Abstract

A differential-absorption lidar system that uses a long-life transmitter for monitoring of atomic-mercury concentrations in the atmosphere has been developed. The third harmonic of a tunable dye laser with LDS 765 dye pumped by the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser was used as the emitted beam from the transmitter. By use of this system, atmospheric concentrations of atomic mercury of less than 0.4 part in 1012 were measured. The time trend of the measured concentration agreed with that obtained by a conventional gold amalgamation method combined with atomic absorption spectroscopy on the ground.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Marumoto, M. Sakata, “Review of recent studies on mercury in the atmosphere,” Chikyukagaku (Geochemistry) 34, 59–75 (2000).
  2. H. Edner, G. W. Faris, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric atomic mercury monitoring using differential absorption lidar techniques,” Appl. Opt. 28, 921–930 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Sjoholm, P. Weibring, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Atomic mercury flux monitoring using an optical parametric oscillatorbased lidar system,” Opt. Express 12, 551–556 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Nayuki, T. Fukuchi, N. Cao, H. Mori, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, N. Takeuchi, “Sum-frequency-generation system for differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3659–3664 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. J. Vasa, M. Fujiwara, S. Yokoyama, M. Uchiumi, M. Maeda, “Tuning of a Ti3+:sapphire laser by an electro-optic beam deflection method,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5512–5516 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Nishimura, T. Fujimoto, “λ = 2537Å line from a low-pressure mercury discharge lamp emission profile and line absorption by a gas containing a mercury vapor,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 91–98 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Spuler, M. Linne, A. Sappey, S. Snyder, “Development of a cavity ringdown laser absorption spectrometer for detection of trace levels of mercury,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2480–2486 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Exciton, Inc., Catalog of Laser Dyes (Exciton, Dayton, Ohio, 2000), http://www.exciton.com .

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

K. Marumoto, M. Sakata, “Review of recent studies on mercury in the atmosphere,” Chikyukagaku (Geochemistry) 34, 59–75 (2000).

S. Spuler, M. Linne, A. Sappey, S. Snyder, “Development of a cavity ringdown laser absorption spectrometer for detection of trace levels of mercury,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2480–2486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

Y. Nishimura, T. Fujimoto, “λ = 2537Å line from a low-pressure mercury discharge lamp emission profile and line absorption by a gas containing a mercury vapor,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 91–98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cao, N.

Edner, H.

Faris, G. W.

Fujii, T.

Fujimoto, T.

Y. Nishimura, T. Fujimoto, “λ = 2537Å line from a low-pressure mercury discharge lamp emission profile and line absorption by a gas containing a mercury vapor,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 91–98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Fukuchi, T.

Linne, M.

Maeda, M.

Marumoto, K.

K. Marumoto, M. Sakata, “Review of recent studies on mercury in the atmosphere,” Chikyukagaku (Geochemistry) 34, 59–75 (2000).

Mori, H.

Nayuki, T.

Nemoto, K.

Nishimura, Y.

Y. Nishimura, T. Fujimoto, “λ = 2537Å line from a low-pressure mercury discharge lamp emission profile and line absorption by a gas containing a mercury vapor,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 91–98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, M.

K. Marumoto, M. Sakata, “Review of recent studies on mercury in the atmosphere,” Chikyukagaku (Geochemistry) 34, 59–75 (2000).

Sappey, A.

Sjoholm, M.

Snyder, S.

Spuler, S.

Sunesson, A.

Svanberg, S.

Takeuchi, N.

Uchiumi, M.

Vasa, N. J.

Weibring, P.

Yokoyama, S.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Nishimura, T. Fujimoto, “λ = 2537Å line from a low-pressure mercury discharge lamp emission profile and line absorption by a gas containing a mercury vapor,” Appl. Phys. B 38, 91–98 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chikyukagaku (Geochemistry) (1)

K. Marumoto, M. Sakata, “Review of recent studies on mercury in the atmosphere,” Chikyukagaku (Geochemistry) 34, 59–75 (2000).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (1)

Exciton, Inc., Catalog of Laser Dyes (Exciton, Dayton, Ohio, 2000), http://www.exciton.com .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometrical setup of the tripler system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental and calculated output energies of the third harmonic. Solid and dashed curves, calculation results for phase retardations of Δφ = 60 and Δφ = 65 deg, respectively, with α1 = 0, 17, 35 deg.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the DIAL system. DIAL measurement near the ground was performed with a large flat mirror pointing at an elevation angle of 2.2 deg from the horizontal direction, supported above the telescope. TTL, transistor-transistor logic.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diagram of data used for cross-sectional determination. The data are the voltages of the photomultiplier signals.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Concentration trend of atmospheric elemental mercury at low altitude. The correlation coefficient for results obtained with the two methods was 0.86.

Equations (3)

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n= 10122ΔRσλon-σλoffNatm×lnVR+ΔR, λoffVR+ΔR, λon× VR, λonVR, λoff ppt,
σλon>σλoff,  λonλoff,
E32  E cos Δα2+Eo sin Δα2+2E cos ΔαEo sin Δαcos Δφ×E2 cos Δα2, Δα=α2-α1,

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