Abstract

We describe the fabrication and characterization of cantilevered glass probe arrays. Individual probes have tapered shafts that are 175 μm square at the base and 200 nm square at the pyramidal tip. Each array contains as many as eight probes 10–20 mm long at 450-μm center-to-center spacing, fabricated from a single glass wafer by a combination of dicing and chemical etching. Optical signal losses of individual probes were measured to be of the order of 1 dB/cm. High-density data storage and page-oriented retrieval are the potential applications of the arrays.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  2. D. Di Carlo, W. Chang, L. P. Lee, “Simulations of near-field excitation and trapping for integrated near-field optical microfluidic devices,” in First Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 411–414.
  3. J. Cha, J. H. Park, M. R. Kim, W. Jhe, “Near field optical data storage using a nanometric aperture array,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 37, 735–738 (2000).
  4. Y. T. Chiu, “A second wind for DVD red laser technology?” IEEE Spectrum 39, 18 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Kim, D. E. Pride, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Spectrally resolved near field investigation of proton implanted vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3112–3114 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, S. M. Lindsay, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Near field scanning optical measurements of optical intensity distributions in semiconductor channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3471–3473 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Jiand, H. Ohsawa, K. Yamada, T. Pangaribuan, M. Ohtsu, K. Imai, A. Ikai, “Nanometer scale biosample observation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2282–2287 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Sun, K. S. L. Chong, G. J. Legett, “Scanning near-field optical lithography of self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2414–2415 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Tang, B. Seshadri, K. N. Naughton, B. K. Lee, R. C. J. Chi, A. J. Steckl, F. R. Beyette, “CMOS-based photoreceiver arrays for page-oriented optical storage access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1234–1236 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. D. Suh, R. Zenobi, “Improved probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1139–1142 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Furukawa, S. Katawa, “Local field enhancement with an apertureless near-field microscope,” Opt. Commun. 148, 221–224 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Kourogi, T. Yatsui, S. Ishimura, M. B. Lee, N. Atoda, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, “Planar apertured probe array for optical near-field memory,” in Far- and Near-Field Optics: Physics and Information Processing Conference, S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3467, 258–267 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1215–1227 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Stockle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, “High quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160–162 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. L. Lo, “The meniscus on a needle—a lesson in matching,” J. Fluid. Mech. 132, 65–78 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. K. Wong, T. Wang, C. Ho, “Optical fiber tip fabricated by surface tension controlled etching,” in Proceedings of Solid State Sensor Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, 2002), pp. 94–97.
  25. A. Marcia, S. Raghavan, P. Deymier, D. J. Monk, R. Roop, “Water dispersible silanes for wettability modification of polysilicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, H6–H11 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Le, C. J. Kim, “Surface tension driven microactuation based on continuous electrowetting,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 171–180 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. K. Jang, Y. D. Chung, S. W. Whangbo, T. G. Kim, C. N. Whang, S. J. Lee, S. Lee, “Effects of chemical etching with nitric acid on glass surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 267–274 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. V. Stenger, F. R. Beyette, “Design and analysis of an optical waveguide tap for silicon CMOS circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 277–284 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (4)

Y. T. Chiu, “A second wind for DVD red laser technology?” IEEE Spectrum 39, 18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sun, K. S. L. Chong, G. J. Legett, “Scanning near-field optical lithography of self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2414–2415 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marcia, S. Raghavan, P. Deymier, D. J. Monk, R. Roop, “Water dispersible silanes for wettability modification of polysilicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, H6–H11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Stenger, F. R. Beyette, “Design and analysis of an optical waveguide tap for silicon CMOS circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 277–284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. K. Jang, Y. D. Chung, S. W. Whangbo, T. G. Kim, C. N. Whang, S. J. Lee, S. Lee, “Effects of chemical etching with nitric acid on glass surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 267–274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

J. Le, C. J. Kim, “Surface tension driven microactuation based on continuous electrowetting,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 171–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, B. Sick, P. U. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Tang, B. Seshadri, K. N. Naughton, B. K. Lee, R. C. J. Chi, A. J. Steckl, F. R. Beyette, “CMOS-based photoreceiver arrays for page-oriented optical storage access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1234–1236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Suh, R. Zenobi, “Improved probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1139–1142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Cha, J. H. Park, M. R. Kim, W. Jhe, “Near field optical data storage using a nanometric aperture array,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 37, 735–738 (2000).

1999 (1)

R. Stockle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, “High quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Increasing throughput of a near-field optical fiber probe over 1000-times by the use of a triple tapered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2090–2092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Palanker, G. M. H. Knippels, T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, “IR microscopy with a transient photo-induced near-field probe (tipless near-field microscopy),” Opt. Commun. 148, 215–220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Furukawa, S. Katawa, “Local field enhancement with an apertureless near-field microscope,” Opt. Commun. 148, 221–224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, D. E. Pride, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Spectrally resolved near field investigation of proton implanted vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3112–3114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. Noel, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollrichner, O. Marti, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, “Fabrication of a fiber probe with a nanometric protrusion for near-field optical microscopy by a novel technique of three dimensional nanophotolithography,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2224–2230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, S. M. Lindsay, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Near field scanning optical measurements of optical intensity distributions in semiconductor channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3471–3473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

M. Ohtsu, “Progress of high resolution photon scanning tunneling microscopy due to a nanometric probe,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1200–1221 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujihira, H. Monobe, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, “Measurements of lateral distributions of fluorescence intensities and fluorescence spectra of microareas by a combined SNOM and AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 118–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1215–1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Jiand, H. Ohsawa, K. Yamada, T. Pangaribuan, M. Ohtsu, K. Imai, A. Ikai, “Nanometer scale biosample observation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2282–2287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

L. L. Lo, “The meniscus on a needle—a lesson in matching,” J. Fluid. Mech. 132, 65–78 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, M.

W. Noel, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollrichner, O. Marti, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ataka, T.

M. Fujihira, H. Monobe, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, “Measurements of lateral distributions of fluorescence intensities and fluorescence spectra of microareas by a combined SNOM and AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 118–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atoda, N.

M. Kourogi, T. Yatsui, S. Ishimura, M. B. Lee, N. Atoda, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, “Planar apertured probe array for optical near-field memory,” in Far- and Near-Field Optics: Physics and Information Processing Conference, S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3467, 258–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barenz, J.

W. Noel, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollrichner, O. Marti, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beyette, F. R.

V. Stenger, F. R. Beyette, “Design and analysis of an optical waveguide tap for silicon CMOS circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 277–284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Tang, B. Seshadri, K. N. Naughton, B. K. Lee, R. C. J. Chi, A. J. Steckl, F. R. Beyette, “CMOS-based photoreceiver arrays for page-oriented optical storage access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1234–1236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

J. Kim, D. E. Pride, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Spectrally resolved near field investigation of proton implanted vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3112–3114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, S. M. Lindsay, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Near field scanning optical measurements of optical intensity distributions in semiconductor channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3471–3473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cha, J.

J. Cha, J. H. Park, M. R. Kim, W. Jhe, “Near field optical data storage using a nanometric aperture array,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 37, 735–738 (2000).

Chang, W.

D. Di Carlo, W. Chang, L. P. Lee, “Simulations of near-field excitation and trapping for integrated near-field optical microfluidic devices,” in First Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 411–414.

Chi, R. C. J.

J. Tang, B. Seshadri, K. N. Naughton, B. K. Lee, R. C. J. Chi, A. J. Steckl, F. R. Beyette, “CMOS-based photoreceiver arrays for page-oriented optical storage access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1234–1236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y. T.

Y. T. Chiu, “A second wind for DVD red laser technology?” IEEE Spectrum 39, 18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chong, K. S. L.

S. Sun, K. S. L. Chong, G. J. Legett, “Scanning near-field optical lithography of self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2414–2415 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, Y. D.

H. K. Jang, Y. D. Chung, S. W. Whangbo, T. G. Kim, C. N. Whang, S. J. Lee, S. Lee, “Effects of chemical etching with nitric acid on glass surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 267–274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deckert, V.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, P. U. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, “High quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deymier, P.

A. Marcia, S. Raghavan, P. Deymier, D. J. Monk, R. Roop, “Water dispersible silanes for wettability modification of polysilicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, H6–H11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Di Carlo, D.

D. Di Carlo, W. Chang, L. P. Lee, “Simulations of near-field excitation and trapping for integrated near-field optical microfluidic devices,” in First Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 411–414.

Fokas, C.

R. Stockle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, “High quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujihira, M.

M. Fujihira, H. Monobe, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, “Measurements of lateral distributions of fluorescence intensities and fluorescence spectra of microareas by a combined SNOM and AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 118–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, H.

H. Furukawa, S. Katawa, “Local field enhancement with an apertureless near-field microscope,” Opt. Commun. 148, 221–224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, P. U. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, “High quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C.

P. K. Wong, T. Wang, C. Ho, “Optical fiber tip fabricated by surface tension controlled etching,” in Proceedings of Solid State Sensor Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, 2002), pp. 94–97.

Hollrichner, O.

W. Noel, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollrichner, O. Marti, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holton, M.

G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1215–1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ikai, A.

S. Jiand, H. Ohsawa, K. Yamada, T. Pangaribuan, M. Ohtsu, K. Imai, A. Ikai, “Nanometer scale biosample observation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2282–2287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Imai, K.

S. Jiand, H. Ohsawa, K. Yamada, T. Pangaribuan, M. Ohtsu, K. Imai, A. Ikai, “Nanometer scale biosample observation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2282–2287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ishimura, S.

M. Kourogi, T. Yatsui, S. Ishimura, M. B. Lee, N. Atoda, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, “Planar apertured probe array for optical near-field memory,” in Far- and Near-Field Optics: Physics and Information Processing Conference, S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3467, 258–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, H. E.

J. Kim, D. E. Pride, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Spectrally resolved near field investigation of proton implanted vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3112–3114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, S. M. Lindsay, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Near field scanning optical measurements of optical intensity distributions in semiconductor channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3471–3473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. K.

H. K. Jang, Y. D. Chung, S. W. Whangbo, T. G. Kim, C. N. Whang, S. J. Lee, S. Lee, “Effects of chemical etching with nitric acid on glass surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 267–274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jhe, W.

J. Cha, J. H. Park, M. R. Kim, W. Jhe, “Near field optical data storage using a nanometric aperture array,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 37, 735–738 (2000).

Jiand, S.

S. Jiand, H. Ohsawa, K. Yamada, T. Pangaribuan, M. Ohtsu, K. Imai, A. Ikai, “Nanometer scale biosample observation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2282–2287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Katawa, S.

H. Furukawa, S. Katawa, “Local field enhancement with an apertureless near-field microscope,” Opt. Commun. 148, 221–224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. J.

J. Le, C. J. Kim, “Surface tension driven microactuation based on continuous electrowetting,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 171–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, D. E. Pride, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Spectrally resolved near field investigation of proton implanted vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3112–3114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. R.

J. Cha, J. H. Park, M. R. Kim, W. Jhe, “Near field optical data storage using a nanometric aperture array,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 37, 735–738 (2000).

Kim, T. G.

H. K. Jang, Y. D. Chung, S. W. Whangbo, T. G. Kim, C. N. Whang, S. J. Lee, S. Lee, “Effects of chemical etching with nitric acid on glass surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 267–274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knippels, G. M. H.

D. V. Palanker, G. M. H. Knippels, T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, “IR microscopy with a transient photo-induced near-field probe (tipless near-field microscopy),” Opt. Commun. 148, 215–220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Increasing throughput of a near-field optical fiber probe over 1000-times by the use of a triple tapered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2090–2092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, T. Yatsui, S. Ishimura, M. B. Lee, N. Atoda, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, “Planar apertured probe array for optical near-field memory,” in Far- and Near-Field Optics: Physics and Information Processing Conference, S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3467, 258–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Le, J.

J. Le, C. J. Kim, “Surface tension driven microactuation based on continuous electrowetting,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 171–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. K.

J. Tang, B. Seshadri, K. N. Naughton, B. K. Lee, R. C. J. Chi, A. J. Steckl, F. R. Beyette, “CMOS-based photoreceiver arrays for page-oriented optical storage access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1234–1236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

D. Di Carlo, W. Chang, L. P. Lee, “Simulations of near-field excitation and trapping for integrated near-field optical microfluidic devices,” in First Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 411–414.

Lee, M. B.

M. Kourogi, T. Yatsui, S. Ishimura, M. B. Lee, N. Atoda, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, “Planar apertured probe array for optical near-field memory,” in Far- and Near-Field Optics: Physics and Information Processing Conference, S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3467, 258–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

H. K. Jang, Y. D. Chung, S. W. Whangbo, T. G. Kim, C. N. Whang, S. J. Lee, S. Lee, “Effects of chemical etching with nitric acid on glass surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 267–274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

H. K. Jang, Y. D. Chung, S. W. Whangbo, T. G. Kim, C. N. Whang, S. J. Lee, S. Lee, “Effects of chemical etching with nitric acid on glass surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 267–274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Legett, G. J.

S. Sun, K. S. L. Chong, G. J. Legett, “Scanning near-field optical lithography of self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2414–2415 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindsay, S. M.

C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, S. M. Lindsay, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Near field scanning optical measurements of optical intensity distributions in semiconductor channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3471–3473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lo, L. L.

L. L. Lo, “The meniscus on a needle—a lesson in matching,” J. Fluid. Mech. 132, 65–78 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Marcia, A.

A. Marcia, S. Raghavan, P. Deymier, D. J. Monk, R. Roop, “Water dispersible silanes for wettability modification of polysilicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, H6–H11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marti, O.

W. Noel, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollrichner, O. Marti, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, P. U. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, “Fabrication of a fiber probe with a nanometric protrusion for near-field optical microscopy by a novel technique of three dimensional nanophotolithography,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2224–2230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mayr, K.

W. Noel, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollrichner, O. Marti, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Monk, D. J.

A. Marcia, S. Raghavan, P. Deymier, D. J. Monk, R. Roop, “Water dispersible silanes for wettability modification of polysilicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, H6–H11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Monobe, H.

M. Fujihira, H. Monobe, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, “Measurements of lateral distributions of fluorescence intensities and fluorescence spectra of microareas by a combined SNOM and AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 118–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, G. H.

G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1215–1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, P.

M. Paesler, P. Moyer, Near-Field Optics: Theory, Instrumentation and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Muramatsu, H.

M. Fujihira, H. Monobe, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, “Measurements of lateral distributions of fluorescence intensities and fluorescence spectra of microareas by a combined SNOM and AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 118–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naghski, D. H.

C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, S. M. Lindsay, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Near field scanning optical measurements of optical intensity distributions in semiconductor channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3471–3473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Naughton, K. N.

J. Tang, B. Seshadri, K. N. Naughton, B. K. Lee, R. C. J. Chi, A. J. Steckl, F. R. Beyette, “CMOS-based photoreceiver arrays for page-oriented optical storage access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1234–1236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noel, W.

W. Noel, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollrichner, O. Marti, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohsawa, H.

S. Jiand, H. Ohsawa, K. Yamada, T. Pangaribuan, M. Ohtsu, K. Imai, A. Ikai, “Nanometer scale biosample observation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2282–2287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Increasing throughput of a near-field optical fiber probe over 1000-times by the use of a triple tapered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2090–2092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, “Fabrication of a fiber probe with a nanometric protrusion for near-field optical microscopy by a novel technique of three dimensional nanophotolithography,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2224–2230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohtsu, “Progress of high resolution photon scanning tunneling microscopy due to a nanometric probe,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1200–1221 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiand, H. Ohsawa, K. Yamada, T. Pangaribuan, M. Ohtsu, K. Imai, A. Ikai, “Nanometer scale biosample observation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2282–2287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, T. Yatsui, S. Ishimura, M. B. Lee, N. Atoda, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, “Planar apertured probe array for optical near-field memory,” in Far- and Near-Field Optics: Physics and Information Processing Conference, S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3467, 258–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M.

M. Paesler, P. Moyer, Near-Field Optics: Theory, Instrumentation and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1996).

Palanker, D. V.

D. V. Palanker, G. M. H. Knippels, T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, “IR microscopy with a transient photo-induced near-field probe (tipless near-field microscopy),” Opt. Commun. 148, 215–220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pangaribuan, T.

S. Jiand, H. Ohsawa, K. Yamada, T. Pangaribuan, M. Ohtsu, K. Imai, A. Ikai, “Nanometer scale biosample observation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2282–2287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. Cha, J. H. Park, M. R. Kim, W. Jhe, “Near field optical data storage using a nanometric aperture array,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 37, 735–738 (2000).

Poweleit, C. D.

C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, S. M. Lindsay, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Near field scanning optical measurements of optical intensity distributions in semiconductor channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3471–3473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pride, D. E.

J. Kim, D. E. Pride, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Spectrally resolved near field investigation of proton implanted vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3112–3114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raghavan, S.

A. Marcia, S. Raghavan, P. Deymier, D. J. Monk, R. Roop, “Water dispersible silanes for wettability modification of polysilicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, H6–H11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roop, R.

A. Marcia, S. Raghavan, P. Deymier, D. J. Monk, R. Roop, “Water dispersible silanes for wettability modification of polysilicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, H6–H11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruf, A.

W. Noel, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollrichner, O. Marti, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwettman, H. A.

D. V. Palanker, G. M. H. Knippels, T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, “IR microscopy with a transient photo-induced near-field probe (tipless near-field microscopy),” Opt. Commun. 148, 215–220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seshadri, B.

J. Tang, B. Seshadri, K. N. Naughton, B. K. Lee, R. C. J. Chi, A. J. Steckl, F. R. Beyette, “CMOS-based photoreceiver arrays for page-oriented optical storage access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1234–1236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sick, B.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, P. U. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, “High quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, T. I.

D. V. Palanker, G. M. H. Knippels, T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, “IR microscopy with a transient photo-induced near-field probe (tipless near-field microscopy),” Opt. Commun. 148, 215–220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

J. Tang, B. Seshadri, K. N. Naughton, B. K. Lee, R. C. J. Chi, A. J. Steckl, F. R. Beyette, “CMOS-based photoreceiver arrays for page-oriented optical storage access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1234–1236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, V.

Stockle, R.

R. Stockle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, “High quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suh, Y. D.

Y. D. Suh, R. Zenobi, “Improved probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1139–1142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S.

S. Sun, K. S. L. Chong, G. J. Legett, “Scanning near-field optical lithography of self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2414–2415 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

J. Tang, B. Seshadri, K. N. Naughton, B. K. Lee, R. C. J. Chi, A. J. Steckl, F. R. Beyette, “CMOS-based photoreceiver arrays for page-oriented optical storage access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1234–1236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, K.

M. Kourogi, T. Yatsui, S. Ishimura, M. B. Lee, N. Atoda, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, “Planar apertured probe array for optical near-field memory,” in Far- and Near-Field Optics: Physics and Information Processing Conference, S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3467, 258–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D. R.

D. R. Turner, “Etch procedures for optical fibers,” U.S. patent4,469554 (4September1984).

Valaskovic, G. A.

G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1215–1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

P. K. Wong, T. Wang, C. Ho, “Optical fiber tip fabricated by surface tension controlled etching,” in Proceedings of Solid State Sensor Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, 2002), pp. 94–97.

Whang, C. N.

H. K. Jang, Y. D. Chung, S. W. Whangbo, T. G. Kim, C. N. Whang, S. J. Lee, S. Lee, “Effects of chemical etching with nitric acid on glass surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 267–274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Whangbo, S. W.

H. K. Jang, Y. D. Chung, S. W. Whangbo, T. G. Kim, C. N. Whang, S. J. Lee, S. Lee, “Effects of chemical etching with nitric acid on glass surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 267–274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wild, P. U.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, P. U. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wild, U. P.

R. Stockle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, “High quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wong, P. K.

P. K. Wong, T. Wang, C. Ho, “Optical fiber tip fabricated by surface tension controlled etching,” in Proceedings of Solid State Sensor Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, 2002), pp. 94–97.

Yamada, K.

S. Jiand, H. Ohsawa, K. Yamada, T. Pangaribuan, M. Ohtsu, K. Imai, A. Ikai, “Nanometer scale biosample observation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2282–2287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yatsui, T.

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Increasing throughput of a near-field optical fiber probe over 1000-times by the use of a triple tapered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2090–2092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, T. Yatsui, S. Ishimura, M. B. Lee, N. Atoda, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, “Planar apertured probe array for optical near-field memory,” in Far- and Near-Field Optics: Physics and Information Processing Conference, S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3467, 258–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zenobi, R.

Y. D. Suh, R. Zenobi, “Improved probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1139–1142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, B. Sick, P. U. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, “High quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. D. Suh, R. Zenobi, “Improved probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1139–1142 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton, G. H. Morrison, “Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fiber near-field probes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1215–1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

W. Noel, M. Abraham, K. Mayr, A. Ruf, J. Barenz, O. Hollrichner, O. Marti, “Micromachined aperture probe tip for multifunctional scanning probe microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1236–1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, D. E. Pride, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Spectrally resolved near field investigation of proton implanted vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3112–3114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poweleit, D. H. Naghski, S. M. Lindsay, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, “Near field scanning optical measurements of optical intensity distributions in semiconductor channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3471–3473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, “Increasing throughput of a near-field optical fiber probe over 1000-times by the use of a triple tapered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2090–2092 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Stockle, C. Fokas, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, B. Sick, B. Hecht, U. P. Wild, “High quality near-field optical probes by tube etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 160–162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Tang, B. Seshadri, K. N. Naughton, B. K. Lee, R. C. J. Chi, A. J. Steckl, F. R. Beyette, “CMOS-based photoreceiver arrays for page-oriented optical storage access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1234–1236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum (1)

Y. T. Chiu, “A second wind for DVD red laser technology?” IEEE Spectrum 39, 18 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Sun, K. S. L. Chong, G. J. Legett, “Scanning near-field optical lithography of self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 2414–2415 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. Hecht, B. Sick, P. U. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, “Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: fundamentals and applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761–7774 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

A. Marcia, S. Raghavan, P. Deymier, D. J. Monk, R. Roop, “Water dispersible silanes for wettability modification of polysilicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 149, H6–H11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid. Mech. (1)

L. L. Lo, “The meniscus on a needle—a lesson in matching,” J. Fluid. Mech. 132, 65–78 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

J. Cha, J. H. Park, M. R. Kim, W. Jhe, “Near field optical data storage using a nanometric aperture array,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 37, 735–738 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

M. Ohtsu, “Progress of high resolution photon scanning tunneling microscopy due to a nanometric probe,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1200–1221 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, M. Ohtsu, “Fabrication of a fiber probe with a nanometric protrusion for near-field optical microscopy by a novel technique of three dimensional nanophotolithography,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2224–2230 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Stenger, F. R. Beyette, “Design and analysis of an optical waveguide tap for silicon CMOS circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 277–284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

J. Le, C. J. Kim, “Surface tension driven microactuation based on continuous electrowetting,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9, 171–180 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

H. K. Jang, Y. D. Chung, S. W. Whangbo, T. G. Kim, C. N. Whang, S. J. Lee, S. Lee, “Effects of chemical etching with nitric acid on glass surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 267–274 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Jiand, H. Ohsawa, K. Yamada, T. Pangaribuan, M. Ohtsu, K. Imai, A. Ikai, “Nanometer scale biosample observation using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 2282–2287 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. V. Palanker, G. M. H. Knippels, T. I. Smith, H. A. Schwettman, “IR microscopy with a transient photo-induced near-field probe (tipless near-field microscopy),” Opt. Commun. 148, 215–220 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Furukawa, S. Katawa, “Local field enhancement with an apertureless near-field microscope,” Opt. Commun. 148, 221–224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

M. Fujihira, H. Monobe, H. Muramatsu, T. Ataka, “Measurements of lateral distributions of fluorescence intensities and fluorescence spectra of microareas by a combined SNOM and AFM,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 118–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. Di Carlo, W. Chang, L. P. Lee, “Simulations of near-field excitation and trapping for integrated near-field optical microfluidic devices,” in First Annual International IEEE-EMBS Special Topic Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 411–414.

M. Paesler, P. Moyer, Near-Field Optics: Theory, Instrumentation and Applications (Wiley, New York, 1996).

M. Kourogi, T. Yatsui, S. Ishimura, M. B. Lee, N. Atoda, K. Tsutsui, M. Ohtsu, “Planar apertured probe array for optical near-field memory,” in Far- and Near-Field Optics: Physics and Information Processing Conference, S. Jutamulia, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3467, 258–267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Turner, “Etch procedures for optical fibers,” U.S. patent4,469554 (4September1984).

P. K. Wong, T. Wang, C. Ho, “Optical fiber tip fabricated by surface tension controlled etching,” in Proceedings of Solid State Sensor Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, 2002), pp. 94–97.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the etching setup and the first etch step. (b) Schematic diagram of the second etch step.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the optical test setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Scanning-electron micrographs of an array of four probes at the end of the first etch step and (b) probe tips at the end of the second etch step. Inset, close-up of a tapered 200-nm tip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vertical and horizontal etch rates. The slope is halved to account for etching from two directions. (a) Vertical etch rate, 2.3 μm/min; (b) lateral etch rate, 2.54 μm/min.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning-electron micrographs of the vertical sidewall after (a) 15, (b) 25, and (c) 35 min of etch.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Atomic-force micrographs of a vertical sidewall after (a) 15 min of etch (rms roughness, 159 nm); (b) 25 min of etch (rms roughness, 195 nm); and (c) 35 min of etch (rms roughness, 353 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scanning-electron micrograph of the final probe tip formed from a probe that has a rectangular cross section at the end of the first etch step’s low aspect ratio.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variations of loss coefficient with etch duration.

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