Abstract

Laser-induced fluorescence target generation in dye-doped polymer films has recently been introduced as a promising alternative to more traditional photogrammetric targeting techniques for surface profiling of highly transparent or reflective membrane structures. We investigate the photophysics of these dye-doped polymers to help determine their long-term durability and suitability for laser-induced fluorescence photogrammetric targeting. These investigations included experimental analysis of the fluorescence emission pattern, spectral content, temporal lifetime, linearity, and half-life. Results are presented that reveal an emission pattern wider than normal Lambertian diffuse surface scatter, a fluorescence time constant of 6.6 ns, a pump saturation level of approximately 20 μJ/mm2, and a useful lifetime of more than 300,000 measurements. Furthermore, two demonstrations of photogrammetric measurements by laser-induced fluorescence targeting are presented, showing agreement between photogrammetric and physically measured dimensions within the measurement scatter of 100 μm.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. B. Chmielewski, “Overview of gossamer structures,” in Gossamer Spacecraft: Membrane and Inflatable Structures Technology for Space Applications, Vol. 191 of Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, C. H. M. Jenkins, ed. (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2001), pp. 1–33.
  2. R. S. Pappa, J. T. Black, J. R. Blandino, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, A. A. Dorrington, “Dot-projection photogrammetry and videogrammetry of gossamer space structures,” AIAA J. Spacecraft Rockets 40, 858–867 (2003).
  3. E. M. Mikhail, J. S. Bethel, J. C. McGlone, Introduction to Modern Photogrammetry (Wiley, New York, 2001).
  4. A. Gruen, “Development of digital methodology and systems” in Close Range Photogrammetry and Machine Vision, K. B. Atkinson, ed. (Whittles, Scotland, UK, 2001), pp. 78–104.
  5. T. W. Jones, A. A. Dorrington, P. L. Brittman, P. M. Danhey, “Laser induced fluorescence for photogrammetric measurement of transparent or reflective aerospace structures,” in Proceedings of the 49th International Instrumentation Symposium (CD-ROM), L. Harris, ed. (Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 2003), paper IIS03–P024.
  6. J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. M. Wang, X. Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Temporal behaviors of the amplified spontaneous emission and the lasing from a copolymer,” Thin Solid Films 363, 182–184 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Arena, F. Bonsignore, S. Patané, G. Saitta, “Optical properties of laser-dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole films coated with polycarbonate,” J. Mater. Res. 17, 1490–1494 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Kim, K. Hong, H. Na, Y. Han, “Polymer thin film containing azo dye for rewritable media,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1585–1587 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. W. Burner, T. Liu, “Videogrammetric model deformation measurement technique,” J. Aircr. 38, 745–754 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. S. Pappa, L. R. Giersch, J. M. Quagliaroli, “Photogrammetry of a 5m inflatable space antenna with consumer-grade digital cameras,” Exp. Tech. 25, 21–29 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  12. U. K. Dharamsi, D. M. Evanchik, J. R. Blandino, “Comparing photogrammetry with a conventional displacement measurement technique on a square Kapton membrane,” paper AIAA-2002-1258 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).
  13. R. S. Pappa, T. W. Jones, J. T. Black, A. Walford, S. Robson, M. R. Shortis, “Photogrammetry methodology development for gossamer spacecraft structures,” paper AIAA-2002-1375 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).
  14. T. W. Jones, R. S. Pappa, “Dot projection photogrammetric technique for shape measurements of aerospace test articles,” paper AIAA-2002-0532 presented at the 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Conference, Reno, Nevada, 14–17 January 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).
  15. T. A. Clarke, “An analysis of the properties of targets used in digital close range photogrammetric measurements,” in Videometrics III, S. F. El-Hakim, ed., Proc. SPIE2350, 251–262 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
  17. G. Somasundaram, A. Ramalingam, “Gain studies of Rhodamine 6G dye doped polymer laser,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 125, 93–98 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. A. Dorrington, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, R. S. Pappa, “Laser-induced fluorescence photogrammetry for dynamic characterization of membranes,” AIAA J. 42, 2124–2129 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. A. Dorrington, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, R. S. Pappa, “Laser-induced fluorescence photogrammetry for dynamic characterization of membranes,” AIAA J. 42, 2124–2129 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. S. Pappa, J. T. Black, J. R. Blandino, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, A. A. Dorrington, “Dot-projection photogrammetry and videogrammetry of gossamer space structures,” AIAA J. Spacecraft Rockets 40, 858–867 (2003).

2002 (1)

A. Arena, F. Bonsignore, S. Patané, G. Saitta, “Optical properties of laser-dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole films coated with polycarbonate,” J. Mater. Res. 17, 1490–1494 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

J. Kim, K. Hong, H. Na, Y. Han, “Polymer thin film containing azo dye for rewritable media,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1585–1587 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. W. Burner, T. Liu, “Videogrammetric model deformation measurement technique,” J. Aircr. 38, 745–754 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. S. Pappa, L. R. Giersch, J. M. Quagliaroli, “Photogrammetry of a 5m inflatable space antenna with consumer-grade digital cameras,” Exp. Tech. 25, 21–29 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. M. Wang, X. Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Temporal behaviors of the amplified spontaneous emission and the lasing from a copolymer,” Thin Solid Films 363, 182–184 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

G. Somasundaram, A. Ramalingam, “Gain studies of Rhodamine 6G dye doped polymer laser,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 125, 93–98 (1999).
[Crossref]

Arena, A.

A. Arena, F. Bonsignore, S. Patané, G. Saitta, “Optical properties of laser-dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole films coated with polycarbonate,” J. Mater. Res. 17, 1490–1494 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bethel, J. S.

E. M. Mikhail, J. S. Bethel, J. C. McGlone, Introduction to Modern Photogrammetry (Wiley, New York, 2001).

Black, J. T.

R. S. Pappa, J. T. Black, J. R. Blandino, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, A. A. Dorrington, “Dot-projection photogrammetry and videogrammetry of gossamer space structures,” AIAA J. Spacecraft Rockets 40, 858–867 (2003).

R. S. Pappa, T. W. Jones, J. T. Black, A. Walford, S. Robson, M. R. Shortis, “Photogrammetry methodology development for gossamer spacecraft structures,” paper AIAA-2002-1375 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

Blandino, J. R.

R. S. Pappa, J. T. Black, J. R. Blandino, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, A. A. Dorrington, “Dot-projection photogrammetry and videogrammetry of gossamer space structures,” AIAA J. Spacecraft Rockets 40, 858–867 (2003).

U. K. Dharamsi, D. M. Evanchik, J. R. Blandino, “Comparing photogrammetry with a conventional displacement measurement technique on a square Kapton membrane,” paper AIAA-2002-1258 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

Bonsignore, F.

A. Arena, F. Bonsignore, S. Patané, G. Saitta, “Optical properties of laser-dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole films coated with polycarbonate,” J. Mater. Res. 17, 1490–1494 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brittman, P. L.

T. W. Jones, A. A. Dorrington, P. L. Brittman, P. M. Danhey, “Laser induced fluorescence for photogrammetric measurement of transparent or reflective aerospace structures,” in Proceedings of the 49th International Instrumentation Symposium (CD-ROM), L. Harris, ed. (Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 2003), paper IIS03–P024.

Burner, A. W.

A. W. Burner, T. Liu, “Videogrammetric model deformation measurement technique,” J. Aircr. 38, 745–754 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chmielewski, A. B.

A. B. Chmielewski, “Overview of gossamer structures,” in Gossamer Spacecraft: Membrane and Inflatable Structures Technology for Space Applications, Vol. 191 of Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, C. H. M. Jenkins, ed. (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2001), pp. 1–33.

Clarke, T. A.

T. A. Clarke, “An analysis of the properties of targets used in digital close range photogrammetric measurements,” in Videometrics III, S. F. El-Hakim, ed., Proc. SPIE2350, 251–262 (1994).
[Crossref]

Danehy, P. M.

A. A. Dorrington, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, R. S. Pappa, “Laser-induced fluorescence photogrammetry for dynamic characterization of membranes,” AIAA J. 42, 2124–2129 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. S. Pappa, J. T. Black, J. R. Blandino, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, A. A. Dorrington, “Dot-projection photogrammetry and videogrammetry of gossamer space structures,” AIAA J. Spacecraft Rockets 40, 858–867 (2003).

Danhey, P. M.

T. W. Jones, A. A. Dorrington, P. L. Brittman, P. M. Danhey, “Laser induced fluorescence for photogrammetric measurement of transparent or reflective aerospace structures,” in Proceedings of the 49th International Instrumentation Symposium (CD-ROM), L. Harris, ed. (Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 2003), paper IIS03–P024.

Dharamsi, U. K.

U. K. Dharamsi, D. M. Evanchik, J. R. Blandino, “Comparing photogrammetry with a conventional displacement measurement technique on a square Kapton membrane,” paper AIAA-2002-1258 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

Dorrington, A. A.

A. A. Dorrington, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, R. S. Pappa, “Laser-induced fluorescence photogrammetry for dynamic characterization of membranes,” AIAA J. 42, 2124–2129 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. S. Pappa, J. T. Black, J. R. Blandino, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, A. A. Dorrington, “Dot-projection photogrammetry and videogrammetry of gossamer space structures,” AIAA J. Spacecraft Rockets 40, 858–867 (2003).

T. W. Jones, A. A. Dorrington, P. L. Brittman, P. M. Danhey, “Laser induced fluorescence for photogrammetric measurement of transparent or reflective aerospace structures,” in Proceedings of the 49th International Instrumentation Symposium (CD-ROM), L. Harris, ed. (Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 2003), paper IIS03–P024.

Evanchik, D. M.

U. K. Dharamsi, D. M. Evanchik, J. R. Blandino, “Comparing photogrammetry with a conventional displacement measurement technique on a square Kapton membrane,” paper AIAA-2002-1258 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

Giersch, L. R.

R. S. Pappa, L. R. Giersch, J. M. Quagliaroli, “Photogrammetry of a 5m inflatable space antenna with consumer-grade digital cameras,” Exp. Tech. 25, 21–29 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gruen, A.

A. Gruen, “Development of digital methodology and systems” in Close Range Photogrammetry and Machine Vision, K. B. Atkinson, ed. (Whittles, Scotland, UK, 2001), pp. 78–104.

Han, Y.

J. Kim, K. Hong, H. Na, Y. Han, “Polymer thin film containing azo dye for rewritable media,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1585–1587 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hong, K.

J. Kim, K. Hong, H. Na, Y. Han, “Polymer thin film containing azo dye for rewritable media,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1585–1587 (2001).
[Crossref]

Imai, N.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jin, C.

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jing, X.

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jones, T. W.

A. A. Dorrington, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, R. S. Pappa, “Laser-induced fluorescence photogrammetry for dynamic characterization of membranes,” AIAA J. 42, 2124–2129 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. S. Pappa, J. T. Black, J. R. Blandino, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, A. A. Dorrington, “Dot-projection photogrammetry and videogrammetry of gossamer space structures,” AIAA J. Spacecraft Rockets 40, 858–867 (2003).

T. W. Jones, A. A. Dorrington, P. L. Brittman, P. M. Danhey, “Laser induced fluorescence for photogrammetric measurement of transparent or reflective aerospace structures,” in Proceedings of the 49th International Instrumentation Symposium (CD-ROM), L. Harris, ed. (Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 2003), paper IIS03–P024.

R. S. Pappa, T. W. Jones, J. T. Black, A. Walford, S. Robson, M. R. Shortis, “Photogrammetry methodology development for gossamer spacecraft structures,” paper AIAA-2002-1375 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

T. W. Jones, R. S. Pappa, “Dot projection photogrammetric technique for shape measurements of aerospace test articles,” paper AIAA-2002-0532 presented at the 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Conference, Reno, Nevada, 14–17 January 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

Kim, J.

J. Kim, K. Hong, H. Na, Y. Han, “Polymer thin film containing azo dye for rewritable media,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1585–1587 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Koike, Y.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kuriki, K.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. T.

S. M. Wang, X. Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Temporal behaviors of the amplified spontaneous emission and the lasing from a copolymer,” Thin Solid Films 363, 182–184 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, W. L.

S. M. Wang, X. Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Temporal behaviors of the amplified spontaneous emission and the lasing from a copolymer,” Thin Solid Films 363, 182–184 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.

A. W. Burner, T. Liu, “Videogrammetric model deformation measurement technique,” J. Aircr. 38, 745–754 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. Y.

S. M. Wang, X. Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Temporal behaviors of the amplified spontaneous emission and the lasing from a copolymer,” Thin Solid Films 363, 182–184 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

McGlone, J. C.

E. M. Mikhail, J. S. Bethel, J. C. McGlone, Introduction to Modern Photogrammetry (Wiley, New York, 2001).

Mikhail, E. M.

E. M. Mikhail, J. S. Bethel, J. C. McGlone, Introduction to Modern Photogrammetry (Wiley, New York, 2001).

Na, H.

J. Kim, K. Hong, H. Na, Y. Han, “Polymer thin film containing azo dye for rewritable media,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1585–1587 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ning, Y.

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nishihara, S.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nishizawa, Y.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pappa, R. S.

A. A. Dorrington, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, R. S. Pappa, “Laser-induced fluorescence photogrammetry for dynamic characterization of membranes,” AIAA J. 42, 2124–2129 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. S. Pappa, J. T. Black, J. R. Blandino, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, A. A. Dorrington, “Dot-projection photogrammetry and videogrammetry of gossamer space structures,” AIAA J. Spacecraft Rockets 40, 858–867 (2003).

R. S. Pappa, L. R. Giersch, J. M. Quagliaroli, “Photogrammetry of a 5m inflatable space antenna with consumer-grade digital cameras,” Exp. Tech. 25, 21–29 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. S. Pappa, T. W. Jones, J. T. Black, A. Walford, S. Robson, M. R. Shortis, “Photogrammetry methodology development for gossamer spacecraft structures,” paper AIAA-2002-1375 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

T. W. Jones, R. S. Pappa, “Dot projection photogrammetric technique for shape measurements of aerospace test articles,” paper AIAA-2002-0532 presented at the 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Conference, Reno, Nevada, 14–17 January 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

Patané, S.

A. Arena, F. Bonsignore, S. Patané, G. Saitta, “Optical properties of laser-dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole films coated with polycarbonate,” J. Mater. Res. 17, 1490–1494 (2002).
[Crossref]

Quagliaroli, J. M.

R. S. Pappa, L. R. Giersch, J. M. Quagliaroli, “Photogrammetry of a 5m inflatable space antenna with consumer-grade digital cameras,” Exp. Tech. 25, 21–29 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ramalingam, A.

G. Somasundaram, A. Ramalingam, “Gain studies of Rhodamine 6G dye doped polymer laser,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 125, 93–98 (1999).
[Crossref]

Robson, S.

R. S. Pappa, T. W. Jones, J. T. Black, A. Walford, S. Robson, M. R. Shortis, “Photogrammetry methodology development for gossamer spacecraft structures,” paper AIAA-2002-1375 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

Saitta, G.

A. Arena, F. Bonsignore, S. Patané, G. Saitta, “Optical properties of laser-dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole films coated with polycarbonate,” J. Mater. Res. 17, 1490–1494 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shortis, M. R.

R. S. Pappa, T. W. Jones, J. T. Black, A. Walford, S. Robson, M. R. Shortis, “Photogrammetry methodology development for gossamer spacecraft structures,” paper AIAA-2002-1375 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Somasundaram, G.

G. Somasundaram, A. Ramalingam, “Gain studies of Rhodamine 6G dye doped polymer laser,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 125, 93–98 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tagaya, A.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tamura, T.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Walford, A.

R. S. Pappa, T. W. Jones, J. T. Black, A. Walford, S. Robson, M. R. Shortis, “Photogrammetry methodology development for gossamer spacecraft structures,” paper AIAA-2002-1375 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

Wang, F.

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. J.

S. M. Wang, X. Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Temporal behaviors of the amplified spontaneous emission and the lasing from a copolymer,” Thin Solid Films 363, 182–184 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. M.

S. M. Wang, X. Y. Liu, L. J. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Temporal behaviors of the amplified spontaneous emission and the lasing from a copolymer,” Thin Solid Films 363, 182–184 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

AIAA J. (1)

A. A. Dorrington, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, R. S. Pappa, “Laser-induced fluorescence photogrammetry for dynamic characterization of membranes,” AIAA J. 42, 2124–2129 (2004).
[Crossref]

AIAA J. Spacecraft Rockets (1)

R. S. Pappa, J. T. Black, J. R. Blandino, T. W. Jones, P. M. Danehy, A. A. Dorrington, “Dot-projection photogrammetry and videogrammetry of gossamer space structures,” AIAA J. Spacecraft Rockets 40, 858–867 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000).
[Crossref]

Exp. Tech. (1)

R. S. Pappa, L. R. Giersch, J. M. Quagliaroli, “Photogrammetry of a 5m inflatable space antenna with consumer-grade digital cameras,” Exp. Tech. 25, 21–29 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Aircr. (1)

A. W. Burner, T. Liu, “Videogrammetric model deformation measurement technique,” J. Aircr. 38, 745–754 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

A. Arena, F. Bonsignore, S. Patané, G. Saitta, “Optical properties of laser-dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole films coated with polycarbonate,” J. Mater. Res. 17, 1490–1494 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A (1)

G. Somasundaram, A. Ramalingam, “Gain studies of Rhodamine 6G dye doped polymer laser,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 125, 93–98 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Kim, K. Hong, H. Na, Y. Han, “Polymer thin film containing azo dye for rewritable media,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1585–1587 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

J. Zhao, X. Liu, L. Wang, S. Wang, Y. Liu, Y. Ning, S. Wu, C. Jin, L. Wang, X. Jing, F. Wang, “Stimulated emission in the film of polymer/dye blend,” Thin Solid Films 363, 201–203 (2000).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Other (9)

E. M. Mikhail, J. S. Bethel, J. C. McGlone, Introduction to Modern Photogrammetry (Wiley, New York, 2001).

A. Gruen, “Development of digital methodology and systems” in Close Range Photogrammetry and Machine Vision, K. B. Atkinson, ed. (Whittles, Scotland, UK, 2001), pp. 78–104.

T. W. Jones, A. A. Dorrington, P. L. Brittman, P. M. Danhey, “Laser induced fluorescence for photogrammetric measurement of transparent or reflective aerospace structures,” in Proceedings of the 49th International Instrumentation Symposium (CD-ROM), L. Harris, ed. (Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 2003), paper IIS03–P024.

A. B. Chmielewski, “Overview of gossamer structures,” in Gossamer Spacecraft: Membrane and Inflatable Structures Technology for Space Applications, Vol. 191 of Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, C. H. M. Jenkins, ed. (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2001), pp. 1–33.

U. K. Dharamsi, D. M. Evanchik, J. R. Blandino, “Comparing photogrammetry with a conventional displacement measurement technique on a square Kapton membrane,” paper AIAA-2002-1258 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

R. S. Pappa, T. W. Jones, J. T. Black, A. Walford, S. Robson, M. R. Shortis, “Photogrammetry methodology development for gossamer spacecraft structures,” paper AIAA-2002-1375 presented at the 43rd AIAA Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, Denver, Colorado, 22–25 April 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

T. W. Jones, R. S. Pappa, “Dot projection photogrammetric technique for shape measurements of aerospace test articles,” paper AIAA-2002-0532 presented at the 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Conference, Reno, Nevada, 14–17 January 2002 (AIAA, Reston, Va., 2002).

T. A. Clarke, “An analysis of the properties of targets used in digital close range photogrammetric measurements,” in Videometrics III, S. F. El-Hakim, ed., Proc. SPIE2350, 251–262 (1994).
[Crossref]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multicamera photogrammetric measurement principal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transparent dye-doped polymer fixed to a reflective cylinder simulating an aluminized membrane (left), with attached retroreflective targets and illuminated with a camera flash (center), and illuminated with white-light dot projection (right). Note the hot spots apparent in both illuminated images.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LIF photogrammetry principle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SRS Technologies dye-doped polymer illuminated by a Nd:YAG laser spot pattern and photographed through a long-pass Kodak Wratten 22 filter, but with a longer than normal exposure to allow imaging of the polymer and background. Images for photogrammetric processing use shorter exposure times providing higher-contrast targets.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transparent dye-doped polymer fixed to a reflective cylinder (also used in Fig. 2) simulating an aluminized membrane illuminated with a 7 by 7 He-Ne laser dot pattern. Photographed without a filter showing a worse-case laser glint (left) and the same illumination with filter-blocking laser light, eliminating the glint, and showing only LIF (right).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental setup used to measure the fluorescence emission pattern.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluorescence emission pattern for reflective and transparent membranes. x, Reflective membrane; +, transparent membrane; ––––, cos (θ) fit; … ., Lambertian cos (θ) emission.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral plot of fluorescence for Nd:YAG and He-Ne excitation, Kodak Wratten filters, and (high-concentration) dye-doped polymer absorption. —, Fluorescence Nd:YAG; ---, fluorescence He-Ne; -·-·, dye-doped polymer absorption; ····, Wratten 21 filter; – –, Wratten 22 filter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temporal pulse profile of a Nd:YAG laser and excited fluorescence.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fluorescence intensity versus laser intensity for low-power cw excitation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fluorescence intensity versus laser intensity for high-power pulsed excitation and fitted saturation curve.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fluorescence intensity versus pulse number (time) for various pump energy densities.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Photograph of the fluorescent target pattern on the reflective cylinder (left) and the computed 3D model (right).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Experimental setup for dynamic measurement of a transparent polymer.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Time sequence of dynamic measurement of a transparent polymer. (a) Image sequence from camera 1, (b) image sequence from camera 2, (c) animation of computed 3D model (viewed from opposite side).

Equations (1)

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ILIF=kIL11+IL/Isat,

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