Abstract

A compact mid-infrared (MIR) laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation (DFG) is applied as a portable and sensitive gas sensor for industrial process control and pollutant monitoring. We demonstrate the performance of such a MIR DFG gas sensor by recording the absorption spectra of the carbon monoxide (CO) P(28) absorption line in the atmosphere of a gas-fired glass melting furnace. For a gas temperature of approximately 1100 °C, the CO concentration in the recuperator channel is measured to be 400 parts per million.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapour concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. D. Wehe, M. Allen, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “NO and CO absorption measurements with mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications,” paper AIAA-2003-0588 presented at the Forty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 6–10 January, 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2003).
  3. S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “In-situ measurement of NO and CO using mid-IR QC lasers,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, R. A. Norwood, J. R. Heflin, eds., Vol. 64 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. FC3–1.
  4. L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Sirtori, P. Kruck, S. Barbieri, P. Collot, J. Nagel, M. Beck, J. Faist, “GaAs/AlxGa1-x as quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3486–3488 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy,” Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 98, 1–56 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445–516 (2003).
  8. W. Chen, F. Cazier, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, P. B. Davies, “Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application,” Laser Phys. 11, 594–599 (2001).
  9. U. Willer, T. Blanke, W. Schade, “Difference-frequency generation in AgGaS2: Sellmeier and temperature-dispersion equations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5439–5445 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-infrared difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Limpert, H. Zelimer, A. Tünnermann, D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable continuous wave DFG-based gas sensor using fiber amplified 1.5 μm external cavity diode laser and high power 1 μm diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1739–1741 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Matsuoka, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Yb fiber laser pumped mid-infrared source based on difference frequency generation and its application to ammonia detection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 625–678 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2004

L. Wondraczek, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, G. Heide, W. Schade, G. H. Frischat, “Mid-infrared laser-tomographic imaging of carbon monoxide in laminar flames by difference-frequency generation,” Combust. Flame 138, 30–39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wondraczek, G. Heide, G. H. Frischat, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, W. Schade, “Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy for process and emission control in the glass melting industry. Part 1. Potentials,” Glass Sci. Technol. 77, 68–76 (2004).

2003

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapour concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, P. Geiser, W. Schade, “External short-cavity diode-laser for MIR difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 509–513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445–516 (2003).

2002

R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy,” Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 98, 1–56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, F. Cazier, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, P. B. Davies, “Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application,” Laser Phys. 11, 594–599 (2001).

N. Matsuoka, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Yb fiber laser pumped mid-infrared source based on difference frequency generation and its application to ammonia detection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 625–678 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Willer, T. Blanke, W. Schade, “Difference-frequency generation in AgGaS2: Sellmeier and temperature-dispersion equations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5439–5445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Limpert, H. Zelimer, A. Tünnermann, D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable continuous wave DFG-based gas sensor using fiber amplified 1.5 μm external cavity diode laser and high power 1 μm diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1739–1741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-infrared difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

C. Sirtori, P. Kruck, S. Barbieri, P. Collot, J. Nagel, M. Beck, J. Faist, “GaAs/AlxGa1-x as quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3486–3488 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1990

H. Pieper, “The Flex Melter—a new melting furnace for the glass industry as alternative to pot furnaces,” Glastech. Ber. 63K, 144–156 (1990).

1967

Allen, M.

S. D. Wehe, M. Allen, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “NO and CO absorption measurements with mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications,” paper AIAA-2003-0588 presented at the Forty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 6–10 January, 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2003).

Allen, M. G.

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “In-situ measurement of NO and CO using mid-IR QC lasers,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, R. A. Norwood, J. R. Heflin, eds., Vol. 64 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. FC3–1.

Baillargeon, J. N.

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

C. Sirtori, P. Kruck, S. Barbieri, P. Collot, J. Nagel, M. Beck, J. Faist, “GaAs/AlxGa1-x as quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3486–3488 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

C. Sirtori, P. Kruck, S. Barbieri, P. Collot, J. Nagel, M. Beck, J. Faist, “GaAs/AlxGa1-x as quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3486–3488 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blanke, T.

Boucher, D.

W. Chen, F. Cazier, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, P. B. Davies, “Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application,” Laser Phys. 11, 594–599 (2001).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “In-situ measurement of NO and CO using mid-IR QC lasers,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, R. A. Norwood, J. R. Heflin, eds., Vol. 64 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. FC3–1.

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cazier, F.

W. Chen, F. Cazier, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, P. B. Davies, “Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application,” Laser Phys. 11, 594–599 (2001).

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, F. Cazier, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, P. B. Davies, “Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application,” Laser Phys. 11, 594–599 (2001).

Cho, A. Y.

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ciddor, P. E.

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Collot, P.

C. Sirtori, P. Kruck, S. Barbieri, P. Collot, J. Nagel, M. Beck, J. Faist, “GaAs/AlxGa1-x as quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3486–3488 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy,” Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 98, 1–56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davies, P. B.

W. Chen, F. Cazier, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, P. B. Davies, “Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application,” Laser Phys. 11, 594–599 (2001).

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faber, A. J.

A. J. Faber, R. Koch, “High temperature in-situ IR laser absorption CO-sensor for combustion control,” in the Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques for Fluid Mechanics (n.p., 2000), paper 18.6.

Faist, J.

C. Sirtori, P. Kruck, S. Barbieri, P. Collot, J. Nagel, M. Beck, J. Faist, “GaAs/AlxGa1-x as quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3486–3488 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445–516 (2003).

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-infrared difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frischat, G. H.

L. Wondraczek, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, G. Heide, W. Schade, G. H. Frischat, “Mid-infrared laser-tomographic imaging of carbon monoxide in laminar flames by difference-frequency generation,” Combust. Flame 138, 30–39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wondraczek, G. Heide, G. H. Frischat, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, W. Schade, “Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy for process and emission control in the glass melting industry. Part 1. Potentials,” Glass Sci. Technol. 77, 68–76 (2004).

Fujioka, T.

N. Matsuoka, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Yb fiber laser pumped mid-infrared source based on difference frequency generation and its application to ammonia detection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 625–678 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geiser, P.

A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, P. Geiser, W. Schade, “External short-cavity diode-laser for MIR difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 509–513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “In-situ measurement of NO and CO using mid-IR QC lasers,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, R. A. Norwood, J. R. Heflin, eds., Vol. 64 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. FC3–1.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapour concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Wehe, M. Allen, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “NO and CO absorption measurements with mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications,” paper AIAA-2003-0588 presented at the Forty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 6–10 January, 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2003).

Heide, G.

L. Wondraczek, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, G. Heide, W. Schade, G. H. Frischat, “Mid-infrared laser-tomographic imaging of carbon monoxide in laminar flames by difference-frequency generation,” Combust. Flame 138, 30–39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wondraczek, G. Heide, G. H. Frischat, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, W. Schade, “Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy for process and emission control in the glass melting industry. Part 1. Potentials,” Glass Sci. Technol. 77, 68–76 (2004).

Hill, R. J.

Hutchinson, A. L.

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapour concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Wehe, M. Allen, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “NO and CO absorption measurements with mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications,” paper AIAA-2003-0588 presented at the Forty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 6–10 January, 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2003).

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khorsandi, A.

L. Wondraczek, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, G. Heide, W. Schade, G. H. Frischat, “Mid-infrared laser-tomographic imaging of carbon monoxide in laminar flames by difference-frequency generation,” Combust. Flame 138, 30–39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wondraczek, G. Heide, G. H. Frischat, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, W. Schade, “Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy for process and emission control in the glass melting industry. Part 1. Potentials,” Glass Sci. Technol. 77, 68–76 (2004).

A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, P. Geiser, W. Schade, “External short-cavity diode-laser for MIR difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 509–513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koch, R.

A. J. Faber, R. Koch, “High temperature in-situ IR laser absorption CO-sensor for combustion control,” in the Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques for Fluid Mechanics (n.p., 2000), paper 18.6.

Kosterev, A. A.

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kruck, P.

C. Sirtori, P. Kruck, S. Barbieri, P. Collot, J. Nagel, M. Beck, J. Faist, “GaAs/AlxGa1-x as quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3486–3488 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

J. Limpert, H. Zelimer, A. Tünnermann, D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable continuous wave DFG-based gas sensor using fiber amplified 1.5 μm external cavity diode laser and high power 1 μm diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1739–1741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

J. Limpert, H. Zelimer, A. Tünnermann, D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable continuous wave DFG-based gas sensor using fiber amplified 1.5 μm external cavity diode laser and high power 1 μm diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1739–1741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapour concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Wehe, M. Allen, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “NO and CO absorption measurements with mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications,” paper AIAA-2003-0588 presented at the Forty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 6–10 January, 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2003).

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manzel, L.

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, N.

N. Matsuoka, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Yb fiber laser pumped mid-infrared source based on difference frequency generation and its application to ammonia detection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 625–678 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, J.

C. Sirtori, P. Kruck, S. Barbieri, P. Collot, J. Nagel, M. Beck, J. Faist, “GaAs/AlxGa1-x as quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3486–3488 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nanri, K.

N. Matsuoka, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Yb fiber laser pumped mid-infrared source based on difference frequency generation and its application to ammonia detection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 625–678 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neu, W.

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Owens, J. C.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pieper, H.

H. Pieper, “The Flex Melter—a new melting furnace for the glass industry as alternative to pot furnaces,” Glastech. Ber. 63K, 144–156 (1990).

Richter, D.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445–516 (2003).

N. Matsuoka, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Yb fiber laser pumped mid-infrared source based on difference frequency generation and its application to ammonia detection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 625–678 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, H. Zelimer, A. Tünnermann, D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable continuous wave DFG-based gas sensor using fiber amplified 1.5 μm external cavity diode laser and high power 1 μm diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1739–1741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-infrared difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schade, W.

L. Wondraczek, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, G. Heide, W. Schade, G. H. Frischat, “Mid-infrared laser-tomographic imaging of carbon monoxide in laminar flames by difference-frequency generation,” Combust. Flame 138, 30–39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wondraczek, G. Heide, G. H. Frischat, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, W. Schade, “Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy for process and emission control in the glass melting industry. Part 1. Potentials,” Glass Sci. Technol. 77, 68–76 (2004).

A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, P. Geiser, W. Schade, “External short-cavity diode-laser for MIR difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 509–513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Willer, T. Blanke, W. Schade, “Difference-frequency generation in AgGaS2: Sellmeier and temperature-dispersion equations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5439–5445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sipco, D. L.

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

C. Sirtori, P. Kruck, S. Barbieri, P. Collot, J. Nagel, M. Beck, J. Faist, “GaAs/AlxGa1-x as quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3486–3488 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “In-situ measurement of NO and CO using mid-IR QC lasers,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, R. A. Norwood, J. R. Heflin, eds., Vol. 64 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. FC3–1.

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445–516 (2003).

R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy,” Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 98, 1–56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, F. Cazier, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, P. B. Davies, “Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application,” Laser Phys. 11, 594–599 (2001).

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Matsuoka, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Yb fiber laser pumped mid-infrared source based on difference frequency generation and its application to ammonia detection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 625–678 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, H. Zelimer, A. Tünnermann, D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable continuous wave DFG-based gas sensor using fiber amplified 1.5 μm external cavity diode laser and high power 1 μm diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1739–1741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-infrared difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Limpert, H. Zelimer, A. Tünnermann, D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable continuous wave DFG-based gas sensor using fiber amplified 1.5 μm external cavity diode laser and high power 1 μm diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1739–1741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walega, J. G.

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-infrared difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wehe, S. D.

S. D. Wehe, M. Allen, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “NO and CO absorption measurements with mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications,” paper AIAA-2003-0588 presented at the Forty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 6–10 January, 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2003).

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “In-situ measurement of NO and CO using mid-IR QC lasers,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, R. A. Norwood, J. R. Heflin, eds., Vol. 64 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. FC3–1.

Weidner, R.

J. Limpert, H. Zelimer, A. Tünnermann, D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable continuous wave DFG-based gas sensor using fiber amplified 1.5 μm external cavity diode laser and high power 1 μm diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1739–1741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wert, B. P.

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-infrared difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Willer, U.

L. Wondraczek, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, G. Heide, W. Schade, G. H. Frischat, “Mid-infrared laser-tomographic imaging of carbon monoxide in laminar flames by difference-frequency generation,” Combust. Flame 138, 30–39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wondraczek, G. Heide, G. H. Frischat, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, W. Schade, “Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy for process and emission control in the glass melting industry. Part 1. Potentials,” Glass Sci. Technol. 77, 68–76 (2004).

A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, P. Geiser, W. Schade, “External short-cavity diode-laser for MIR difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 509–513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Willer, T. Blanke, W. Schade, “Difference-frequency generation in AgGaS2: Sellmeier and temperature-dispersion equations,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5439–5445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

L. Wondraczek, G. Heide, G. H. Frischat, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, W. Schade, “Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy for process and emission control in the glass melting industry. Part 1. Potentials,” Glass Sci. Technol. 77, 68–76 (2004).

L. Wondraczek, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, G. Heide, W. Schade, G. H. Frischat, “Mid-infrared laser-tomographic imaging of carbon monoxide in laminar flames by difference-frequency generation,” Combust. Flame 138, 30–39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, S.

N. Matsuoka, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Yb fiber laser pumped mid-infrared source based on difference frequency generation and its application to ammonia detection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 625–678 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zelimer, H.

J. Limpert, H. Zelimer, A. Tünnermann, D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable continuous wave DFG-based gas sensor using fiber amplified 1.5 μm external cavity diode laser and high power 1 μm diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1739–1741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapour concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C

R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy,” Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. C 98, 1–56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, P. Geiser, W. Schade, “External short-cavity diode-laser for MIR difference-frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 509–513 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Manzel, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sipco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, W. Urban, “Spectroscopic detection of biological NO with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 859–863 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-infrared difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 281–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Richter, D. G. Lancaster, R. F. Curl, W. Neu, F. K. Tittel, “Compact mid-infrared trace gas sensor based on difference-frequency generation of two diode lasers in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 347–350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Sirtori, P. Kruck, S. Barbieri, P. Collot, J. Nagel, M. Beck, J. Faist, “GaAs/AlxGa1-x as quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3486–3488 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame

L. Wondraczek, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, G. Heide, W. Schade, G. H. Frischat, “Mid-infrared laser-tomographic imaging of carbon monoxide in laminar flames by difference-frequency generation,” Combust. Flame 138, 30–39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Limpert, H. Zelimer, A. Tünnermann, D. G. Lancaster, R. Weidner, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Tunable continuous wave DFG-based gas sensor using fiber amplified 1.5 μm external cavity diode laser and high power 1 μm diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1739–1741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glass Sci. Technol.

L. Wondraczek, G. Heide, G. H. Frischat, A. Khorsandi, U. Willer, W. Schade, “Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy for process and emission control in the glass melting industry. Part 1. Potentials,” Glass Sci. Technol. 77, 68–76 (2004).

Glastech. Ber.

H. Pieper, “The Flex Melter—a new melting furnace for the glass industry as alternative to pot furnaces,” Glastech. Ber. 63K, 144–156 (1990).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

N. Matsuoka, S. Yamaguchi, K. Nanri, T. Fujioka, D. Richter, F. K. Tittel, “Yb fiber laser pumped mid-infrared source based on difference frequency generation and its application to ammonia detection,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 40, 625–678 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

W. Chen, F. Cazier, D. Boucher, F. K. Tittel, P. B. Davies, “Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application,” Laser Phys. 11, 594–599 (2001).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

X. Zhou, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “Development of a sensor for temperature and water vapour concentration in combustion gases using a single tunable diode laser,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 1459–1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Top. Appl. Phys.

F. K. Tittel, D. Richter, A. Fried, “Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 445–516 (2003).

Other

A. J. Faber, R. Koch, “High temperature in-situ IR laser absorption CO-sensor for combustion control,” in the Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques for Fluid Mechanics (n.p., 2000), paper 18.6.

S. D. Wehe, M. Allen, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, “NO and CO absorption measurements with mid-IR quantum cascade laser for engine exhaust applications,” paper AIAA-2003-0588 presented at the Forty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 6–10 January, 2003 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Va., 2003).

S. D. Wehe, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, “In-situ measurement of NO and CO using mid-IR QC lasers,” in Organic Thin Films for Photonic Applications, R. A. Norwood, J. R. Heflin, eds., Vol. 64 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. FC3–1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overall schematic of the compact isolated MIR DFG sensor, associated electronics, and the measurement region of the glass melting furnace.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity fluctuations of the visible pump laser (a) before and (b) after crossing the recuperator channel of the furnace at 1100 °C. Rel., relative.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity variation of the MIR DFG light during 12 individual measurements. Rel., relative.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modeling of the relative absorbance of the typical combustion species within the atmosphere of the furnace for T = 1100 °C and assuming 19.9 vol. % for H2O, 13.2 vol. % for CO2, and 0.04 vol. % for CO. Rel., relative.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectra of the CO P(28) rotational line at 2022.914 cm-1 recorded at a 1-m path length of the glass furnace of the Dr. Genthe GmbH & Co. with a 100-ms time constant for the lock-in amplifier. Dots, average of 12 DFG scan measurements; solid curve, fitted Voigt profile; Rel., relative.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Coefficients Used in Eq. (1)a

Equations (1)

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nλ-1×108=a1+b1λ2-c1λ4+d1λ6D1p, T+a2+b2c2-λ-2+d2e2-λ-2D2p, T.

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