Recent studies on super-hydrophobic films,” Monatsh. Chem. 132, 31–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, K. Hasimoto, T. Watanabe, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir 16, 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

White, F. M.

F. M. White, Fluid Mechanics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986), p. 30.

Whitehead, L. A.

M. A. Mossman, V. H. Kwong, J. Pond, L. A. Whitehead, “A high reflectance, wide viewing angle reflective display using total internal reflection in micro-hemispheres,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 233–235.

M. A. Mossman, D. S. Arney, R. W. Biernath, R. J. N. Coope, A. Kotlicki, M. J. Pellerite, J. E. Potts, S. P. Rao, L. A. Whitehead, “New reflective display technique based on total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 20, pp. 311–314.

Zhang, L.

P. Drzaic, B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, L. Zhang, A. Loxley, R. Feeney, J. Jacobson, “A printed and rollable bistable electronic display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 1131–1134.

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

B. Berge, J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159–163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

S. Herminghaus, “Roughness-induced non-wetting,” Europhys. Lett. 52, 165–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Beni, M. A. Tenan, “Dynamics of electrowetting displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6011–6015 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (3)

A. Nakajima, K. Hasimoto, T. Watanabe, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir 16, 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. J. Verheijen, M. W. J. Prins, “Reversible electrowetting and trapping of charge: model and experiments,” Langmuir 15, 6616–6620 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishino, M. Meguro, N. Katsuhiko, M. Matsushita, Y. Ueda, “The lowest surface free energy based on -CF3 alignment,” Langmuir 15, 4321–4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monatsh. Chem. (1)

A. Nakajima, H. Kazuhito, T. Watanabe, “Recent studies on super-hydrophobic films,” Monatsh. Chem. 132, 31–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. H. Hayes, B. J. Feenstra, “Video-speed electronic paper based on electrowetting,” Nature 425, 383–385 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (10)

J. H. Morrissy, “Will traditional TN/FSTN LCDs dominate in low power, reflective display applications?” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings( Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 80–83.

M. A. Mossman, V. H. Kwong, J. Pond, L. A. Whitehead, “A high reflectance, wide viewing angle reflective display using total internal reflection in micro-hemispheres,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 233–235.

F. M. White, Fluid Mechanics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986), p. 30.

A. Khan, X. Huang, R. Armbruster, F. Nicholson, N. Miller, B. Wall, J. W. Doane, “Super high brightness reflective cholesteric display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2001), Vol. 32, pp. 460–463.

P. Drzaic, B. Comiskey, J. D. Albert, L. Zhang, A. Loxley, R. Feeney, J. Jacobson, “A printed and rollable bistable electronic display,” in Society for Information Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 1131–1134.

M. A. Mossman, D. S. Arney, R. W. Biernath, R. J. N. Coope, A. Kotlicki, M. J. Pellerite, J. E. Potts, S. P. Rao, L. A. Whitehead, “New reflective display technique based on total internal reflection in prismatic microstructures,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2000), Vol. 20, pp. 311–314.

B. J. Feenstra, R. A. Hayes, I. G. J. Camps, L. M. Hage, M. T. Johnson, T. Roquest-Carmes, L. J. M. Schlangen, “A reflective display based on electrowetting: principle and properties,” in Society for Information IDRC Display Symposium Proceedings (Society for Information Display, San Jose, Calif., 2003), Vol. 23, pp. 322–324.

N. K. Sheridon, “Electrocapillary color display sheet,” U.S. patent5,757,345 (26May1998).

HIREC 100 is a product of NTT Advanced Technology Corporation, Shinjuku Mitsui Building 2-1-1, Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-0431, Japan.

TracePro is ray-tracing software and a product of Lambda Research Corporation, 80 Taylor St., P.O. Box 1400, Littleton, Mass. 01460-440.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Light rays incident on a hemisphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bright annulus of hemispherical reflection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance at various angles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Semi-retro-reflection in an optical hemisphere.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Contact angle of a liquid drop on a solid surface surrounded by a gas or liquid.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the contact angles of water drops on smooth (a) and roughened (b) surfaces.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Deformation of a water drop on a hydrophobic surface by electrowetting (a) without an electric field and (b) with an electric field.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflection from (a) a truncated sphere and (b) a hemisphere.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic depiction of annuli of reflection from (a) a truncated sphere and (b) a hemisphere.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic of two states (a) nonelectrowetted and (b) electrowetted of the electrowetting system.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the measured and predicted contact angles of an electrowetted water drop as a function of amplitude of applied 2-kHz sinusoidally oscillating voltage.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Modeled reflectance of an electrowetted water drop as a function of contact angle.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Nonreflective (a) and reflective (b) states of a 19-drop hexagonal electrowetted pixel display.

Equations (8)

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ρ=rspheren2n1.
R=1-n2/n12.
cos θ=γsv-γslγlv.
cos θrough=r cos θsmooth=r γsv-γslγlv,
cos θrough=f cos θsmooth+f-1,
f= a a+b.
cos θV=cos θ0+120rV2γlvd,
cos θV=cos θ0+12 R00rV2γlvd.

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