Abstract

We report the design and the performances of a Raman lidar for long-term monitoring of tropospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction coefficients, water vapor mixing ratio, and cloud liquid water. We focus on the system’s capabilities of detecting Raman backscattering from cloud liquid water. After describing the system components, along with the current limitations and options for improvement, we report examples of observations in the case of low-level cumulus clouds. The measurements of the cloud liquid water content, as well as the estimations of the cloud droplet effective radii and number densities, obtained by combining the extinction coefficient and cloud water content within the clouds, are critically discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (3)

2002 (1)

2001 (8)

C. Bockmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, G. Schwemmer, T. Berkoff, H. Plotkin, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, G. Pappalardo, “Performance modeling of an airborne Raman water-vapor lidar,” Appl. Opt. 40, 375–390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Ahmad, A. Iles, “Pre-resonance Raman excitation profile of the 3400 cm-1 mode of liquid water,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32, 649–655 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, G. Chourdakis, A. Cameron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hagard, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, X. Wang, “Intercomparison of 15 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S397–S398 (2001).

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

A. V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, I. P. Mazin, H. W. Barker, “Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2117–2152 (2001).

S. S. Yum, J. G. Hudson, “Microphysical relationships in warm clouds,” Atmos. Res. 57, 81–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Veselovskii, H. K. Cha, D. H. Kim, S. C. Choi, J. M. Lee, “Study of atmospheric water in gaseous and liquid state by using combined elastic-Raman depolarization lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 739–744 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

U. K. Krieger, C. A. Colberg, U. Weers, T. Koop, T. Peter, “Supercooling of single H2SO4/H2O aerosols to 158K: no evidence for the occurrence of the octrahydrate,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2097–2100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, L. Schüller, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, Y. Fouquart, “Radiative properties of boundary layer clouds: droplet effective radius versus number concentration,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 803–821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, W. F. Feltz, R. A. Ferrare, “Continuous water vapor profiles from operational ground-based active and passive remote sensors,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 1301–1318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, P. Di Carlo, G. Visconti, G. Cinque, “A combined Rayleigh-Raman lidar for measurements of tropospheric water vapour and aerosol profiles,” Nuovo Cimento C 23, 53–64 (2000).

T. A. Dolenko, I. V. Churina, V. V. Fadeev, S. M. Glushkov, “Valence band of liquid water Raman scattering: some peculiarities and applications in the diagnostics of water media,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 863–870 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

1998 (4)

U. Wandinger, “Multiple-scattering influence on extinction- and backscatter-coefficient measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Appl. Opt. 37, 417–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Harvey, J. S. Gallagher, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, “Revised formulation for the refractive index of water and steam as a function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 27, 761–774 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering, 1, Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Fomin, I. P. Mazin, “Model for an investigation of radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere,” Atmos. Res. 47–48, 127–153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

Q. Han, W. B. Rossow, A. A. Lacis, “Near-global survey of effective droplet radii in liquid water clouds using ISCCP data,” J. Climate 7, 465–497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

1986 (1)

G. E. Walrafen, M. S. Hokmabadi, W.-H. Yang, “Raman isosbestic points from liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6964–6969 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

G. D’Arrigo, G. Maisano, F. Mallamace, P. Migliardo, F. Wanderlingh, “Raman scattering and structure of normal and supercooled water,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4264–4270 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

N. Abe, M. Ito, “Effects of hydrogen bonding on the Raman intensities of methanol, ethanol, and water,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 161–167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. Warner, “The microstructure of cumulus cloud. Part I. General features of the droplet spectrum,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1049–1059 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abe, N.

N. Abe, M. Ito, “Effects of hydrogen bonding on the Raman intensities of methanol, ethanol, and water,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 7, 161–167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, S. R.

S. R. Ahmad, A. Iles, “Pre-resonance Raman excitation profile of the 3400 cm-1 mode of liquid water,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 32, 649–655 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amato, U.

Amiridis, V.

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Amodeo, A.

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, G. Chourdakis, A. Cameron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hagard, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, X. Wang, “Intercomparison of 15 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S397–S398 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Ansmann, A.

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Avila, G.

G. Avila, J. M. Fernández, B. Maté, G. Tejeda, S. Montero, “Ro-vibrational Raman cross sections of water vapor in the OH stretching region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 196, 77–92 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balis, D.

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, G. Chourdakis, A. Cameron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hagard, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, X. Wang, “Intercomparison of 15 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S397–S398 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Barker, H. W.

A. V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, I. P. Mazin, H. W. Barker, “Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2117–2152 (2001).

Berkoff, T.

Bockmann, C.

C. Bockmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

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C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

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V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, G. Chourdakis, A. Cameron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hagard, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, X. Wang, “Intercomparison of 15 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S397–S398 (2001).

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V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

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A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
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C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

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Maté, B.

G. Avila, J. M. Fernández, B. Maté, G. Tejeda, S. Montero, “Ro-vibrational Raman cross sections of water vapor in the OH stretching region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 196, 77–92 (1999).
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V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, G. Chourdakis, A. Cameron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hagard, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, X. Wang, “Intercomparison of 15 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S397–S398 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

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V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, G. Chourdakis, A. Cameron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hagard, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, X. Wang, “Intercomparison of 15 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S397–S398 (2001).

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

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V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, G. Chourdakis, A. Cameron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hagard, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, X. Wang, “Intercomparison of 15 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S397–S398 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

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Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Migliardo, P.

G. D’Arrigo, G. Maisano, F. Mallamace, P. Migliardo, F. Wanderlingh, “Raman scattering and structure of normal and supercooled water,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4264–4270 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Montero, S.

G. Avila, J. M. Fernández, B. Maté, G. Tejeda, S. Montero, “Ro-vibrational Raman cross sections of water vapor in the OH stretching region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 196, 77–92 (1999).
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B. Moore, W. L. Gates, L. J. Mata, A. Underdal, “Advancing our understanding,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nouger, P. J. Van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, C. A. Johnson, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 2001).

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Papayannis, A.

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

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V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Park, D. C.

Pawlowska, H.

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Peter, T.

U. K. Krieger, C. A. Colberg, U. Weers, T. Koop, T. Peter, “Supercooling of single H2SO4/H2O aerosols to 158K: no evidence for the occurrence of the octrahydrate,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2097–2100 (2000).
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Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, C. Ham, W. T. Grandy, “Backscatter and extinction in water clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6787–6796 (1983).
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Plotkin, H.

Preusker, R.

J.-L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, L. Schüller, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, Y. Fouquart, “Radiative properties of boundary layer clouds: droplet effective radius versus number concentration,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 803–821 (2000).
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Ramos-Izquierdo, L.

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, G. Chourdakis, A. Cameron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hagard, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, X. Wang, “Intercomparison of 15 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S397–S398 (2001).

V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, P. Di Carlo, G. Visconti, G. Cinque, “A combined Rayleigh-Raman lidar for measurements of tropospheric water vapour and aerosol profiles,” Nuovo Cimento C 23, 53–64 (2000).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Rocadenbosch, F.

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Rocci, G.

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Rossow, W. B.

Q. Han, W. B. Rossow, A. A. Lacis, “Near-global survey of effective droplet radii in liquid water clouds using ISCCP data,” J. Climate 7, 465–497 (1994).
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Schneider, J.

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Schüller, L.

J.-L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, L. Schüller, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, Y. Fouquart, “Radiative properties of boundary layer clouds: droplet effective radius versus number concentration,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 803–821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, R.

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Schwemmer, G.

Serio, C.

Shcherbakov, V.

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

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V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

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Smith, R. C.

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J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, L.

Turner, D. D.

D. D. Turner, W. F. Feltz, R. A. Ferrare, “Continuous water vapor profiles from operational ground-based active and passive remote sensors,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 1301–1318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Underdal, A.

B. Moore, W. L. Gates, L. J. Mata, A. Underdal, “Advancing our understanding,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nouger, P. J. Van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, C. A. Johnson, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 2001).

Veselovskii, I.

Veselovskii, I. A.

I. A. Veselovskii, H. K. Cha, D. H. Kim, S. C. Choi, J. M. Lee, “Study of atmospheric water in gaseous and liquid state by using combined elastic-Raman depolarization lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 739–744 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Visconti, G.

V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, P. Di Carlo, G. Visconti, G. Cinque, “A combined Rayleigh-Raman lidar for measurements of tropospheric water vapour and aerosol profiles,” Nuovo Cimento C 23, 53–64 (2000).

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

Walrafen, G. E.

Walsh, N. W.

Wanderlingh, F.

G. D’Arrigo, G. Maisano, F. Mallamace, P. Migliardo, F. Wanderlingh, “Raman scattering and structure of normal and supercooled water,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4264–4270 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

U. Wandinger, “Multiple-scattering influence on extinction- and backscatter-coefficient measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Appl. Opt. 37, 417–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Wang, X.

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, G. Chourdakis, A. Cameron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hagard, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, X. Wang, “Intercomparison of 15 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S397–S398 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Warner, J.

J. Warner, “The microstructure of cumulus cloud. Part I. General features of the droplet spectrum,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1049–1059 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Weers, U.

U. K. Krieger, C. A. Colberg, U. Weers, T. Koop, T. Peter, “Supercooling of single H2SO4/H2O aerosols to 158K: no evidence for the occurrence of the octrahydrate,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2097–2100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D.

Whiteman, D. N.

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. II. Evaluating the ratios for water vapor and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2593–2608 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2571–2592 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. Veselovskii, V. Griaznov, A. Kolgotin, D. N. Whiteman, “Angle- and size-dependent characteristics of incoherent Raman and fluorescent scattering by microspheres. 2. Numerical simulation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5783–5791 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, G. Schwemmer, T. Berkoff, H. Plotkin, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, G. Pappalardo, “Performance modeling of an airborne Raman water-vapor lidar,” Appl. Opt. 40, 375–390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, “Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius, and number density measurements using a Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31411–31419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, G. E. Walrafen, W.-H. Yang, S. H. Melfi, “Measurement of an isosbestic point in the Raman spectrum of liquid water by use of a backscattering geometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2614–2615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering, 1, Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, W. F. Murphy, N. W. Walsh, K. D. Evans, “Temperature sensitivity of an atmospheric Raman lidar system based on an XeF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 247–249 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiegner, M.

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

Yang, W.-H.

Yum, S. S.

S. S. Yum, J. G. Hudson, “Microphysical relationships in warm clouds,” Atmos. Res. 57, 81–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zege, E. P.

Appl. Opt. (20)

R. B. Slusher, V. E. Derr, “Temperature dependence and cross sections of some Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman lines in ice Ih,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2116–2120 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thurn, W. Kiefer, “Structural resonances observed in the Raman spectra of optically levitated liquid droplets,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1515–1519 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Faris, R. A. Copeland, “Wavelength dependence of the Raman cross section for liquid water,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2686–2688 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hu, K. J. Voss, “In situ measurements of Raman scattering in clear ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6962–6967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Burris, W. Heaps, “Temporal variations in the spectral output of a xenon fluoride excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 34, 426–427 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Amato, M. F. Carfora, V. Cuomo, C. Serio, “Objective algorithms for the aerosol problem,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5442–5452 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, G. E. Walrafen, W.-H. Yang, S. H. Melfi, “Measurement of an isosbestic point in the Raman spectrum of liquid water by use of a backscattering geometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2614–2615 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sherlock, A. Hauchecorne, J. Lenoble, “Methodology for the independent calibration of Raman backscatter water-vapor lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5816–5837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sherlock, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, “Implementation and validation of a Raman lidar measurement of middle and upper tropospheric water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5838–5850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, G. Schwemmer, T. Berkoff, H. Plotkin, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, G. Pappalardo, “Performance modeling of an airborne Raman water-vapor lidar,” Appl. Opt. 40, 375–390 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, “Multiple-scattering influence on extinction- and backscatter-coefficient measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Appl. Opt. 37, 417–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Bockmann, “Hybrid regularization method for the ill-posed inversion of multiwavelength lidar data in the retrieval of aerosol size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1329–1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, K. D. Evans, J. Li, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, G. Schwemmer, “Observation of Raman scattering by cloud droplets in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3551–3559 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Veselovskii, V. Griaznov, A. Kolgotin, D. N. Whiteman, “Angle- and size-dependent characteristics of incoherent Raman and fluorescent scattering by microspheres. 2. Numerical simulation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5783–5791 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Malinka, E. P. Zege, “Analytical modeling of Raman lidar return, including multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1075–1081 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. I. Evaluating the temperature-dependent lidar equations,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2571–2592 (2003).
[PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, “Examination of the traditional Raman lidar technique. II. Evaluating the ratios for water vapor and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2593–2608 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

I. A. Veselovskii, H. K. Cha, D. H. Kim, S. C. Choi, J. M. Lee, “Study of atmospheric water in gaseous and liquid state by using combined elastic-Raman depolarization lidar,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 739–744 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res. (2)

B. A. Fomin, I. P. Mazin, “Model for an investigation of radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere,” Atmos. Res. 47–48, 127–153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Yum, J. G. Hudson, “Microphysical relationships in warm clouds,” Atmos. Res. 57, 81–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

D. D. Turner, W. F. Feltz, R. A. Ferrare, “Continuous water vapor profiles from operational ground-based active and passive remote sensors,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 1301–1318 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

U. K. Krieger, C. A. Colberg, U. Weers, T. Koop, T. Peter, “Supercooling of single H2SO4/H2O aerosols to 158K: no evidence for the occurrence of the octrahydrate,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2097–2100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol Sci. (2)

V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Freudenthaler, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, G. Chourdakis, A. Cameron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, A. Hagard, S. Kreipl, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, V. Rizi, X. Wang, “Intercomparison of 15 aerosol lidar systems in the frame of EARLINET,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S397–S398 (2001).

C. Bockmann, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Boselli, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, M. Frioud, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, V. Matthias, A. Papayannis, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, V. Shcherbakov, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET-lidar algorithm intercomparison,” J. Aerosol Sci. 32, S433–S434 (2001).

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

J.-L. Brenguier, H. Pawlowska, L. Schüller, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, Y. Fouquart, “Radiative properties of boundary layer clouds: droplet effective radius versus number concentration,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 803–821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Warner, “The microstructure of cumulus cloud. Part I. General features of the droplet spectrum,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1049–1059 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

G. E. Walrafen, M. S. Hokmabadi, W.-H. Yang, “Raman isosbestic points from liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6964–6969 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. D’Arrigo, G. Maisano, F. Mallamace, P. Migliardo, F. Wanderlingh, “Raman scattering and structure of normal and supercooled water,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4264–4270 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, “Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius, and number density measurements using a Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31411–31419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering, 1, Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19663–19672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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G. Avila, J. M. Fernández, B. Maté, G. Tejeda, S. Montero, “Ro-vibrational Raman cross sections of water vapor in the OH stretching region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 196, 77–92 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

A. H. Harvey, J. S. Gallagher, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, “Revised formulation for the refractive index of water and steam as a function of wavelength, temperature and density,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 27, 761–774 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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T. A. Dolenko, I. V. Churina, V. V. Fadeev, S. M. Glushkov, “Valence band of liquid water Raman scattering: some peculiarities and applications in the diagnostics of water media,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 863–870 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento C (1)

V. Rizi, M. Iarlori, P. Di Carlo, G. Visconti, G. Cinque, “A combined Rayleigh-Raman lidar for measurements of tropospheric water vapour and aerosol profiles,” Nuovo Cimento C 23, 53–64 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

A. V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, I. P. Mazin, H. W. Barker, “Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2117–2152 (2001).

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

For a monomodal log-normal distribution, naerr, sc=Nsc/2π r lnσscexp-½ln2r/r0sc/ln2σ sc, where N(sc) is the droplet total concentration, r0(sc) is the mode radius, and lnσ(sc) is the geometric standard deviation. The effective radius is related to r0(sc) and lnσ(sc) according to reffsc≅r0scexp5 ln2σsc/2.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

B. Moore, W. L. Gates, L. J. Mata, A. Underdal, “Advancing our understanding,” in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Nouger, P. J. Van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, C. A. Johnson, eds. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 2001).

V. Matthias, C. Bockmann, V. Freudenthaler, G. Pappalardo, J. Bosenberg, V. Amiridis, A. Amodeo, D. Balis, A. Boselli, A. Chaykovski, G. Chourdakis, A. Comeron, A. Delaval, F. De Tomasi, R. Eixmann, M. Frioud, A. Haagaard, M. Iarlori, L. Komguem, S. Kreipl, G. Larcheveque, R. Matthey, I. Mattis, A. Papayannis, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, J. Schneider, R. Schumacher, V. Shcherbakov, V. Simeonov, U. Wandinger, X. Wang, M. Wiegner, “Lidar intercomparisons on algorithm and system level in the frame of EARLINET,” Rep. 377 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2002).

M. Iarlori, “Misure simultanee di vapor d’acqua, ozono ed aerosols,” Tesi di Laurea (Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Degli Studi L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy, 1998).

G. Rocci, “Osservazioni lidar del contenuto di acqua in troposfera: contributo della fase liquida,” Tesi di Laurea (Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Degli Studi L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy, 2001).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Raman spectrum of H2O in the gas phase. The spectrum is almost independent of the atmospheric water vapor temperatures. The intense pure vibrational line has been cut to show the rovibrational structures of the spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectrum of liquid H2O for unpolarized light at different temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical layout of the receiver’s beam separator: L, a 1-in. (2.54-cm) plano-convex lens; BS, dichroic beam splitters; IF, ND, NF, and PMT, the 2-in. (5-cm) interference filters, the interchangeable neutral density filters, the notch filters, and the photomultipliers, respectively. The spectral features of each channel can be labeled by a representative wavelength: 351-nm Rayleigh-Mie channel, 382-nm nitrogen Raman channel, 393-nm liquid water Raman channel, and 403-nm water vapor Raman channel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength-dependent relative transmissions of the beam separator. The curves were estimated by use of the manufacturer’s data sheet and the specifications of the various components (filters, mirror, lenses, optical fiber, etc.).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the Rayleigh-Mie and Raman components of the returned light spectrum. The Rayleigh-Mie part is the laser spectrum that has been measured (see Subsection 3.A); the Raman shifts of the different species were calculated as described in Section 2; and taking into account the laser spectrum, the different Raman bands were plotted on the wavelength scale. The maximum of each spectrum has been normalized to unity, and the wavelength resolution is 0.04 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photon countings (no background subtracted) in the liquid H2O channel (18000 laser shots per profile, 10-min average, 30-m range resolution). The interference filters positioned in front of the channel are labeled +351-nm IF, +382-nm IF, and +403-nm IF. The upper panel refers to a nighttime case for which a low-level cumulus cloud was present; the bottom panel presents the measurements in a clear atmosphere.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurements taken at night on 17 September 2001; 10-min averaged lidar returns and 30-m range resolution. The photon counts were background subtracted: A, Rayleigh-Mie channel; B, N2 Raman channel; C, H2O vapor Raman channel; D, H2O liquid channel. The error bars represent the (one standard deviation) statistical indetermination.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measurements (10-min averaged) taken on 17 September 2001. A, β cloud backscatter profile; B, α cloud extinction profile; C, lidar ratio (LR) α/β profile; D, below the cloud range, lidar-derived water vapor (WV) mixing ratio profile (black line) compared with the local PTU balloon sounding (dashed line). Within the cloud range, the water saturation mixing ratio profile (dashed line) is also shown. It should be noted that, in the cloud range, the increase of lidar-derived WV (shown in the figure) is proportional to the contribution of the liquid water (LW) in the WV lidar channel, which must be considered as a bias to the real WV profile. E, lidar-derived LW mixing ratio profiles (see text). The error bars represent the standard deviation (statistical and systematic errors) but not for the WV profile in the cloud range.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measurements (10-min averaged) taken on 17 September 2001. A, effective cloud droplet mean radii; B, effective cloud droplet number densities. We calculated the errors by propagating the indetermination that affects the measured cloud LW content and extinction (see text for the discussion with regard to the limitations of these estimates).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Lidar-derived LW mixing ratio profiles for a selection of warm liquid cloud observations. The profiles were obtained by use of 10-min averaged lidar signals. The error bars represent the standard deviation (statistical and systematic errors).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Laser Characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 2 Receiver Telescope Characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 3 Photomultiplier Characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 4 Optical Transfer Matrix of the Detector Box

Equations (26)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dσRamanN2dΩ10-3dσRayleighdΩ, dσRamanH2O vapordΩ3 dσRamanN2dΩ, dσRamanliquid H2OdΩ15 dσRamanH2O vapordΩ.
Pλi=λo+Δλis=ηiiOλisPoλoTmolλosTaerλos×dσRamanλiπdΩ nisΔΩ4π TmolλisTaerλisΔs.
Tmolλs=exp- 0s σmolλnmolsds,
Taerλs=exp- 0s αaers, λds,
PH2OvapsPN2s= ηH2OvapH2OvapηN2N2OH2OvapsON2sdσRamanH2OvapπdΩdσRamanN2πdΩ× TmolH2OvapsTaerH2OvapsTmolN2sTaerN2snH2OvapsnN2s.
χH2Ovaps=CvapTmolN2sTaerN2sTmolH2OvapsTaerH2OvapsPH2OvapsPN2s,
Cvap=K dσRamanN2πdΩdσRamanH2OvapπdΩηH2N2ηH2OvapH2Ovap,
χH2Oliqs=CliqTmolN2sTaerN2sTmolH2OliqsTaerH2OliqsPH2OliqsPN2s.
Cliq=K dσRamanN2πdΩdσRamanH2OliqπdΩηN2N2ηH2OliqH2Oliq,
Cliq=CvapdσRamanH2OvapπdΩdσRamanH2OliqπdΩηH2OvapH2OvapηH2OliqH2Oliq,
ηH2OvapH2OvapηH2OliqH2Oliq= ξH2OvapH2OvapξH2OliqH2Oliqfννfll.
ξH2OvapH2Ovap/ξH2OliqH2Oliq
dσRamanH2OvapπdΩdσRamanH2OliqπdΩ=0.062±0.015.
ξH2OvapH2Ovap/ξH2OliqH2Oliq=0.17±0.05,
ΔPH2Oliqsc=PH2Ovapsc- χH2Ovap/satscCvap PN2sc× TmolH2OvapscTaerH2OvapscTmolN2scTaerN2sc.
ΔPH2OliqscPH2Oliqsc= ηH2OvapH2OliqηH2OliqH2OliqTmolH2OvapscTaerH2OvapscTmolH2OliqscTaerH2Oliqsc,
ηH2OvapH2Oliq/ηH2OliqH2Oliq2.0.
αaersc, λ=0drπr2Qextr, m, λnaerr, sc,
LWCsc=χH2Oliqscρairsc=043 πr3ρwnaerr, scdr,
LWCscαaersc, λ= 43 ρw0drr3naerr, sc0drr2Qextr, m, λnaerr, sc.
reffsc 32ρwLWCscαaersc, λ,
Neffsc= 0drr2naerr, sc30drr3naerr, sc2= 2ρw2παaersc, λ3LWCsc2.
LWCscβaersc, λ= 43 ρw0drr3naerr, sc0drr2Qbackr, m, λnaerr, sc,
0drr2Qbackr, m, λnaerr, sc
naerr, sc=Nsc/2π r lnσscexp-½ln2r/r0sc/ln2σ sc,
reffscr0scexp5 ln2σsc/2.

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