Abstract

Optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) based on asymmetric Y branches and tilted gratings offer excellent-performance in wavelength-division multiplexed systems. To simplify waveguide fabrication, ion-exchange techniques appear to be an important option in photosensitive glasses. Optimum OADM performance depends on how accurately the waveguide fabrication process and tilted Bragg grating operation are understood and modeled. Results from fabrication and comprehensive modeling are compared for ion-exchange processes that use different angles of the tilted grating. The transmission and reflection spectra for the fabricated and simulated OADMs show excellent agreement. The OADM’s performance is evaluated in terms of the measured characteristics of the Y branches and tilted gratings.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. S. Kewitsch, G. A. Rakuljic, P. A. Willems, A. Yariv, “All-fiber zero-insertion-loss add-drop filter for wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 23, 106–108 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. C. Bruce, J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 102–104.
  3. D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Riziotis, M. N. Zervas, “Design considerations in optical add/drop multiplexers based on grating-assisted null couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 92–104 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Riziotis, M. N. Zervas, “Novel full-cycle-coupler-based optical add-drop multiplexer and performance characteristics at 40-Gb/s WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1828–1837 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Erdogan, “Optical add-drop multiplexer based on an asymmetric Bragg coupler,” Opt. Commun. 157, 249–264 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Madasamy, B. R. West, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial-depth dependence on the waveguide width,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1132–1134 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Tervonen, “Theoretical analysis of ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1992), pp. 73–83.
  9. R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1000 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. M. Kim, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of graded-index channel waveguides using nonuniform finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1581–1589 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).
  12. K. S. Lee, T. Erdogan, “Fiber mode coupling in transmissive and reflective fiber gratings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1394–1404 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Tilted fiber phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 296–313 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 531–532 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2001 (2)

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Riziotis, M. N. Zervas, “Design considerations in optical add/drop multiplexers based on grating-assisted null couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 92–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. S. Lee, T. Erdogan, “Fiber mode coupling in transmissive and reflective fiber gratings,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1394–1404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 531–532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1996 (1)

1989 (1)

C. M. Kim, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of graded-index channel waveguides using nonuniform finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1581–1589 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1000 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, A. C.

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. C. Bruce, J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 102–104.

Demarco, J.

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. C. Bruce, J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 102–104.

Drapp, B.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 531–532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

Geraghty, D. F.

P. Madasamy, B. R. West, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial-depth dependence on the waveguide width,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1132–1134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 531–532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. C. Bruce, J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 102–104.

Honkanen, S.

P. Madasamy, B. R. West, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial-depth dependence on the waveguide width,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1132–1134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 531–532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ingenhoff, J.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 531–532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Kewitsch, A. S.

Kim, C. M.

C. M. Kim, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of graded-index channel waveguides using nonuniform finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1581–1589 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

Madasamy, P.

Madsen, C. K.

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. C. Bruce, J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 102–104.

Milbrodt, M. A.

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. C. Bruce, J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 102–104.

Morrell, M. M.

P. Madasamy, B. R. West, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial-depth dependence on the waveguide width,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1132–1134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 531–532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Madasamy, B. R. West, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial-depth dependence on the waveguide width,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1132–1134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 531–532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Provenzano, D.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 531–532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rakuljic, G. A.

Ramaswamy, R. V.

C. M. Kim, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of graded-index channel waveguides using nonuniform finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1581–1589 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1000 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Riziotis, C.

Sipe, J. E.

Srivastava, R.

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1000 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. C. Bruce, J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 102–104.

Tervonen, A.

A. Tervonen, “Theoretical analysis of ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1992), pp. 73–83.

West, B. R.

Willems, P. A.

Yariv, A.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 531–532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Kewitsch, G. A. Rakuljic, P. A. Willems, A. Yariv, “All-fiber zero-insertion-loss add-drop filter for wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 23, 106–108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Polarisation-independent Bragg gratings in ion-exchanged glass channel waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 531–532 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

R. V. Ramaswamy, R. Srivastava, “Ion-exchanged glass waveguides: a review,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 984–1000 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kim, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of graded-index channel waveguides using nonuniform finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1581–1589 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Riziotis, M. N. Zervas, “Design considerations in optical add/drop multiplexers based on grating-assisted null couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 92–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Riziotis, M. N. Zervas, “Novel full-cycle-coupler-based optical add-drop multiplexer and performance characteristics at 40-Gb/s WDM networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1828–1837 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Erdogan, “Optical add-drop multiplexer based on an asymmetric Bragg coupler,” Opt. Commun. 157, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. C. Bruce, J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 102–104.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

A. Tervonen, “Theoretical analysis of ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1992), pp. 73–83.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical add-drop multiplexer: I, input Y branch; II, waist with tilted Bragg grating; III, output Y branch.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Samples in set 1 (double-sided Y branch with tilted grating) and set 2 (single-sided Y branch). Arbitrary scale and position.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Index profile after diffusion and burial. Contours at 0.1, 0.3, …, 0.9 of dn max.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modeled intensity profiles: (a) even mode, (b) odd mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured intensity profiles: (a) even mode, (b) odd mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Odd-odd (dashed curve), even-even (dotted curve), and odd-even (solid curve) overlap integrals as a function of the grating angle from modeled mode profiles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Odd-odd (dashed curve), even-even (dotted curve), and odd-even (solid curve) overlap integrals as a function of the grating angle from measured mode profiles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission at the first angle from complete simulation (solid curves) and from measurements (dashed curves, shifted by -40 dB). Power launched and detected (a) at the narrow branches and (b) at the wider branches.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmission at the second angle from complete simulation (solid curves) and from measurements (dashed curves, shifted by -40 dB). Power launched and detected (a) at the narrow branches and (b) at the wider branches.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Transmission at the third angle from complete simulation (solid curves) and from measurements (dashed curves, shifted by -40 dB). Power launched and detected (a) at the narrow branches and (b) at the wider branches.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Transmission at the fourth angle from complete simulation (solid curves) and from measurements (dashed curves, shifted by -40 dB). Power launched and detected (a) at the narrow branches and (b) at the wider branches.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Transmission at the first angle from partial simulation (solid curves) and from measurements (dashed curves, shifted by -40 dB). Power launched and detected (a) at the narrow branches and (b) at the wider branches.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Transmission at the second angle from partial simulation (solid curves) and from measurements (dashed curves, shifted by -40 dB). Power launched and detected (a) at the narrow branches and (b) at the wider branches.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Transmission dips for top, even-even; middle, odd-even; and bottom, odd-odd reflection. Solid curves and circles show transmission dips from the complete model and from measurements, respectively.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Spectrum from simulation (solid curves) and measurements (solid curves, shifted by -40 dB) at the drop port. The power is launched from the input port.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Characteristics of Add-Drop Devices

Equations (13)

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Ct=DA1-αC2C+αC21-αC-eEkT C,
α=1-DADB,
nx, y, λ=nsubλ+dnmaxλCAx, y,
2+k2Ψm=βm2Ψm,
λoe=Λzneff0+neff1.
λoo=λoe2neff1neff0+neff1,
λee=λoe2neff0neff0+neff1.
Rab=|rab|2=tanh2κabL,
κ=πλ Δnηabθ.
ηabθ= Ψa*x, yexpi2πx tanθ/ΛzΨbx, ydxdy Ψa*x, yΨax, ydxdy  Ψb*x, yΨbx, ydxdy1/2.
OSNRdrop=10 logCneoRoeCweeCneoRooCwoe+CneeReeCwee,
OSNRoutput=10 logCweeRoeCneo1-Roe.
neffΛg=λ1 cos1+ε=λ2 cos2+ε=λ3 cos3+ε=λ4 cos4+ε,

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