Abstract

We discuss the design and the performance of a Fizeau interferometer with a long focal length and a large field of view that is well suited for a global astrometry space mission. Our work focuses on the geometric optimization and minimization of aberration of such an astrometric interferometer, which is able to observe astronomical targets down to the visual magnitude (mag) m v = 20 mag, with an accuracy in the measurements of 10 micro-arcseconds at m v = 15 mag. We assume a mission profile similar to that of the Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics mission of the European Space Agency. In this framework, data acquisition is performed by an array of CCDs working in time-delay integration mode. Optical aberrations, particularly distortion and coma, play a crucial role in the efficiency of this technique. We present a design solution that meets the requirements for the best possible exploitation of the time-delay integration mode over a field of view of 0.7° × 0.7°.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  3. M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).
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2001 (1)

M. Gai, D. Carollo, M. Delbò, M. G. Lattanzi, G. Massone, F. Bertinetto, G. Mana, S. Cesare, “Location accuracy limitations for CCD cameras,” Astron. Astrophys. 367, 362–370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

E. Thomas, S. Robbe, T. Viard, D. Segransan, F. Vakili, R. Krawczyk, “Optical configuration for a micro-arcsecond astrometric interferometer in space,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, L147–L154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Gai, S. Casertano, D. Carollo, M. G. Lattanzi, “Location estimators for interferometric fringes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 848–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

1996 (2)

S. Loiseau, S. Shaklan, “Optical design, modeling and tollerancing of a Fizeau interferometer dedicated to astrometry,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 117, L167–L178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Lindegren, M. A. C. Perryman, “GAIA: Global astrometric interferometer for astrophysics,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 116, L379–L595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Kovalevsky, “Prospects for space stellar astrometry,” Space Sci. Rev. 39, 1–63 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Arenou, F.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

Bastian, U.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

U. Bastian, S. Roser, R. D. Scholz, “DIVA, the next global astrometry and photometry mission,” in Dynamics of Star Clusters and the Milky Way, S. Deiters, B. Fuchs, R. Spurzem, A. Just, R. Wielen, eds., Vol. 228 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2001), p. 321.

Bernacca, P. L.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

Bertinetto, D.

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

Bertinetto, F.

M. Gai, D. Carollo, M. Delbò, M. G. Lattanzi, G. Massone, F. Bertinetto, G. Mana, S. Cesare, “Location accuracy limitations for CCD cameras,” Astron. Astrophys. 367, 362–370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Binney, J.

J. Binney, M. Merrifield, Galactic Astronomy (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1998).

Busonero, D.

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

D. Busonero, “Missione GAIA: Ottimizzazione dello strumento per misure di astrometria globale ad alta precisione,” Ph.D. dissertation (Università degli Studi di Pisa, Pisa, Italy, 2001).

Carollo, D.

M. Gai, D. Carollo, M. Delbò, M. G. Lattanzi, G. Massone, F. Bertinetto, G. Mana, S. Cesare, “Location accuracy limitations for CCD cameras,” Astron. Astrophys. 367, 362–370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Gai, S. Casertano, D. Carollo, M. G. Lattanzi, “Location estimators for interferometric fringes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 848–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

Casertano, S.

M. Gai, S. Casertano, D. Carollo, M. G. Lattanzi, “Location estimators for interferometric fringes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 848–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cesare, S.

M. Gai, D. Carollo, M. Delbò, M. G. Lattanzi, G. Massone, F. Bertinetto, G. Mana, S. Cesare, “Location accuracy limitations for CCD cameras,” Astron. Astrophys. 367, 362–370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

S. Cesare, “Development in Enabling Technologies for the GAIA Mission,” presented at the IAF Space Exploration Symposium, Melbourne, Australia, 28 September–1 October 1998.

Corcione, L.

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

Crézé, M.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

de Boer, K.

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

de Zeeuw, P. T.

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

Delbò, M.

M. Gai, D. Carollo, M. Delbò, M. G. Lattanzi, G. Massone, F. Bertinetto, G. Mana, S. Cesare, “Location accuracy limitations for CCD cameras,” Astron. Astrophys. 367, 362–370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Donati, F.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

Favata, F.

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

Froeschlé, M.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

Gai, M.

M. Gai, D. Carollo, M. Delbò, M. G. Lattanzi, G. Massone, F. Bertinetto, G. Mana, S. Cesare, “Location accuracy limitations for CCD cameras,” Astron. Astrophys. 367, 362–370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Gai, S. Casertano, D. Carollo, M. G. Lattanzi, “Location estimators for interferometric fringes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 848–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

Gardiol, D.

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

Gaume, R.

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

Gilmore, G.

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

Grenon, M.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

Harris, F.

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

Hoeg, E.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

Horner, S.

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

Johnson, M.

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

Johnston, K. J.

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

Korsch, D.

D. Korsch, Reflective Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

Kovalevsky, J.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

J. Kovalevsky, “Prospects for space stellar astrometry,” Space Sci. Rev. 39, 1–63 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Krawczyk, R.

E. Thomas, S. Robbe, T. Viard, D. Segransan, F. Vakili, R. Krawczyk, “Optical configuration for a micro-arcsecond astrometric interferometer in space,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, L147–L154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lattanzi, M. G.

M. Gai, D. Carollo, M. Delbò, M. G. Lattanzi, G. Massone, F. Bertinetto, G. Mana, S. Cesare, “Location accuracy limitations for CCD cameras,” Astron. Astrophys. 367, 362–370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Gai, S. Casertano, D. Carollo, M. G. Lattanzi, “Location estimators for interferometric fringes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 848–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

Le Poole, R. S.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

Lindegren, L.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

L. Lindegren, M. A. C. Perryman, “GAIA: Global astrometric interferometer for astrophysics,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 116, L379–L595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

L. Lindegren, “Photometric astrometry: a comparison of method for precise image location,” in Modern Astrometry, F. V. Prochazka, R. H. Tucker, eds. (Institute of Astronomy, University of Wien, Austria, 1978).

Loiseau, S.

S. Loiseau, S. Shaklan, “Optical design, modeling and tollerancing of a Fizeau interferometer dedicated to astrometry,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 117, L167–L178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Loreggia, D.

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

Luri, X.

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

Mana, G.

M. Gai, D. Carollo, M. Delbò, M. G. Lattanzi, G. Massone, F. Bertinetto, G. Mana, S. Cesare, “Location accuracy limitations for CCD cameras,” Astron. Astrophys. 367, 362–370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

Massone, G.

M. Gai, D. Carollo, M. Delbò, M. G. Lattanzi, G. Massone, F. Bertinetto, G. Mana, S. Cesare, “Location accuracy limitations for CCD cameras,” Astron. Astrophys. 367, 362–370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

Mérat, P.

O. Saint-Pe, P. Mérat, F. Safa, O. Pace, M. A. C. Prettyman, “Focal plane array design for the GAIA space mission,” in Optical Detectors for Astronomy II: State-of-the-Art at the Turn of the Millenium, P. Amico, J. W. Beletic, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999), p. 149.

Merrifield, M.

J. Binney, M. Merrifield, Galactic Astronomy (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1998).

Mignard, F.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

Monet, D. G.

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

Murison, M. A.

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

Murray, C. A.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

O’Shea, D. C.

D. C. O’Shea, Elements of Modern Optical Design (Wiley, New York, 1985).

Pace, O.

O. Saint-Pe, P. Mérat, F. Safa, O. Pace, M. A. C. Prettyman, “Focal plane array design for the GAIA space mission,” in Optical Detectors for Astronomy II: State-of-the-Art at the Turn of the Millenium, P. Amico, J. W. Beletic, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999), p. 149.

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

Perryman, M. A. C.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

L. Lindegren, M. A. C. Perryman, “GAIA: Global astrometric interferometer for astrophysics,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 116, L379–L595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

Petersen, C. S.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

Prettyman, M. A. C.

O. Saint-Pe, P. Mérat, F. Safa, O. Pace, M. A. C. Prettyman, “Focal plane array design for the GAIA space mission,” in Optical Detectors for Astronomy II: State-of-the-Art at the Turn of the Millenium, P. Amico, J. W. Beletic, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999), p. 149.

Robbe, S.

E. Thomas, S. Robbe, T. Viard, D. Segransan, F. Vakili, R. Krawczyk, “Optical configuration for a micro-arcsecond astrometric interferometer in space,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, L147–L154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roser, S.

U. Bastian, S. Roser, R. D. Scholz, “DIVA, the next global astrometry and photometry mission,” in Dynamics of Star Clusters and the Milky Way, S. Deiters, B. Fuchs, R. Spurzem, A. Just, R. Wielen, eds., Vol. 228 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2001), p. 321.

Safa, F.

O. Saint-Pe, P. Mérat, F. Safa, O. Pace, M. A. C. Prettyman, “Focal plane array design for the GAIA space mission,” in Optical Detectors for Astronomy II: State-of-the-Art at the Turn of the Millenium, P. Amico, J. W. Beletic, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999), p. 149.

Saint-Pe, O.

O. Saint-Pe, P. Mérat, F. Safa, O. Pace, M. A. C. Prettyman, “Focal plane array design for the GAIA space mission,” in Optical Detectors for Astronomy II: State-of-the-Art at the Turn of the Millenium, P. Amico, J. W. Beletic, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999), p. 149.

Scholz, R. D.

U. Bastian, S. Roser, R. D. Scholz, “DIVA, the next global astrometry and photometry mission,” in Dynamics of Star Clusters and the Milky Way, S. Deiters, B. Fuchs, R. Spurzem, A. Just, R. Wielen, eds., Vol. 228 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2001), p. 321.

Schrijver, H.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

Segransan, D.

E. Thomas, S. Robbe, T. Viard, D. Segransan, F. Vakili, R. Krawczyk, “Optical configuration for a micro-arcsecond astrometric interferometer in space,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, L147–L154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seidelmann, P. K.

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

Shaklan, S.

S. Loiseau, S. Shaklan, “Optical design, modeling and tollerancing of a Fizeau interferometer dedicated to astrometry,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 117, L167–L178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shao, M.

M. Shao, “SIM: the space interferometry mission,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 536–540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W.

W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

Thomas, E.

E. Thomas, S. Robbe, T. Viard, D. Segransan, F. Vakili, R. Krawczyk, “Optical configuration for a micro-arcsecond astrometric interferometer in space,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, L147–L154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Turon, C.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

Urban, S. E.

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

Vakili, F.

E. Thomas, S. Robbe, T. Viard, D. Segransan, F. Vakili, R. Krawczyk, “Optical configuration for a micro-arcsecond astrometric interferometer in space,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, L147–L154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van der Marel, H.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

van Leeuwen, F.

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

Vassar, R.

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

Viard, T.

E. Thomas, S. Robbe, T. Viard, D. Segransan, F. Vakili, R. Krawczyk, “Optical configuration for a micro-arcsecond astrometric interferometer in space,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, L147–L154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. (2)

S. Loiseau, S. Shaklan, “Optical design, modeling and tollerancing of a Fizeau interferometer dedicated to astrometry,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 117, L167–L178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Lindegren, M. A. C. Perryman, “GAIA: Global astrometric interferometer for astrophysics,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 116, L379–L595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

M. A. C. Perryman, L. Lindegren, J. Kovalevsky, E. Hoeg, U. Bastian, P. L. Bernacca, M. Crézé, F. Donati, M. Grenon, F. van Leeuwen, H. van der Marel, F. Mignard, C. A. Murray, R. S. Le Poole, H. Schrijver, C. Turon, F. Arenou, M. Froeschlé, C. S. Petersen, “The Hipparcos Catalogue,” Astron. Astrophys. 323, L49–L52 (1997).

M. Gai, D. Carollo, M. Delbò, M. G. Lattanzi, G. Massone, F. Bertinetto, G. Mana, S. Cesare, “Location accuracy limitations for CCD cameras,” Astron. Astrophys. 367, 362–370 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. (1)

E. Thomas, S. Robbe, T. Viard, D. Segransan, F. Vakili, R. Krawczyk, “Optical configuration for a micro-arcsecond astrometric interferometer in space,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 138, L147–L154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. (1)

K. J. Johnston, R. Gaume, F. Harris, D. G. Monet, M. A. Murison, P. K. Seidelmann, S. E. Urban, M. Johnson, S. Horner, R. Vassar, “Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME),” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1425 (1999).

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

M. Gai, S. Casertano, D. Carollo, M. G. Lattanzi, “Location estimators for interferometric fringes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 110, 848–862 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. Kovalevsky, “Prospects for space stellar astrometry,” Space Sci. Rev. 39, 1–63 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

M. Gai, M. G. Lattanzi, D. Busonero, D. Bertinetto, S. Cesare, L. Corcione, D. Carollo, D. Gardiol, D. Loreggia, G. Mana, G. Massone, “An optimised interferometric configuration for GAIA,” report SAG-MGL-016 (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 2001).

D. Busonero, “Missione GAIA: Ottimizzazione dello strumento per misure di astrometria globale ad alta precisione,” Ph.D. dissertation (Università degli Studi di Pisa, Pisa, Italy, 2001).

J. Binney, M. Merrifield, Galactic Astronomy (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1998).

Optical Research Associates, “Code V User Manual,” (Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, Calif., 1995).

D. C. O’Shea, Elements of Modern Optical Design (Wiley, New York, 1985).

W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990).

D. Korsch, Reflective Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

M. Shao, “SIM: the space interferometry mission,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 536–540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Cesare, “Development in Enabling Technologies for the GAIA Mission,” presented at the IAF Space Exploration Symposium, Melbourne, Australia, 28 September–1 October 1998.

M. A. C. Perryman, K. de Boer, F. Favata, G. Gilmore, E. Hoeg, M. G. Lattanzi, L. Lindegren, X. Luri, F. Mignard, O. Pace, P. T. de Zeeuw, “GAIA—Composition, formation and evolution of the galaxy. Concept and technology study,” Rep. and Exec. summary ESA-SCI (2000)4 (European Space Agency, Munich, Germany, 2000).

U. Bastian, S. Roser, R. D. Scholz, “DIVA, the next global astrometry and photometry mission,” in Dynamics of Star Clusters and the Milky Way, S. Deiters, B. Fuchs, R. Spurzem, A. Just, R. Wielen, eds., Vol. 228 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 2001), p. 321.

O. Saint-Pe, P. Mérat, F. Safa, O. Pace, M. A. C. Prettyman, “Focal plane array design for the GAIA space mission,” in Optical Detectors for Astronomy II: State-of-the-Art at the Turn of the Millenium, P. Amico, J. W. Beletic, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999), p. 149.

L. Lindegren, “Photometric astrometry: a comparison of method for precise image location,” in Modern Astrometry, F. V. Prochazka, R. H. Tucker, eds. (Institute of Astronomy, University of Wien, Austria, 1978).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Star path on the FP.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

rms wave-front error: Diameters of circles correspond to the amount of rms wave-front (in wavelengths; the scale is shown) at λ r = 700 nm. The range of wave-front error values on the field considered for the optimizations (0.7° × 0.7°) is [0.002, 0.031], with an average value of 0.008 ± 0.005.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Linear mismatch, induced by distortion, between CCD charges and the crossing image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Final accuracy for different spectral types.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Main Parameters of Several Astrometric Missions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Configuration Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 3 Ray Aberration: Seidel Approximation in the Optimized FOV of 0.7° × 0.7°

Tables Icon

Table 4 Classic Zernike Polynomial Coefficients at λr = 700 nm for the Component Projected in the Scan Direction in a FOV of 0.7° × 0.7°

Tables Icon

Table 5 Location Error [μas] versus Visual Magnitude for Some Spectral Types

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ = η λ X SNR ,
B + D 2   m .
NOF = 2 B D = 4 ,
D 0.7   m ,     B 1.4   m .
n pixel = λ B EFL l pixel 2 ,
EFL = 3 × 9   μ m λ r   B = 55   m .
N phel = t D 2 Δ λ   I m λ T opt λ QE λ d λ ,
N phel t D 2 T opt QEI m Δ λ ,   I m = I 0 × 10 - 0.4   m ,
t = Ω 4 π   T     Ω = 4 π   t T .
Ω 0.3   square   deg .
d = α + Cy + By 2 + Ay 3 ,
0 | y | 335   mm .
y d = y + d = y + Ay 3 .
y d = y + 3 Ay 2 y = V f 1 + 3 Ay 2 ,
y d y 0 + y 1 = V f 1 + 3 A y 0 + y 1 2 .
Δ y d y 0 + y 1 ,   y 0 = V f 1 + 3 A y 0 + y 1 2 - V c .
V f 1 + 3 Ay 0 2 V c V f 1 + 3 A y 0 + 25 2 .

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