Abstract

A method to assess the discrimination capability of a camera to measure small color differences is proposed. The method helps to fix the working conditions of the camera and analyzes the reliability of the measurements through comparison with a reference instrument. Attention is paid to the camera’s performance in the nearly neutral region of color space. The color differences are calculated using the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L* a* b* (CIELAB) ΔE ab* and CIE 2000 color-difference formula metrics. The Sony DX-9100P 3CCD camera results are very close to those obtained by the Photo Research PR-715 spectroradiometer. Their absolute discrepancy is lower than the suprathreshold of visual discrimination (0.887 CIELAB unit).

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. R. S. Berns, D. M. Reiman, “Color managing the 3rd edition of Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of Color Technology,” Color Res. Appl. 27(5), 360–373 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 148–155 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Johnson, M. D. Fairchild, “A top down description of S-CIELAB and CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 425–435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. S. Berns, D. M. Reiman, “Color managing the 3rd edition of Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of Color Technology,” Color Res. Appl. 27(5), 360–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Barnard, B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27(3), 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26(5), 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color measurement in standard CIELAB coordinates using a 3CCD camera: correction for the influence of the light source,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1470–1476 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

1976 (1)

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2, 95–99 (1976).

Alman, D. H.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, K.

K. Barnard, B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27(3), 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, D. M. Reiman, “Color managing the 3rd edition of Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of Color Technology,” Color Res. Appl. 27(5), 360–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of Color Technology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 2000).

Brainard, D. H.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Digital color cameras. 1. Response models,” Tech. Rep. HPL-97-53 (Hewlett-Packard Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif., 1997); http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/97/HPL-97-53.html .

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Digital color cameras. 2. Spectral response,” Tech. Rep. HPL-97-54 (Hewlett-Packard Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif., 1997); http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/97/HPL-97-54.html .

Corbalán, M.

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color measurement in standard CIELAB coordinates using a 3CCD camera: correction for the influence of the light source,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1470–1476 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cui, G.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26(5), 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, J. G.

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2, 95–99 (1976).

Fairchild, M. D.

G. Johnson, M. D. Fairchild, “A top down description of S-CIELAB and CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 425–435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, J. E.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Digital color cameras. 2. Spectral response,” Tech. Rep. HPL-97-54 (Hewlett-Packard Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif., 1997); http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/97/HPL-97-54.html .

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Digital color cameras. 1. Response models,” Tech. Rep. HPL-97-53 (Hewlett-Packard Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif., 1997); http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/97/HPL-97-53.html .

Funt, B.

K. Barnard, B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27(3), 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hita, E.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, G.

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, J. F.

Johnson, G.

G. Johnson, M. D. Fairchild, “A top down description of S-CIELAB and CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 425–435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. R.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26(5), 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maloney, L. T.

Marcus, H.

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2, 95–99 (1976).

McCamy, C. S.

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2, 95–99 (1976).

Melgosa, M.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Millán, M. S.

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color measurement in standard CIELAB coordinates using a 3CCD camera: correction for the influence of the light source,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1470–1476 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poza, A. J.

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reiman, D. M.

R. S. Berns, D. M. Reiman, “Color managing the 3rd edition of Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of Color Technology,” Color Res. Appl. 27(5), 360–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, P. A.

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rigg, B.

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26(5), 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, M. L.

Stiles, W. S.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Tietz, J. D.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Digital color cameras. 1. Response models,” Tech. Rep. HPL-97-53 (Hewlett-Packard Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif., 1997); http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/97/HPL-97-53.html .

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Digital color cameras. 2. Spectral response,” Tech. Rep. HPL-97-54 (Hewlett-Packard Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif., 1997); http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/97/HPL-97-54.html .

Trussell, H. J.

Vora, P. L.

P. L. Vora, H. J. Trussell, “Measure of goodness of a set of color-scanning filters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1499–1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Digital color cameras. 1. Response models,” Tech. Rep. HPL-97-53 (Hewlett-Packard Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif., 1997); http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/97/HPL-97-53.html .

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Digital color cameras. 2. Spectral response,” Tech. Rep. HPL-97-54 (Hewlett-Packard Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif., 1997); http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/97/HPL-97-54.html .

Wandell, B. A.

Wyszecki, G.

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

Yzuel, M. J.

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color measurement in standard CIELAB coordinates using a 3CCD camera: correction for the influence of the light source,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1470–1476 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Color Res. Appl. (6)

K. Barnard, B. Funt, “Camera characterization for color research,” Color Res. Appl. 27(3), 152–163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Hong, M. R. Luo, P. A. Rhodes, “A study of digital camera colorimetric characterization based on polynomial modeling,” Color Res. Appl. 26, 76–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, G. Cui, B. Rigg, “The development of the CIE 2000 colour-difference formula: CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 26(5), 340–350 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Johnson, M. D. Fairchild, “A top down description of S-CIELAB and CIEDE2000,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 425–435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, D. M. Reiman, “Color managing the 3rd edition of Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of Color Technology,” Color Res. Appl. 27(5), 360–373 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Melgosa, E. Hita, A. J. Poza, D. H. Alman, R. S. Berns, “Suprathreshold color-difference ellipsoids for surface colors,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 148–155 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. (1)

C. S. McCamy, H. Marcus, J. G. Davidson, “A color-rendition chart,” J. Appl. Photogr. Eng. 2, 95–99 (1976).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Eng. (2)

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color measurement in standard CIELAB coordinates using a 3CCD camera: correction for the influence of the light source,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1470–1476 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Corbalán, M. S. Millán, M. J. Yzuel, “Color pattern recognition with CIELAB coordinates,” Opt. Eng. 41, 130–138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Digital color cameras. 1. Response models,” Tech. Rep. HPL-97-53 (Hewlett-Packard Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif., 1997); http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/97/HPL-97-53.html .

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, D. H. Brainard, “Digital color cameras. 2. Spectral response,” Tech. Rep. HPL-97-54 (Hewlett-Packard Laboratory, Palo Alto, Calif., 1997); http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/97/HPL-97-54.html .

G. Wyszecki, W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, New York, 1982).

R. S. Berns, Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of Color Technology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 2000).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the booth and the illumination-observation geometry used to measure with either the camera or the spectroradiometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the selection of the 90 Munsell matte chips that comprise the test. They are grouped in 10 subsets regularly distributed on the hue circle. Each subset consists of a group center and its closest neighbors that differ ±2.5 in hue, ±0.5 in value, and ±0.5 and ±1.0 in chroma from the center.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RGB values provided by the camera when capturing a scale of gray samples with (gain, offset) = {(255, 0), (0, 0), (0, 255), (255, 255)}. A D65 simulator was the light source. The gray scale consisted of a gradation of Munsell matte neutral chips (from value of 2 up to 9.5). Value of 0 corresponds to totally occluding the camera lens, and value of 10 corresponds to capturing the reference white.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral responsivities of the Sony DX-9100P camera measured for different (gain, offset) values.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CIELAB luminance L* versus the Munsell value of the neutral chips of the gray scale. The measurement of L* was obtained by a spectroradiometer (in solid curve) and by the camera with different values of gain and offset.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CIELAB chromatic plane showing the a*, b* coordinates of the gray samples measured by the spectroradiometer and by the camera with (gain, offset) = {(128, 32), (255, 0), (255, 32)}.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CIELAB luminance L* versus chroma C ab * of the gray scale measured by the spectroradiometer and the camera under the capturing conditions of Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CIELAB L*, a*, b*, C ab * for four groups of Munsell chips (Fig. 2) centered at (a) 5YR 8/2, (b) 5G 8/2, (c) 5B 8/2, and (d) 5P 8/2, measured by the spectroradiometer and by the camera with two capturing conditions (gain, offset) = {(255, 0), (255, 32)}. On the left, Munsell chroma and hue variations with respect to the group center are represented on the chromatic a* b* plane. In the center, Munsell value and chroma variations are represented on a L* C ab * diagram. On the right, Munsell hue variations are represented on a L* C ab * diagram.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CIEDE2000 color differences between each group center and its neighbors, calculated for the spectroradiometer and for the camera with (gain, offset) = (255, 32), at ten positions in the circle of hue (Fig. 2). We plot the color differences concerning the following variations in the Munsell system: (a) ±0.5 value, (b) ±2.5 hue, (c) and ±0.5, and ±1.0 chroma.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relative discrepancies versus group color: (a) in CIEDE2000, (b) in CIELAB. Data are taken from Tables 25.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relative discrepancies versus type of variation with respect to the group center: (a) in CIEDE2000, (b) in CIELAB. Data are taken from Tables 25.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absolute Discrepancies Dab(255, 32) between the Spectroradiometer and the Camera with (gain, offset) = (255, 32) in the Measurement of CIELAB Color Differences

Tables Icon

Table 2 Relative Discrepancies D00 r (255, 32) between the Spectroradiometer and the Camera with (gain, offset) = (255, 32) in the Measurement of CIEDE2000 Color Differences

Tables Icon

Table 3 Relative Discrepancies Dab r(255, 32) between the Spectroradiometer and the Camera with (gain, offset) = (255, 32) in the Measurement of CIELAB Color Differences

Tables Icon

Table 4 Relative Discrepancies D00 r (255, 0) between the Spectroradiometer and the Camera with (gain, offset) = (255, 0) in the Measurement of CIEDE2000 Color Differences

Tables Icon

Table 5 Relative Discrepancies Dab r (255, 0) between the Spectroradiometer and the Camera with (gain, offset) = (255, 0) in the Measurement of CIELAB Color Differences

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔEab*=ΔL*2+Δa*2+Δb*21/2,
XYZ= 2.0800.2460.3591.2391.0590.0940.065-0.1192.130× RGB.
D00=ΔE00ref-ΔE00camgain,offset,
Dab=ΔEab*ref-ΔEab*camgain,offset,
D00r= D00ΔE00ref, ΔE00camgain,offset= 2ΔE00ref-ΔE00camgain,offsetΔE00ref+ΔE00camgain,offset.

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