Abstract

Simultaneous exhaled carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon dioxide concentration measurements in human breath are demonstrated with a compact pulsed quantum-cascade laser-based gas sensor. We achieved a noise-equivalent sensitivity (1σ) of 1.2 parts per billion by measuring a well-isolated OCS P(11) absorption line in the ν 3 band at 2057.6 cm-1 using an astigmatic Herriott cell of 36-m optical path length and 0.4-s acquisition time.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Von Hobe, G. A. Cutter, A. J. Kettle, M. O. Andreae, “Dark production: a significant source of oceanic OCS,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 31217–31226 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. S. M. Studer, J. B. Orens, I. Rosas, J. A. Krishnan, K. A. Cope, S. Yang, J. V. Conte, P. B. Becker, T. H. Risby, “Patterns and significance of exhaled-breath biomarkers in lung transplant recipients with acute allograft rejection,” J. Heart Lung Transplant 20, 1158–1166 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. S. Sehnert, L. Jiang, J. F. Burdick, T. H. Risby, “Breath biomarkers for detection of human liver diseases: preliminary study,” Biomarkers 7, 174–187 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  12. K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. A. Cope, M. T. Watson, M. Foster, S. S. Sehnert, T. H. Risby, “Effects of ventilation on the collection of exhaled breath in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 1371–1379 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Weidmann, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, M. P. Fraser, F. K. Tittel, “Monitoring of ethylene by a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3329–3334 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Cope, M. T. Watson, M. Foster, S. S. Sehnert, T. H. Risby, “Effects of ventilation on the collection of exhaled breath in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 1371–1379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Roller, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, K. Uehara, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, “Carbonyl sulfide detection with a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2052–2054 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (7)

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kettle, U. Kuhn, M. von Hobe, J. Kesselmeier, M. O. Andreae, “Global budget of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: temporal and spatial variations of the dominant sources and sinks,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 25-1–25-16 (2002).

P. D. N. Svoronos, T. J. Bruno, “Carbonyl sulfide: a review of its chemistry and properties,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 41, 5321–5336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Sehnert, L. Jiang, J. F. Burdick, T. H. Risby, “Breath biomarkers for detection of human liver diseases: preliminary study,” Biomarkers 7, 174–187 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. D. Jeffers, M. Camp, A. Mock, P. J. McCann, J. Grego, “Nitric oxide breath testing by tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6018–6029 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Studer, J. B. Orens, I. Rosas, J. A. Krishnan, K. A. Cope, S. Yang, J. V. Conte, P. B. Becker, T. H. Risby, “Patterns and significance of exhaled-breath biomarkers in lung transplant recipients with acute allograft rejection,” J. Heart Lung Transplant 20, 1158–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Von Hobe, G. A. Cutter, A. J. Kettle, M. O. Andreae, “Dark production: a significant source of oceanic OCS,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 31217–31226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Inomata, K. Matsunaga, Y. Murai, K. Osada, Y. Iwasaka, “Simultaneous measurement of volatile sulfur compounds using ascorbic acid for oxidant removal and gas chromatography—flame photometric detection,” J. Chromatog. A 864, 111–119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1984 (1)

P. A. Steudler, W. Kijowski, “Determination of reduced sulfur gases in air by solid absorbent preconcentration and gas chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 56, 1432–1436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. C. Niu, D. A. Schoeller, P. D. Klein, “Improved gas chromatographic quantitation of breath hydrogen by normalization to respiratory carbon dioxide,” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 94, 755–763 (1979).
[PubMed]

Andreae, M. O.

A. J. Kettle, U. Kuhn, M. von Hobe, J. Kesselmeier, M. O. Andreae, “Global budget of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: temporal and spatial variations of the dominant sources and sinks,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 25-1–25-16 (2002).

M. Von Hobe, G. A. Cutter, A. J. Kettle, M. O. Andreae, “Dark production: a significant source of oceanic OCS,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 31217–31226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. B.

S. M. Studer, J. B. Orens, I. Rosas, J. A. Krishnan, K. A. Cope, S. Yang, J. V. Conte, P. B. Becker, T. H. Risby, “Patterns and significance of exhaled-breath biomarkers in lung transplant recipients with acute allograft rejection,” J. Heart Lung Transplant 20, 1158–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, T. J.

P. D. N. Svoronos, T. J. Bruno, “Carbonyl sulfide: a review of its chemistry and properties,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 41, 5321–5336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burdick, J. F.

S. S. Sehnert, L. Jiang, J. F. Burdick, T. H. Risby, “Breath biomarkers for detection of human liver diseases: preliminary study,” Biomarkers 7, 174–187 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, S.

Camp, M.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Conte, J. V.

S. M. Studer, J. B. Orens, I. Rosas, J. A. Krishnan, K. A. Cope, S. Yang, J. V. Conte, P. B. Becker, T. H. Risby, “Patterns and significance of exhaled-breath biomarkers in lung transplant recipients with acute allograft rejection,” J. Heart Lung Transplant 20, 1158–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, K. A.

K. A. Cope, M. T. Watson, M. Foster, S. S. Sehnert, T. H. Risby, “Effects of ventilation on the collection of exhaled breath in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 1371–1379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Studer, J. B. Orens, I. Rosas, J. A. Krishnan, K. A. Cope, S. Yang, J. V. Conte, P. B. Becker, T. H. Risby, “Patterns and significance of exhaled-breath biomarkers in lung transplant recipients with acute allograft rejection,” J. Heart Lung Transplant 20, 1158–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curl, R. F.

Cutter, G. A.

M. Von Hobe, G. A. Cutter, A. J. Kettle, M. O. Andreae, “Dark production: a significant source of oceanic OCS,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 31217–31226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. R.

Faist, J.

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M.

K. A. Cope, M. T. Watson, M. Foster, S. S. Sehnert, T. H. Risby, “Effects of ventilation on the collection of exhaled breath in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 1371–1379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fox, J.

Fraser, M. P.

Fried, A.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grego, J.

Henry, B.

Hutchinson, A. L.

Inomata, Y.

Y. Inomata, K. Matsunaga, Y. Murai, K. Osada, Y. Iwasaka, “Simultaneous measurement of volatile sulfur compounds using ascorbic acid for oxidant removal and gas chromatography—flame photometric detection,” J. Chromatog. A 864, 111–119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaka, Y.

Y. Inomata, K. Matsunaga, Y. Murai, K. Osada, Y. Iwasaka, “Simultaneous measurement of volatile sulfur compounds using ascorbic acid for oxidant removal and gas chromatography—flame photometric detection,” J. Chromatog. A 864, 111–119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeffers, J. D.

Jiang, L.

S. S. Sehnert, L. Jiang, J. F. Burdick, T. H. Risby, “Breath biomarkers for detection of human liver diseases: preliminary study,” Biomarkers 7, 174–187 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kesselmeier, J.

A. J. Kettle, U. Kuhn, M. von Hobe, J. Kesselmeier, M. O. Andreae, “Global budget of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: temporal and spatial variations of the dominant sources and sinks,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 25-1–25-16 (2002).

Kettle, A. J.

A. J. Kettle, U. Kuhn, M. von Hobe, J. Kesselmeier, M. O. Andreae, “Global budget of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: temporal and spatial variations of the dominant sources and sinks,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 25-1–25-16 (2002).

M. Von Hobe, G. A. Cutter, A. J. Kettle, M. O. Andreae, “Dark production: a significant source of oceanic OCS,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 31217–31226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kijowski, W.

P. A. Steudler, W. Kijowski, “Determination of reduced sulfur gases in air by solid absorbent preconcentration and gas chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 56, 1432–1436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klein, P. D.

H. C. Niu, D. A. Schoeller, P. D. Klein, “Improved gas chromatographic quantitation of breath hydrogen by normalization to respiratory carbon dioxide,” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 94, 755–763 (1979).
[PubMed]

Köhler, R.

Kosterev, A. A.

Krishnan, J. A.

S. M. Studer, J. B. Orens, I. Rosas, J. A. Krishnan, K. A. Cope, S. Yang, J. V. Conte, P. B. Becker, T. H. Risby, “Patterns and significance of exhaled-breath biomarkers in lung transplant recipients with acute allograft rejection,” J. Heart Lung Transplant 20, 1158–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhn, U.

A. J. Kettle, U. Kuhn, M. von Hobe, J. Kesselmeier, M. O. Andreae, “Global budget of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: temporal and spatial variations of the dominant sources and sinks,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 25-1–25-16 (2002).

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malinovsky, A. L.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsunaga, K.

Y. Inomata, K. Matsunaga, Y. Murai, K. Osada, Y. Iwasaka, “Simultaneous measurement of volatile sulfur compounds using ascorbic acid for oxidant removal and gas chromatography—flame photometric detection,” J. Chromatog. A 864, 111–119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCann, P. J.

McManus, J. B.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mock, A.

Murai, Y.

Y. Inomata, K. Matsunaga, Y. Murai, K. Osada, Y. Iwasaka, “Simultaneous measurement of volatile sulfur compounds using ascorbic acid for oxidant removal and gas chromatography—flame photometric detection,” J. Chromatog. A 864, 111–119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Namjou, K.

Nelson, D. D.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niu, H. C.

H. C. Niu, D. A. Schoeller, P. D. Klein, “Improved gas chromatographic quantitation of breath hydrogen by normalization to respiratory carbon dioxide,” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 94, 755–763 (1979).
[PubMed]

Orens, J. B.

S. M. Studer, J. B. Orens, I. Rosas, J. A. Krishnan, K. A. Cope, S. Yang, J. V. Conte, P. B. Becker, T. H. Risby, “Patterns and significance of exhaled-breath biomarkers in lung transplant recipients with acute allograft rejection,” J. Heart Lung Transplant 20, 1158–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osada, K.

Y. Inomata, K. Matsunaga, Y. Murai, K. Osada, Y. Iwasaka, “Simultaneous measurement of volatile sulfur compounds using ascorbic acid for oxidant removal and gas chromatography—flame photometric detection,” J. Chromatog. A 864, 111–119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Risby, T. H.

K. A. Cope, M. T. Watson, M. Foster, S. S. Sehnert, T. H. Risby, “Effects of ventilation on the collection of exhaled breath in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 1371–1379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Sehnert, L. Jiang, J. F. Burdick, T. H. Risby, “Breath biomarkers for detection of human liver diseases: preliminary study,” Biomarkers 7, 174–187 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Studer, J. B. Orens, I. Rosas, J. A. Krishnan, K. A. Cope, S. Yang, J. V. Conte, P. B. Becker, T. H. Risby, “Patterns and significance of exhaled-breath biomarkers in lung transplant recipients with acute allograft rejection,” J. Heart Lung Transplant 20, 1158–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roller, C.

Rosas, I.

S. M. Studer, J. B. Orens, I. Rosas, J. A. Krishnan, K. A. Cope, S. Yang, J. V. Conte, P. B. Becker, T. H. Risby, “Patterns and significance of exhaled-breath biomarkers in lung transplant recipients with acute allograft rejection,” J. Heart Lung Transplant 20, 1158–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schoeller, D. A.

H. C. Niu, D. A. Schoeller, P. D. Klein, “Improved gas chromatographic quantitation of breath hydrogen by normalization to respiratory carbon dioxide,” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 94, 755–763 (1979).
[PubMed]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sehnert, S. S.

K. A. Cope, M. T. Watson, M. Foster, S. S. Sehnert, T. H. Risby, “Effects of ventilation on the collection of exhaled breath in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 1371–1379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Sehnert, L. Jiang, J. F. Burdick, T. H. Risby, “Breath biomarkers for detection of human liver diseases: preliminary study,” Biomarkers 7, 174–187 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shorter, J. H.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steudler, P. A.

P. A. Steudler, W. Kijowski, “Determination of reduced sulfur gases in air by solid absorbent preconcentration and gas chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 56, 1432–1436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Studer, S. M.

S. M. Studer, J. B. Orens, I. Rosas, J. A. Krishnan, K. A. Cope, S. Yang, J. V. Conte, P. B. Becker, T. H. Risby, “Patterns and significance of exhaled-breath biomarkers in lung transplant recipients with acute allograft rejection,” J. Heart Lung Transplant 20, 1158–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svoronos, P. D. N.

P. D. N. Svoronos, T. J. Bruno, “Carbonyl sulfide: a review of its chemistry and properties,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 41, 5321–5336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, K.

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

von Hobe, M.

A. J. Kettle, U. Kuhn, M. von Hobe, J. Kesselmeier, M. O. Andreae, “Global budget of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: temporal and spatial variations of the dominant sources and sinks,” J. Geophys. Res. 107D, 25-1–25-16 (2002).

M. Von Hobe, G. A. Cutter, A. J. Kettle, M. O. Andreae, “Dark production: a significant source of oceanic OCS,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 31217–31226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wardencki, W.

W. Wardencki, “Problems with the determination of environmental sulphur compounds by gas chromatography,” J. Chromatog. A 793, 1–19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watson, M. T.

K. A. Cope, M. T. Watson, M. Foster, S. S. Sehnert, T. H. Risby, “Effects of ventilation on the collection of exhaled breath in humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 1371–1379 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weidmann, D.

Whittaker, E. A.

Yang, S.

S. M. Studer, J. B. Orens, I. Rosas, J. A. Krishnan, K. A. Cope, S. Yang, J. V. Conte, P. B. Becker, T. H. Risby, “Patterns and significance of exhaled-breath biomarkers in lung transplant recipients with acute allograft rejection,” J. Heart Lung Transplant 20, 1158–1166 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

P. A. Steudler, W. Kijowski, “Determination of reduced sulfur gases in air by solid absorbent preconcentration and gas chromatography,” Anal. Chem. 56, 1432–1436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 343–350 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biomarkers (1)

S. S. Sehnert, L. Jiang, J. F. Burdick, T. H. Risby, “Breath biomarkers for detection of human liver diseases: preliminary study,” Biomarkers 7, 174–187 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582–591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (1)

P. D. N. Svoronos, T. J. Bruno, “Carbonyl sulfide: a review of its chemistry and properties,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 41, 5321–5336 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

M. Von Hobe, G. A. Cutter, A. J. Kettle, M. O. Andreae, “Dark production: a significant source of oceanic OCS,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 31217–31226 (2001).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configuration of the QCL-based gas sensor. QCL, quantum cascade laser chip; LH, laser housing; CL, collimating lens; SB, sample beam; RB, reference beam; M, mirror; BS, beam splitter; PM, off-axis parabolic mirror; MCT, mercury cadmium telluride; DAQ, data acquisition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated OCS spectrum (HITRAN 2000). Upper plot shows absorption line strengths in the OCS fundamental rovibrational spectrum. The region of interest is shown in the lower plot of absorption spectra of OCS and CO2 simulated for assumed operating conditions (pressure, 60 Torr; optical path length, 36 m; OCS concentration, 150 ppb; and CO2 concentration, 5%).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Relative absorption in a low-pressure (1.2-Torr) OCS sample as a function of wavelength depicting the QCL linewidth for three different optical power levels. (b) Spectral SNR, A PEAKNOISE, and sensor selectivity FWHMOCS/FWHMQCL versus laser peak power. WP, working point chosen for experimental measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Laser power fluctuations (upper plot) produced with laser frequency scanning by subthreshold current modulation and an example of the resulting noise level in a spectrum of a 50-ppb OCS in a N2 mixture measured by the data-acquisition system (the x scale shows a relative number of points in the scan). (b) The same as (a) but with an applied laser-pulse amplitude modulation technique. Stabilization occurs only during the slope of the subthreshold current waveform in the range between 1 and 400 points. The laser power is not stabilized during the flat part of the waveform between 400 and 500 points, which is visible as a protrusion in the upper plot depicting the laser power behavior.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calibration curve of the QCL frequency scan.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Calibration curve for OCS concentration measurements together with five examples of measured spectra (see inset) obtained with a precision gas standard generator. (b) OCS concentration calculated in quasi-real-time by a linear fitting procedure for measured spectra with 100 averaged scans.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Concentration measurement from a linear regression fit and (b) acquired spectrum of 52.2 ppb of OCS in a N2 mixture depicting a noise-equivalent sensitivity estimate.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured spectra and calculated concentrations of (a) OCS and (b) CO2 in a breath sample of a lung transplant recipient. [The baseline was fitted in the frequency range on each side of the absorption line and subtracted to create plot (a)].

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