Abstract

A novel method is presented for determining the volume of molten material ejected from a substrate as a result of visible pulsed-laser ablation. A 100-µm-wide pulsed-laser light sheet (τ ∼ 5 ns, λ = 532 nm) was used in conjunction with a CCD camera to provide high-speed cross-sectional images of single-pulse ablation of aluminum with a visible nanosecond laser source. Computational analysis of the two-dimensional gray-scale images was used to determine the total volume of material ejected from the substrate in the form of molten droplets. Ablation with dual-wavelength (511- and 578-nm) pulses of 30-ns duration was characterized under various fluence conditions (0–25 J cm-2), allowing a quantitative threshold for explosive melt ejection in aluminum to be established at ∼10 J cm-2. The temporal evolution of the ejected material showed that, for an incident fluence of ∼40 J cm-2, molten-droplet ejection commenced at ∼400 ns and ceased after ∼2 µs.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Kelly, A. Miotello, “Comments on explosive mechanisms of laser sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 205–215 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Solana, P. Kapadia, J. Dowden, W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Time dependent ablation and liquid ejection processes during the laser drilling of metals,” Opt. Commun. 191, 1–2 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Yoo, O. V. Borisov, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Existence of phase explosion during laser ablation and its effects on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem, 73, 2288–2293 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. W. Coutts, “Double-pass copper vapor laser master-oscillator power-amplifier systems: generation of flat-top focused beams for fiber coupling and percussion drilling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1217–1224 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Mele, A. G. Guidoni, R. Kelly, C. Flamini, S. Orlando, “Laser ablation of metals: analysis of surface-heating and plume-expansion experiments,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 584–590 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2002

D. W. Coutts, “Double-pass copper vapor laser master-oscillator power-amplifier systems: generation of flat-top focused beams for fiber coupling and percussion drilling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1217–1224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Solana, P. Kapadia, J. Dowden, W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Time dependent ablation and liquid ejection processes during the laser drilling of metals,” Opt. Commun. 191, 1–2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Yoo, O. V. Borisov, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Existence of phase explosion during laser ablation and its effects on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem, 73, 2288–2293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

A. Mele, A. G. Guidoni, R. Kelly, C. Flamini, S. Orlando, “Laser ablation of metals: analysis of surface-heating and plume-expansion experiments,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 584–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Kelly, A. Miotello, “Comments on explosive mechanisms of laser sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 205–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, O. V.

J. H. Yoo, O. V. Borisov, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Existence of phase explosion during laser ablation and its effects on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem, 73, 2288–2293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coutts, D. W.

D. W. Coutts, “Double-pass copper vapor laser master-oscillator power-amplifier systems: generation of flat-top focused beams for fiber coupling and percussion drilling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1217–1224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dowden, J.

P. Solana, P. Kapadia, J. Dowden, W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Time dependent ablation and liquid ejection processes during the laser drilling of metals,” Opt. Commun. 191, 1–2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flamini, C.

A. Mele, A. G. Guidoni, R. Kelly, C. Flamini, S. Orlando, “Laser ablation of metals: analysis of surface-heating and plume-expansion experiments,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 584–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guidoni, A. G.

A. Mele, A. G. Guidoni, R. Kelly, C. Flamini, S. Orlando, “Laser ablation of metals: analysis of surface-heating and plume-expansion experiments,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 584–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

P. Solana, P. Kapadia, J. Dowden, W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Time dependent ablation and liquid ejection processes during the laser drilling of metals,” Opt. Commun. 191, 1–2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

P. Solana, P. Kapadia, J. Dowden, W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Time dependent ablation and liquid ejection processes during the laser drilling of metals,” Opt. Commun. 191, 1–2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kapadia, P.

P. Solana, P. Kapadia, J. Dowden, W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Time dependent ablation and liquid ejection processes during the laser drilling of metals,” Opt. Commun. 191, 1–2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, R.

A. Mele, A. G. Guidoni, R. Kelly, C. Flamini, S. Orlando, “Laser ablation of metals: analysis of surface-heating and plume-expansion experiments,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 584–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Kelly, A. Miotello, “Comments on explosive mechanisms of laser sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 205–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kudesia, S. S.

P. Solana, P. Kapadia, J. Dowden, W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Time dependent ablation and liquid ejection processes during the laser drilling of metals,” Opt. Commun. 191, 1–2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X.

J. H. Yoo, O. V. Borisov, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Existence of phase explosion during laser ablation and its effects on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem, 73, 2288–2293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mele, A.

A. Mele, A. G. Guidoni, R. Kelly, C. Flamini, S. Orlando, “Laser ablation of metals: analysis of surface-heating and plume-expansion experiments,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 584–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miotello, A.

R. Kelly, A. Miotello, “Comments on explosive mechanisms of laser sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 205–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Orlando, S.

A. Mele, A. G. Guidoni, R. Kelly, C. Flamini, S. Orlando, “Laser ablation of metals: analysis of surface-heating and plume-expansion experiments,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 584–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rodden, W. S. O.

P. Solana, P. Kapadia, J. Dowden, W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Time dependent ablation and liquid ejection processes during the laser drilling of metals,” Opt. Commun. 191, 1–2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R. E.

J. H. Yoo, O. V. Borisov, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Existence of phase explosion during laser ablation and its effects on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem, 73, 2288–2293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solana, P.

P. Solana, P. Kapadia, J. Dowden, W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Time dependent ablation and liquid ejection processes during the laser drilling of metals,” Opt. Commun. 191, 1–2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J. H.

J. H. Yoo, O. V. Borisov, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Existence of phase explosion during laser ablation and its effects on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem, 73, 2288–2293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem

J. H. Yoo, O. V. Borisov, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, “Existence of phase explosion during laser ablation and its effects on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem, 73, 2288–2293 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

R. Kelly, A. Miotello, “Comments on explosive mechanisms of laser sputtering,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 205–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mele, A. G. Guidoni, R. Kelly, C. Flamini, S. Orlando, “Laser ablation of metals: analysis of surface-heating and plume-expansion experiments,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 109–110, 584–590 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. W. Coutts, “Double-pass copper vapor laser master-oscillator power-amplifier systems: generation of flat-top focused beams for fiber coupling and percussion drilling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1217–1224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Solana, P. Kapadia, J. Dowden, W. S. O. Rodden, S. S. Kudesia, D. P. Hand, J. D. C. Jones, “Time dependent ablation and liquid ejection processes during the laser drilling of metals,” Opt. Commun. 191, 1–2 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical gray-scale image obtained during ablation with a visible nanosecond laser pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Three-dimensional rotational analysis of the droplets contained within each image (front view). (b) Adjustment for the finite width of the light sheet (side view).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Volumes obtained from a single image as a function of pixel threshold. (Shaded regions demarcate boundaries of reasonable pixel values as determined by errors in the x and y axes.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal evolution, showing plasma formation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images showing the temporal evolution of ejected material as a result of a single ∼40-J cm-2, 30-ns pulse.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Volume of melt ejecta contained within images taken at increasing time delays after ablation with a single ∼40-J cm-2, 30-ns pulse.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Volume of material ejected as a result of ablation with increasing fluence (spot radius, ∼37 µm).

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